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The Seven Trumpets, Part 1

Norman McNulty


Norman McNulty

Neurologist at Southern Tennessee Regional Health System, Lawrenceburg, TN



  • June 14, 2008
    9:00 AM
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Copyright ©2008 Advent HOPE Sabbath School.

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Good morning, everyone, and happy Sabbath. It’s good to see all of you here. Just a reminder for our class, that if you have a question or a comment or if you’re going to read one of our verses, we ask that you wait for the microphone, and we will get the microphone to you so you can make a comment, ask a question or read a Bible verse. At this time, let’s go ahead and have a word of prayer, and then we are going to get started with our class.


Father in Heaven, we thank You for the Sabbath day. We thank You that we can study from Your Word. We pray that Your Spirit would be with us now as we open up Revelation, chapter 8. And we thank You for this privilege that we have, and be with us in a special way. In Jesus’ name. Amen.


Okay, so, last week we studied Revelation, chapter 7, and the 144,000. I received some emails and some comments about the study, for those of you who are listening on AudioVerse, and just a couple of additional points that I will make about the 144,000. We were talking about the difference between the 144,000 and the great multitude last week. The most important thing about the 144,000 is that God has called us as a remnant people to be part of the 144,000, so I’ll say that.


And also, it’s important to keep in mind…There was a comment on the website about, are the feasts part of the seal of God in addition to the Sabbath? The Bible and the Spirit of Prophecy make it very clear that the ceremonial law, which the feasts were a part of, were done away with at the cross. And it’s only the seventh-day Sabbath that is a testing issue at the end of time. So, I’ll just make those two comments, and then we’re going to move into Revelation, chapter 8.


Now, primarily we are going to be getting into the seven trumpets today, but Revelation, chapter 8, verse 1, is actually the seventh seal, and there are seven seals, so we do need to tie up the seals very quickly. Revelation, chapter 8, verse 1, says, “And when he had opened the seventh seal, there was silence in heaven about the space of half an hour.”


Okay, so we went through the first six seals, and the sixth seal we saw was ending in Revelation, chapter 6, and there was this question, “The great day of His wrath is come; and who shall be able to stand?” We read in Psalm, chapter 24, that “He who has clean hands and a pure heart,” shall be able to stand.


Now, I want to step back for just a second and take a look again at the big picture of Revelation. You have the seven churches, the seven seals, and the seven trumpets. And if you remember from Revelation, chapter 1, Jesus had three titles in Revelation, chapter 1. He is the faithful witness, He is the first begotten of the dead, and He is the prince of the kings of the earth. So, three titles for Jesus: Faithful witness, first begotten of the dead, prince of the kings of the earth.


Well, Jesus is the faithful witness to the seven churches, and to the Laodicean church especially, He’s the faithful and the true witness. So, He serves as the faithful witness to the seven churches, but most especially in the seventh church He serves the role as the faithful and true witness.


And then in the seven seals, He is the first begotten of the dead. And in the seven trumpets, He is the prince of the kings of the earth. Now, why is He the first begotten of the dead in the seven seals? In the seven seals, we see the persecution of the saints and that many of the saints are slain for the Word of God and the testimony in which they hold. And at the beginning of the seals, we see a Lamb as it had been slain. So, there’s this promise here that Jesus is the Lamb who was slain, but He was resurrected.


And then you have this history of the Christian church where there are all these martyrs for the faith, for the Word of God and for the testimony in which they hold. And then the question is, so how is Jesus most especially serving in the function of first begotten of the dead in the seventh seal, as He was the faithful and true witness in the seventh trumpet to fulfill His title?


Well, in Revelation, chapter 8, verse 1 – I’m going to read a little quote from A Word to the Little Flock, and Ellen White addresses the concept of Revelation, chapter 8, verse 1. So this is A Word to the Little Flock, pages 14 and 15, and Ellen White is talking about the Second Coming. She says, “Soon our eyes were drawn to the East, for a small black cloud had appeared about half as large as a man’s hand, which we all knew was the Sign of the Son of Man,” and she’s quoting Matthew 24:30.


And then she jumps down to His appearance. She says, “His eyes were as a flame of fire,” Revelation 1:14, “which searched his children through and through. Then all faces gathered paleness, and those that God had rejected gathered blackness. Then we all cried out, ‘Who shall be able to stand?’” That’s Revelation 6:17. “‘Is my robe spotless?’ Then the angels ceased to sing, and there was some time of awful silence.” And then she puts Revelation 8, verse 1, in brackets, which says, “There was silence in heaven for about half an hour.”


And then she says, “When Jesus spoke,” after that time of silence, “‘Those who have clean hands and a pure heart shall be able to stand, my grace is sufficient for you.’” So, remember a couple of weeks ago we showed that the question is, “Who shall be able to stand,” and in Psalm 24 it talks about those who have clean hands and a pure heart will be able to stand in that day.


And then after Jesus says, “Those who have clean hands and a pure heart shall be able to stand,” she goes on to say, “He gazed on the graves of the sleeping saints, then raised his eyes and hands to heaven and cried out, ‘Awake! Awake! Awake! ye that sleep in the dust, and arise.’ Then there was a mighty earthquake. The graves opened, and the dead came up clothed with immortality.”


So, in the seventh seal, we have the resurrection. So, Jesus is the faithful and true witness in the seventh trumpet. He’s the first begotten of the dead, and He resurrects those who have died in the Lord in the seventh seal. So, we see Jesus fulfilling His titles, especially in the seventh church, in the seventh seal, and then we’ll see Him fulfill His title as King of kings and Lord of lords in the seventh trumpet where it says, “The kingdoms of this world have become the kingdoms of our Lord, and of his Christ; and he shall reign for ever and ever.” So, you see that connection there.


So, here we have the seventh seal, there’s silence in Heaven for about half an hour, and traditionally Adventists have believed that this silence in Heaven for about half an hour is the time in Heaven in which it is silent when Jesus comes to this earth and takes us back to Heaven. Prophetically speaking, half an hour is literally 7.5 days, and it says here “about half an hour,” so you could say, well, about seven days or seven-and-a-half days. And it doesn’t say precisely half an hour, it says about half an hour, so, yeah, half an hour is 7.5.


Now, what I am saying, though, based on the quote that I read, I also believe that part of the silence, in addition to the seven days, is the time in which there’s this period of awful silence where the question is, “Who shall be able to stand?” Everyone sees Jesus coming in His glory, and everyone asks themselves the question, “Who shall be able to stand.” There’s a period of awful silence, and then Jesus says, “He who has clean hands and a pure heart shall be able to stand.” We don’t know how long that period of awful silence will last.


And then we’re told, Ellen White tells us, that it’s seven days from when we leave planet Earth. We start ascending towards Heaven. We are translated, and then it’s seven days from Earth to Heaven, so that’s what we do know. And then that is the end of the seven seals.


And now we’ve had the seven churches. We’ve had the seven seals. And as a reminder, in the seventh church Jesus is the faithful and true witness pointing out to the Laodicean church their true condition, which is a wretched, miserable, poor, blind and naked condition, trying to get them to repent so that they can overcome as Jesus overcame. And we’re left with the question hanging, this is how God’s church is at the end?


Then we go to the seven seals, and we see that out of God’s last-day church, during the time of the sixth seal, just before Jesus comes in the time of the seventh seal, that the 144,000 come out of God’s Laodicean judgment hour church. And the key for us is to be among that number. That is the calling that God has given to each one of us. When He raised up this movement, He raised us up to be part of the 144,000. So, that is in the period of the seven seals.


Then we get to the seventh seal. We see that that’s the time of the Second Coming when Jesus raises all those who died in the first six seals who were martyrs for their faith. He raises them up, and just as He was the Lamb that was slain and was the first begotten of the dead when He was resurrected, He has power to resurrect those who died. So, that’s Revelation, chapter 8, verse 1, the seventh seal, the silence in Heaven for about half an hour.


And I’m looking forward to that half an hour. I’m looking forward to the time when we get to travel that seven days from Earth to Heaven. That’s going to be a very interesting time.


Okay, now we are going to transition to the seven trumpets. Now, if you look at the history and the chronology, and Dwayne, you pointed this out in one of our classes a couple of weeks ago, if you do the chronology and line up the seven churches, the seven seals and the seven trumpets, you see that there’s a parallel chronology with all three sevens. Now, it’s not 100-percent, absolutely precise, but it’s very close. And you can see, so what I’m saying is, like, the first trumpet doesn’t line up with the first church exactly and all that, but you see very nicely chronology that takes you from the early Christian church all the way to 1844 and the Second Coming in each of the sevens.


And so, now we’re going to shift from the seals to the trumpets. Now, the seven churches gave us a history of the churches as God saw it. The seven seals gave us a picture of the Christian church through the eyes of history. And the seven trumpets give us a picture of the political strife that existed on this earth during this period of time. And also, the seven trumpets are a judgment of God on Rome.


You have the seven churches, and the seventh church, Laodicea, is the church of the judgment. Laodicea means “a judged people.” And the seven seals, you clearly see in the fifth seal that God will at some point judge and avenge His saints for their blood that has been shed by Pagan and Papal Rome.


And immediately following the seals, then we see that God in fact does judge Rome for slaying His people, and He judges Rome in the order in which they persecuted the saints. So, you start off with a judgment of Western Rome, then you have a judgment on Eastern Rome, and then finally a judgment on Papal Rome. So, chapter 8 is the first four trumpets, and I anticipate that we are only going to get through chapter 8 today, but the first four trumpets in chapter 8 are a judgment on Western Rome. And when we get to the end of chapter 8, we reach 476 A.D. and the fall of the Western Roman Empire, so that just gives you the big picture.


And then Revelation 9 is the fifth and sixth trumpets; that’s a judgment on the Eastern Roman Empire. And then Revelation 11:14,15 is when the seventh trumpet begins to sound; that’s a judgment on Spiritual Rome, and that began on October 22, 1844.


So, what we’re going to do now is we’re going to set the stage for these seven trumpets, and I would like a volunteer to read Revelation, chapter 8, verses 2 through 5, so if someone could raise their hand, and if you could read Revelation, chapter 8, verses 2 through 5, Revelation 8:2-5. We have a volunteer right here, Revelation, chapter 8, verses 2 through 5, and speak up so everyone can hear you.


[AUDIENCE MEMBER] “Then I saw the seven angels who stand before God, and seven trumpets were given to them. And another angel came and stood at the altar with a golden censer, and he was given much incense to offer with the prayers of all the saints on the golden altar before the throne, and the smoke of the incense, with the prayers of the saints, rose before God from the hand of the angel. Then the angel took the censer and filled it with fire from the altar and threw it on the earth, and there were peals of thunder, rumblings, flashes of lightning, and an earthquake.”


Okay, thank you. So, here in Revelation, chapter 8, verses 2 through 5, we see in verse 2 there are seven angels standing before God, and they are given seven trumpets. And then we see that there’s an angel who came and stood at the altar having a golden censer. What altar is this? Okay, I hear some people say this is the altar of incense. So, we have an angel who has a censer in his hand standing before the altar, and we know that in the sanctuary in Heaven we have an altar of incense.


Now, where is the altar of incense in the sanctuary in Heaven? This is in the Holy Place. Now, just as a reminder, where were we in the seven churches? When we were in the seven churches, we saw Jesus in the midst of the seven candlesticks. The seven candlesticks are also in the Holy Place. Then you go to the seven seals, and of course, once you get to the seventh church, then you go to the Most Holy Place, Laodicea. Then you go to the seven seals, and in chapter 4 again you see, in verse 5 of chapter 4, you see seven lamps of fire burning before the throne, so again setting the stage before the seven seals. We see that we are in the Holy Place in the heavenly sanctuary.


And now, setting the stage for the beginning of the seven trumpets, we have this angel standing before the altar with a golden censer, which suggests again that we are in the Holy Place at the beginning of the seven trumpets. Now, why is this important? Well, it’s important because some people try to take the seven trumpets and place them all in the future and make them parallel with the seven last plagues after the close of probation, and that’s complete futurism. And if you study the seven trumpets chronologically, we see that they are, in the fifth and sixth trumpets, we have specific time prophecies that take us from 1299 to August 11, 1840. So, if you reinterpret the trumpets into the future, you’re destroying the foundation for how the trumpets set up the final judgment on Spiritual Rome.


So, it’s important to retain our historicist hermeneutic of the seven trumpets, and one of the ways to prove that is to show that when the seven trumpets begin, we are in the Holy Place. We have the angel standing before the altar of incense. And we know that Jesus was in the Holy Place until 1844, so this has to be somewhere before 1844 in Earth’s history. So, that’s just giving us a big picture.


So, we have an angel standing at the altar having a golden censer, and it says, “There was given unto him much incense, that he should offer it with the prayers of all saints upon the golden altar which was before the throne.” Now, who do you think this angel represents that has a censer with the prayers of the saints in it? Well, in the sanctuary system, who had a censer with the prayers of the saints? It was the high priest, and so in Heaven our High Priest is, of course, Jesus, and so He is the Angel here with this censer, with the prayers of the saints.


And verse 4 repeats this idea, “The smoke of the incense, which came with the prayers of the saints, ascended up before God out of the angel’s hand.” So, you have the idea that Jesus is offering intercession and interceding on behalf of the prayers of the saints, and He’s interceding before His Father.


Now, verse 5, is a very interesting verse, and this is where some people perhaps get confused in their interpretation of the trumpets, and so I’m going to read verse 5 here. Revelation, chapter 8, verse 5, says, “And the angel took the censer, and filled it with fire of the altar, and cast it into the earth: and there were voices, and thunderings, and lightnings, and an earthquake.” Now, here you have Jesus taking this censer, which represents the prayers of the saints, and He casts it into the earth. Now, when Jesus as the High Priest takes the censer through which the prayers of the saints pass and casts it into the earth, what does that suggest about the work which He is doing?


This would suggest that He is no longer offering intercession for the prayers of the saints, and this fits our traditional understanding of the close of probation, because at the close of probation there will no longer be an intercessor on our behalf. Jesus will say, “He that is just, let him be just still,” or “He that is unjust, let him be unjust still.” And there will no longer be intercession. There is no more second chance, and there will be no more opportunity to ask forgiveness for sins, no more intercession in that sense.


So, when we see this language of this angel taking the censer and casting it into the earth, this clearly gives us close of probation language. And it’s interesting, in the book Early Writings, Ellen White makes reference to this passage to describe the close of probation. This is Early Writings, page 279, and she says, “I was pointed down to the time when the third angel’s message was closing. The power of God had rested upon His people; they had accomplished their work and were prepared for the trying hour before them. They had received the latter rain, or refreshing from the presence of the Lord, and the living testimony had been revived. The last great warning had sounded everywhere, and it had stirred up and enraged the inhabitants of the earth who would not receive the message.


“I saw angels hurrying to and fro in heaven. An angel with a writer’s inkhorn by his side returned from the earth and reported to Jesus that his work was done, and the saints were numbered and sealed. Then I saw Jesus, who had been ministering before the ark containing the ten commandments, throw down the censer. He raised His hands, and with a loud voice said, ‘It is done.’” 


So, here at the close of probation, Ellen White uses the language that Jesus throws down the censer. Now, there is one key difference between Revelation 8 and this passage in Early Writings, which some people like to use to try to prove that the seven trumpets happen in the future. Here we see that Jesus is in the Most Holy Place in Early Writings when He cast down the censer; whereas, in Revelation, chapter 8, He’s in the Holy Place, so there is that distinction, but nonetheless, in Revelation, chapter 8, verse 5, we do have close of probation language.


Now, we are at the beginning of the seven trumpets where Jesus is in the Holy Place, and the question is, was this the close of probation for the whole world in Revelation, chapter 8, verse 5? Or could it be that it was the close of probation for a certain group of people? And the answer is, is that Revelation, chapter 8, setting up the seven trumpets, when Jesus cast the censer into the earth, this is close of probation language. This is a description of what will happen at the close of probation for all of humanity, but because we’re at the beginning of the seven trumpets and in the Holy Place, we have close of probation language being used to describe a close of probation on a certain group of people.


And if you study the seven trumpets, it becomes very clear that God is using close of probation language because He is casting judgment on Rome. So, in essence, Rome’s probation is closing because they have persecuted the saints, and it starts with a judgment on Western Rome. It continues then with a judgment on Eastern Rome. Finally, in the seventh trumpet, you have a judgment on Spiritual Rome, and it culminates after the close of probation when the seven last plagues are poured out on Babylon or Rome. So, that is the full picture of this close of probation language.


So, that kind of gives us a picture of where we are. Does that make sense, or am I kind of going too fast, or, I don’t know? You can go back and listen to the recording, I suppose. But this sets the stage then for us to get actually into the seven trumpets sounding. We have a comment down here, if we could have the microphone, way down here at the front. So, we are going to get here into the seven trumpets themselves. We have a comment here.


[AUDIENCE MEMBER] If you look at chapter 16 real quick, your point is made about the Holy Place and the Most Holy, and the opening up of the judgment on Pagan Rome and the close of the judgments on this world under the seven last plagues.




[AUDIENCE MEMBER] In chapter 16, we see a temple mentioned that the angels come out of that pour out their vials. Now, this is after the time of 1844.




[AUDIENCE MEMBER] And this is out of the Most Holy Place.


That’s true.


[AUDIENCE MEMBER] So, these things are interlocked, and the reason that Jesus begins chapter 8 with the silence in Heaven is because Jesus is the first and the last. He takes you to the last scene where Christ comes to this earth at the beginning of chapter 8 to show you the things that are going to be happening, and the whole tenant of the book is to bring forth the things that shortly must come to pass. So, what you’re looking at is an interlocking of history leading, finally, to the seven last plagues.


Yeah, very good, and what Dwayne is saying is that there is an interlocking of history. All these things are connected.


Now, what we’re going to do now is we’re going to look briefly at the first four trumpets. That’s probably all we will have time for today, and we’ll go ahead and go through this. We only have about 10 minutes to go here.


Starting in verse 6, “And the seven angels which had the seven trumpets prepared themselves to sound.” So, now we’re going to hear the seven trumpets sound; each angel has a trumpet to sound. So, verse 7, “The first angel sounded, and there followed hail and fire mingled with blood, and they were cast upon the earth: and the third part of trees was burnt up, and all green grass was burnt up.”


Now, the language of the seven trumpets seems to confuse some people, but the language of the seven trumpets is a mixture of literal and symbolic language, and it may be confusing unless you understand historically where we are in the book of Revelation. And if you understand that this is a judgment on Rome, then you can put the pieces together to understand what the language represents.


So, in the first trumpet, we see that when this trumpet sounds, we have the components of hail, fire mingled blood, and then we see a third part of the trees burnt up, and all green grass was burnt up. Well, just to give you a couple of points, this first trumpet was fulfilled in the barbaric tribe of the Visigoths led by their king Alaric. And in the first four trumpets, you have four barbaric tribes that each came and struck the Western Roman Empire, and the first barbaric tribe to do so began in 395 A.D., the Visigoths, under King Alaric.


Now, this tribe came from a far northern region, which was very cold, and in Uriah Smith’s book, which is where I’ve gotten some of this information from, the hail would represent the far northern territory from which this tribe came. The fire represents how they burned down the cities of Italy to destroy Rome, and the blood represents the terrible slaughter of the people. Now, trees and grass symbolically represent people. So, there you see a mixture of literal and symbolic language.


And again, if you don’t understand where we are in the history of the book of Revelation, it might not make as much sense, but that’s the traditional historicist understanding of this language. And so, the first barbaric tribe comes; that’s the first trumpet.


Then we have the second one in verse 8. It says, “The second angel sounded, and as it were a great mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea: and the third part of the sea became blood; and the third part of the creatures which were in the sea, and had life, died; and the third part of the ships were destroyed.” Now, it’s interesting here is you can almost line up the seven trumpets and the seven last plagues starting with the second trumpet and see some similarities in the language.


But here we have a great mountain burning with fire, cast into the sea, and we see this concept of the third part of the sea, third part of the creatures, third part of the ships. And this represents the barbaric tribe of the Vandals. I think we’ve all heard of that kingdom, the Kingdom of the Vandals. They were a barbaric tribe led by Genseric. This was fulfilled during the time period of 428 to 468 A.D.


This concept of the third part of the creatures, the third part of the sea, this concept of the third is believed to mean that Rome had been divided into three parts. Constantius ruled in Eastern Rome and Constantinople. Constantine II was in Britain, Gaul and Spain. And Constans had Italy, Africa and Illyricum, but he had the part of Italy which was attacked by Genseric. So, only the third part of Rome came under attack by Genseric, so this concept of “the third part,” “the third part,” “the third part,” is believed to represent the one-third of Rome which was ruled by Constans, as opposed to what Constantius and Constantine II were ruling over.


So, that was the second trumpet. Let’s see how we’re doing on time. We have about five minutes. So, now we have in verse 10 the third trumpet and the continuation of the judgment on Western Rome for the part in which they played in persecuting the early Christian church.


So, verse 10, it says, “The third angel sounded, and there fell a great star from heaven, burning as it were a lamp, and it fell upon the third part of the rivers, and upon the fountains of waters; and the name of the star is called Wormwood: and the third part of the waters became wormwood; and many men died of the waters, because they were made bitter.”


Now, this trumpet was literally fulfilled under Attila, king of the Huns. Most of you have probably heard of Attila in your history classes in school. And it’s interesting that historians, this is Albert Barnes and Notes on Revelation, page 239, says, “In the manner of his appearance,” speaking of Attila, “he strongly resembled a brilliant meteor flashing in the sky.” And here we see this great star from heaven, burning as it were a lamp, and fell upon the earth; this represents Attila, so you have sort of literal and symbolic language at the same time.


And you have this concept wormwood, and wormwood represents bitterness. And the historians describe the time in which Attila came and destroyed Rome and attacked Rome as a very bitter experience in the way in which he destroyed Rome and the ruthless manner in which he accomplished it. And his characteristics fit nicely with the description of the barbaric tribe the Huns, which attacked Rome here in the third trumpet.


So, that’s the third trumpet, and then the fourth trumpet. Oh, and one other thing is his attacks were mainly in the Alps and in Italy, which happened to be in the portions of Italy where the water flowed down to Southern Italy, so again some more literal and symbolic language there.


Now, we’ll hit the fourth trumpet briefly. This is beginning in verse 12, “The fourth angel sounded, and the third part of the sun was smitten, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars; so as the third part of them was darkened, and the day shone not for a third part of it, and the night likewise.” So, that’s the fourth trumpet.


Now, this was fulfilled beginning in 476 A.D. with Odoacer and the Heruli, when they attacked Rome, and this is when historians recognize that Western Rome fell. So, we get to the fourth trumpet; this is the final attack on Western Rome, and Western Rome falls in 476 A.D.


Now, notice it talks about how the third part of the sun, moon, and stars were darkened. If you study out the concept of sun, moon and stars, earlier, in the first trumpet, we saw that the third part of trees and grass was burnt up; that represented people. Well, sun, moon and stars also can represent people, and if you remember in Genesis 37, when Joseph had a dream, and the sun, moon, and the stars bowed down to him, well, that represented the brothers or the 12 sons of Jacob, or the 11 bowing to the twelfth, Joseph, and those 12 sons represented the leaders of Israel. And so, sun, moon, and stars symbolically represent leaders just as trees and grass can represent people. Well, sun, moon and stars is a step up from that and represents the leaders of the people.


And here we see, in the fourth trumpet, that the leaders of Western Rome were knocked out, which led to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. So, we’ve been hitting a lot of detail; I realize that, and so I’m going to try to wrap this up by again stepping back and looking at the big picture.


And we’ll look at verse 13, which says, “And I beheld, and heard an angel flying through the midst of heaven, saying with a loud voice, ‘Woe, woe, woe, to the inhabiters of the earth by reason of the other voices of the trumpet of the three angels, which are yet to sound!’” Now, what we have here then is we still have the fifth, sixth and seventh trumpets to sound, and if you notice in verse 13, there are three “woes.” And there is one woe for each trumpet that remains. So, you have the first woe for the fifth trumpet, the second woe for the sixth trumpet, and the third woe for the seventh trumpet.


We’ll study that next week, but there’s a specific reason why the fifth, sixth and seventh trumpets are associated with “woes” compared to the first four trumpets. We’ll get into that next week.


But what we’ve seen so far is, if you remember from the seven seals, the saints say, “How long, Lord, until You judge and avenge our blood?” And we see that God is judging and avenging the blood of His saints in the seven trumpets, which, as a quick point, if you hear anybody say that God really doesn’t destroy and that He does it differently than a way in which man would do it, don’t believe that because Scripture makes it very clear that God pours out His judgments on the wicked. And we see that very clearly here in the concept of the seven trumpets.


And the reason why I say that is because I’ve heard this teaching in this area recently going around saying that God really doesn’t destroy, and you have to understand that to understand the character of God. Well, that’s a bunch of nonsense. And I close with this point that the seven trumpets are a judgment on Rome for persecuting God’s people, and we see here in the first four trumpets a judgment on Western Rome, and we will get to the fifth and sixth trumpets with a judgment on Eastern Rome next week. So, thank you, everyone.


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