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Intro to Small Fruit

John Dysinger

Description

In this class we will look at the growing of strawberries, blueberries, blackberries, and raspberries. Cultural techniques, recommended varieties, challenges and rewards will all be addressed in this introductory course. 

Presenter

John Dysinger

Bountiful Blessings Farm

Conference

Recorded

  • November 12, 2015
    9:30 AM
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I'm John deicing are. We have a farm a small farm in middle Tennessee. This. We just planted our eighteenth strawberry crop and. We started out as just the strawberry farm and have slowly evolved through the years until berries are just a part of what we do. So just a little more kind of introduction. I know a little bit about strawberries. Because we've been doing it for eighteen years. I know even less about the other thing the other berries. But. Well let me ask you this. How many of you are growing. Small fruits. And by small Ok wow. Well so maybe. So this is an introduction this is going to kind of cover. Cover the basics and you may be beyond this already. Hey Nick. We didn't need you. Well maybe we did. So yeah and you know you can only say so much in an hour. Thank you very much. I will endeavor to to do what we can to inform and enlighten. But let's let's start with the word of prayer. Dear Heavenly Father's we spend this time together here we just want your presence. We want it to be more than informational we want it to be transformational. As we try to we endeavor to. To be molded into your image. So bless our time together we pray in Jesus' name amen. So I think in the program as. Maybe it said introduction to small fruits. But in my definition of small fruits. Is berries. OK. There's tree fruits and then there's small fruits and. We're going to specifically. Focus this morning. On the big four I would call them Black Berries blueberries raspberries and strawberries. There's you know there's a lot of other variations there's boysenberries and there's goji berries and there's all these things and I'm not in any way saying those aren't good things to grow but these are the these are the big ones. And so. That's what we're going to focus on. So some. Some of the pros of of growing varies. Is and of course if you're just growing him on a home scale. I feel like I'm in your way here. And I can't move further back because of this chord. You're welcome this food over something. Sure I can screw forward. Now. I'm limited by the length of my cord here I mean. Well maybe I could move over there. Yeah let's try moving it over here. I just don't want to disconnect. Yeah bring the stand over. OK. Well I was nervous because I thought I was speaking to a room of experts here. I mean I'm scared to disconnect it. Oh. I. OK sorry. There's too many OK. Somebody could just bring that back. And maybe maybe anybody who can see here just needs to move. There's a few seats over here. OK Well we'll get it going here. So how many people in my blocking Now I can. Is it better to scoop back or forward. OK. So the best thing about varies in again I'm talking from a market point of view here not from a home garden point of view. But a lot of it will be for either. Very easy to sell. You know that's the first thing that people go for at the market is your berries. So that's a big thing. Definitely easier to go to grow than tree fruits we have been farming for eighteen years. And we have yet to plant our first fruit tree. I'm I'm a little embarrassed about that. But there's a very good reason for that and that is that it's very hard to grow organic tree fruit in our part of the country and. I just haven't had the time and energy. Some day I want to do it. But we're not there yet after eighteen years and. So I want to just throw that out there I know most people and it depends on where you live in the country. It may work great for you but most people the first thing they want to do is plant a bunch of fruit trees. And from my observation. They don't often have a lot of success with it. It's very challenging. There's a thing it's a University of Arkansas right now is trying to do an organic research farm with with trees. And last I heard some conference a couple years ago they were still saying. I don't know if this is is commercially viable. So. Small fruits although they're challenging their easier than tree fruits. And of course we have the media on our side because there's just a lot of. You know every every year you hear more research about all the benefits they found new things in these fruits that are beneficial and. And then another pro is that even when people are you know there's a lot of people getting into gardening and. I mean not as many as there should be. But even though they may have their own home garden. Chances are at least for the first few years they're not going to have fruit. So you know you can fill a niche there. Now. Cons. Berries are very labor intensive some more than others and we'll talk about that. And then of course there are also very fixed perishable. But those cons are actually pros if you're a local grower. Selling locally because those those two cons are actually what keeps the value high. So that's a good thing. Now. I have a few slides here just. And some may disagree with me. And we can talk about that but I've kind of rated the different fruits as a number of things. Ease of growing and this is from easiest the hardest. I think blueberries are the easiest with. That's once you get them establish the first year a lot of people lose their blueberries you've got a kind of baby them. The first year. Would you agree with the children's do a lot of blueberries and yeah. I mean water of course is the big thing you can't just. Blueberries have a very shallow roots system. And you. You've got to keep them watered. And ph blueberries tend to like a low Ph. Although there are people who disagree with that Black Berries would be next. Blackberries. You know they grow wild. In much of the country. And if it grows wild that's usually a pretty good indication that it's going to be able to grow a little less wild hopefully. Raspberries raspberries grow pretty easy. You know getting the fruit to actually be a good quality is a little bit more of a struggle. I would say strawberries are probably the most labor intensive as far as growing. I see some heads nodding. I think. Again there may be a little disagreement. Now. Ease of harvesting. So. Blueberries is up there again. You know you're standing up. You know one great thing about blueberries is they stay on the Bush for quite a while they don't you don't have to pick them like to date. You know you can pick them tomorrow. And so that's a good thing. Black Berries again if you have the thornless varieties and. I know there are some arguments for the thorny varieties. But I just don't get it. You know to me. Why would you have thorny Black Berries if you could have soreness Black Berries. You know people talk about the seeds are not as big. Well you know I'm not into I don't care how big the seeds are a description. You know. Some people are into these kind of things but to me why. Growth or needs. When you can grow floor unless raspberries raspberries. Can be challenging because there's so perishable you have to dispatch them so gently. And then strawberries Of course you know. They're not on the bush. They're on the ground and so that's what makes them. Challenging it's a lot of bending over. So that's my rating on ease of harvesting ease of selling and again I realize that not all of you are looking at selling. But some of you I think probably are. I would in this is where strawberries come come up to the top because I think there's no Berry easier to Seldon strawberries. Strawberries are more widely appreciated. From my experience. Then any other. Blueberries I would put second Black Berries you know again some people aren't into those big those crunchy seeds. Raspberries and I and I qualify this isn't our area. You know raspberries tend to be a more northern thing. And a lot of southerners are used to raspberries and so there's not the same kind of market although there's plenty of northerners that have moose sounds to escape the brutal winters and they appreciate raspberries. Parish ability. Raspberries and strawberries are both quite perishable. But I would say maybe raspberries me even more than strawberries Blackberries are a little less perishable and then blueberries. Again are the most. The longest lasting. So if you're keeping score here. It would appear that blueberries are definitely. On top here. But we come to the next. Fly. Time from planting to first harvest and blueberries are way a down there. Raspberries if you plant a fall bearing or an ever bearing raspberry in the spring. You can. You can harvest it won't be a full harvest but you can harvest that follow Four months later. That's pretty amazing That's a quick turn around. Strawberries. And again. I struggled with this presentation because I know you're coming from all parts of the country and strawberries are treated very differently in different parts of the country. So I'm basically sharing my experience with. You know I can tell you a little bit of how they're done elsewhere. But in the. I would say from the middle us down. Almost all strawberries commercial strawberries are grown on plastic it's called plastic culture. Strawberry system and they've they've kind of fine tuned it. So that we plants are strawberries. Our target date is the twentieth of September. And where just to give a little We're at thirty six degrees latitude. Were I call as in zone six B.. OK So that gives you an idea. Of how it compares to where you are so if we plant them in September. Most years we're picking berries. We start to pick the third week of April. So that's a pretty fast turnaround Blackberrys you plan I'm in the spring and. They don't produce till the next summer. OK so that's fifteen months. Blueberries on the other hand. Three to five years. We are just getting our blueberry. Whatever you want to call it blueberry. What are they call it. Orchard. Patch. Blueberry patches just getting started our bushes are just a few years old and and this is the reason. Because in our early years. Wow that's competing here. Can you hear me OK. In the early years. We didn't have the money to invest in something that wasn't given going to give us a real return for five years. You know what I'm saying does that make sense. We needed our money to give us a quick turnaround. So that was one reason why we're just now getting into blueberries. It's just now that we can afford it. Yes. OK that's that's a good question Is this the age of the plant or is this the time in the ground. It's. It's a little bit of bowl. You know there are some biblical principles I don't know if you're familiar with about. After you plant a tree. How many years. You're supposed to wait till you start you know you pick off the fruit and that's the way it is with blueberries as well. Obviously if it's a bigger plant. Ideally it would take a little less time before you could see that she want to get the root system a savage before you start. Stressing it with with lots of fruit. OK so. So that gives you just some thoughts to work with as far as what you want to grow. Hopefully you want to grow them all. Let's see we credit. What time does this stops that. Ten thirty. Did we grow did I grade them according to volume and. No I didn't. You know because there's so many variables. You know the intensity of the plantings. And from year to year that changes so I didn't even try to quantify that. You know how much you old you can get per acre that's pretty complicated. OK so let's just talk a little bit about Black Berries do you know the difference between prime and canes and Flora canes. OK so. Prime a cane. Is the first year cane. You know it sprouts out of the ground and it grows this very succulent cane. But if you know anything about about Black Berries you know that they don't normally bear. The first year. They put out the prime a cane. It goes through the winter and then the next year the prime a cane is the floor and cane where the flowers come. OK. So they bear on the floor a cane. The second year. The older canes are bearing fruit. And then you've got new canes coming up. That will produce the following year. Does that make sense is that clear. Now I say mainly they bear on Flora canes because they are they are breeding. Some varieties now. That are bearing on the prime a cane. In the fall. But it's kind of new breeding and again. This is not G.M.O. or anything like this this is traditional breathing techniques. There are a few varieties. That will bear in the fall for the first year. But it's a new enough that they're not recommending it on a commercial scale. And again choose thornless erect varieties that's my opinion. You you can differ with me on that some some varieties. Tend to stand up more on their own. Now of course you have to prune them back. You know from the research I've done they recommend about five feet. Five to six feet. You've proven the top Sof and then they're going to start sending out laterals and you prune those off at about twelve inches. So you don't have this thing sprawling all over you kind of keep it contained. And then I'll just throw out the varieties we have right now we just have a small black berry patch. We have Natchez and watch a TA A lot of them are Indian names. Those Indian names all come out of the University of Arkansas. They do most of the breeding. On. So they're kind of the experts DR JOHN CLARKE I think he is in Arkansas as expert there. I see a hand and I'm just trying to bait whether I want to take questions in the middle or. I think I'd rather try to get through the slides and then. If you could write down your questions will try to make sure there's time for that. It is ten thirty right. When this. So. Well actually I'm going to back up let me. Are there specific Blackberry questions. I'll take a Blackberry question. When do you prune them. OK I prune them through the summer as you know once they once they get to the as high as I want them. I prune the Tom pots and then they start putting out the laterals. Yes. John. Print them the first year and then we print them the first year and then they bear the second year and then as soon as they're finished bearing. You want to. You want to prune out those florid canes. And it's pretty easy to tell the difference they'll the look kind of dead brown Woody. And the new the prime and canes are. You know more green and succulent. Yes. Question. That's a good observation he they planted Naches and watch of the. The watches are definitely more erect. We have done a simple trial as on the. The Natchez just T. posts you know. Thirty inches apart or three feet I think we did it. And then run some wire or something between the two posts just the kind of keep them from flopping outs. Yes. So we have done that. OK So let's go onto blueberries. Now blueberries a little more complicated because there's different types I said three main types. That doesn't include the main blueberries those are kind of their whole a whole different animal those grow on the ground you know the Bushes are very short and. So we're not even going to talk about those but the three main types are the northern high bush. Which is probably what you buy in the store. If you buy blueberries. And I was just going by this guide here. Looking at this is owns a course. Different. There's many many varieties of blueberries so I didn't even put down. Suggested varieties. Depends on where you are in the country I would just encourage you to ask around. What others are growing if you find somebody who seems to be doing really well at it. Figure out what varieties they're growing for your climate. So there's the northern high bush. And those can be some of them can grow is own three that's. I don't even know where that is but that's way up there somewhere down his own eight. So where we live in the zone six were kind of. We can do northern or some of the Southern and even rabbit I drive these the rabbit I are the ones that. That are. I guess indigenous to the south the southeast. They. They are much bigger. They can get huge you know. Twelve feet tall. We've seen huge Bush's. And of course that's a waste because how do you pick up there. You know. So it's good to kind of keep them pruned to a size you can actually manage. And then there's another. Nother type that. I think is rather new Southern high bush. I think it's kind of a hybrid. Maybe you know more about that than I do. OK yeah I think she's saying that the Southern High Bush may be are they need a little more care. And that's that's what i've are you know the rabbit eyes being there. They have grown wild and they've just kind of taken the wild ones and cultivated them. They are maybe a little Hardy year. But we have grown bowls. On a small scale. And I will say that I if you eat. One compared to the other. I think the northern high bush or even the southern high bush are a little nicer. Course. You normally don't eat them side by side. If you just have rabbit eyes you'll be very happy with the rabbit eyes because they are still delicious. So right now we have half. Northern high bush and half rabbit I but we would like to get some Southern High Bush and the main reason is because they ripen earlier. You know Rabbit eyes in our climate. Don't ripen before July. But I've seen Southern high bush. Varieties that are at the market in May. And that's you know that's really nice if we could have blueberries as soon as our strawberries stop. We're on the blueberry you know I have this dream of just doing berries and have having berries. You could have strawberries in the high tunnel. The beginning of April. And you can have raspberries in a high tunnel. Tell the beginning of November. Berries from beginning of April to the beginning of November. It would take a little bit but I think it's possible. Ok some more on blueberries. It's really important to keep them well watered. That first year and. Yeah I don't even want to get into the fertility debate. But I can say that I've seen very healthy blueberries that were growing in a basically neutral ph soil. So it's not just an issue of Ph But I would say generally speaking. Specially when you're getting them a stablish. It's good to try to bring your PH downs. And you can do that by adding some sulfur to the soil. Blueberries thrive or they will grow very well in a low ph soil you just think about where they grow wild you know and peat bogs and stuff. It's very low. Ph. Ok what to call. How low. Four and a half five. Yeah pretty low. How often do you put the sulphur on not very often you can easily over do it on sulfur if you're not careful. So that's something you would you would need to have your soil tested and follow recommendations. You know I don't know what your soils like so I wouldn't want to try to to recommend anything. Now blueberries. Is one thing. Let me just finish talking about blueberries and then we'll take some more questions. I have seen two bushes next to each other my my nephew David. Collins. Well my niece's husband did this. He had he had five Bush's. And one of. He built a little wooden box out a two by four out of it. And he filled it with with wood chips. And I'll tell you I couldn't. I was astounded at the difference between the one. Mulched with wood chips and one that didn't have a mulch. On it it was. I was asked Are you sure this is the same variety here. I was astounded at how much. It's better. They were growing with the wood ships. It made a believer out of me. So you know you may not have an of wood chips. You know there's the whole back to Eden thing in the garden. But hey your perennials things like blueberries. I'm convinced. It's a good thing the moments with with wood chips. OK let me just say once plants mature you need to prove now old wood and balance plant between new and older growth. You know every year they're sending out new shoots. And if you just let him grow without pruning them. Every year they will eventually start declining in year old. Whereas if you can. If you pruning out some of that old growth every year. You'll keep them. More Productive. OK. Questions about blueberries. Yes. OK. I haven't done that. He's making a comment that he's heard about putting pine needles on them because pine needles tend to be low P. H. of course a lot of leaves technically are low Ph. Yeah I've read that I've never done it myself but I think it's probably a good thing to mulch with question here. OK So are they developing varieties that will work more an alkaline soil. Well as I told you. I've seen them grow very very vigorously and alkaline soil. You need to talk to Whitmore McConnell about that or maybe Steve Myers because it's not just about acidity an alkaline in the. Steve you want to. OK. And I have to try to repeat that. For the audio here but. Steve Meyer is just saying that they have gone to using. Well first of all it's. It's more about balance soil than it is Ph. Getting the right balance and then. The big thing about the low ph as he pointed out is iron. Iron is taken up. More easily at lower ph and. Blueberries are very sensitive to iron deficiency. So he's using iron key late. And. Then he's not worrying about the Ph. Which sounds like a good. Good advice. Yes. Question. Ideally Ideally they recommend taking off the blossoms for the first two to three. Years. I know that's hard that's really hard. But you know. It's. Farming teaches you patients. Right. And you've got to be thinking what's best for the long term health of the plans. You know as soon as they start putting on those heavy fruit loads. That's where the energy is going in the plant in the energy isn't going into a stablish NG that root system. QUESTION In the back. How long can you expect. Blueberry prep patch to produce. You know I have I'm not there yet. So I can't speak from personal experience but I've read. Numbers. Twenty to thirty years. In there hopefully we don't have that long on this earth right. So we can say they're going to produce till the Lord comes hopefully. One more question here and then we'll go on to how much of the iron keel eight G. use. Do you have a quick cancer or do you need to talk to her afterwards. OK So you mix the iron key Leyton water one tablespoon per plant. You know. Poured out around the square yard area. One tablespoon of iron Keeley in water. Early. Do it in the early spring. OK well we'll go on and then if we have time we can come back for a few more questions. As I already said raspberries don't do so well in southern heat. We grow the prime Akane Do you remember the difference was in crime a cane and floor just Prime is first and Flora. You know is Flower. So the prime Akane varieties. Bear in the fall. They're often called everbearing because if you leave them to also bear the next spring. And you think well that's great I get two crops but the research will tell you that those two crops really aren't any more yield usually than one crop. So what's traditionally done in the beauty. The beauty of. Of fall bearing ones is you actually just mow them down. After they finish harvesting. That's easy maintenance right you just take your bush hog or whatever and run over ROOM. And they're done. And then the next spring they sprout back up. And they keep going. So that's really nice and a few years back we kind of trial the lot of different varieties. And the ones that came out on top for us were Caroline. Caroline is a fall. Bearing raspberry it has a nice size fruit it's got a good flavor very vigorous and productive. So you know again. Different parts of the country may be different but I'm just sharing our experience and Caroline was a winner and is a gold one yellow gold. And that was the best of the gold ones that we trialed. So weak. No an is is gold Caroline is yours. These I'm sure this picture is of Caroline's. And as I said you can cut them down after harvest. And not have to think about them. Over the winter. Every every year you cut him down. And then they grow back in the spring in they produce. Now when I say fall they will actually start in August in our climate. And they'll keep going until frost. Now there are also some are bearing varieties that bear on the floor a cane. So you can look into that there varieties. There's the black raspberries. They don't have any black. Prime a cane. Bearing raspberries. But. They grow. You know you let the Canes grow the first year and then they'll produce fruit the second year. To me that's just more work. Plus we've got so much else going on that time of year. We don't really want to be unless we were just a berry farm and. You know maybe. In my retirement will just do berries and. I don't know but. But. We just we haven't tried to grow them in the summer. Now raspberries do need some kind of trellis to hold them or wrecked because they're not as they don't have as big a cane as a Black Berry. They tend to want to flop over. So you can do something as simple as a tipo stick with a cross bar. You know about four feet high and you know I have the crossbar out. Three feet thirty inches. And then. Well we had some welded up we just use rebar you know. Made a T.F. out of rebar and then welded washers on the ends of the rebar. And then just run some wire or something through the washers and that just holds them in. Now. What we found actually was that. You know you had a lot of small and lower stuff then that was kind of flopping out so we ended up using T. posts and made our own cross bars. I would show you a picture except we don't even we're not even growing raspberries right now which is another story. But you know the lowest cross bar as you know this wide and then it gets a little wider. So we can just hold them in but it's nice that kind of let him spread out so you let more sun in air into the plant. OK. One thing I would encourage is some kind of the woven landscape fabric. You know what I'm talking about do that on either side of your rose because raspberries. Grow. They send out roots and suckers from the roots. And so if you're not careful you're going to end up with this mess. Kay and nobody likes to work in a mess. So if you use some kind of landscape fabric. That will prevent them from just keeping expanding That's really helpful. And you know if any of these plants if they grow too sick leave they actually become a weed to themselves. So you want to keep them thinned out and that they're not they're not choking themselves out so to speak. As I already mentioned they're very labor intensive in picking and very perishable you know you. If you pick them in a pint. And by the time you get him up to the barn it's not a pint anymore. You know because they're hollow. Right. That's the way you tell the difference between a raspberry and a Blackberry. So if you're not super careful with them they kind of smash down and you don't want that. Now then the last thing here. You know there's a lot of been a lot of research. With raspberries in the last few years about growing them in some kind of a high tunnel or who pals. Because they the fruit is very perishable and if you get much rain on them at all. It's a big problem. And so I've read people that say. The only way to grow raspberries organically is to grow them in a hoop house. And we've done it in a hoop pals and they did well. So. Yeah. So questions on raspberries. Very differing it is very small. Well I would assume that it's probably a fertility issue. You know it could be partial watering issues are they getting plenty of water. I mean of course. Different varieties are different you know what some what variety they are. OK. Yeah. So there's a lot of it you know it could be a variety issue I would. I would suggest that's probably a fertility issue. But yes. The summer bearing raspberries you would prune the same as the Black Berries. Let them bear the second year and then prune out. The old canes. Yes. Is a finish mower going to mow them too close. Not for my experience. I mean if you're using like a lawn mower don't put it down. You know keep it up a little bit. From my experience raspberries are very vigorous. And you know we actually had this brilliant idea of growing them as. As an annual planting them in the spring. Harvest in the hoop house. Harvest them in the fall. And then pull him out and then we've got the hoop house we can use for other stuff all winter. You know I was thinking this is brilliant. But no matter how hard you try to get those roots out there are still in there. And so all winter long. We're harvesting raspberries shoots with there are lettuce me. You know and that's kind of. Not a good thing. So we've finally gave up on that. It just was too hard to get him out. Once they're there so once you have them. You're going to have them for a while. Yes. Ques. OK Why why do we not grow them anymore. Well there's something called the spotted wing drifts awful. How many of you have heard of the spotted wing juice awful. OK. It's a little fruit fly. That is menacing. Fruit Growers all over the country it spread very rapidly. I can't remember where it came from but it. You know it was one of those imported past. And the difference between spotted wing drifts awful and regular just awful A which you remember from high school biology is just a fruit fly right. But this. Spotted wing just soft lays its eggs in grains fruits. Not just over right fruit. So you have this. This really yucky dilemma of. You go to harvest the fruit. And you bring it inside in the next day it's crawling with little maggots. These little white. Maggots. You know it's hard to market berries that you know. Have that. Because you can imagine what that would do to your customer base. So that's a real dilemma. And they're trying to do research there's a lot of interesting things the Children's are. You know because basically it starts out your early fruit in this is an advantage of strawberries. They produce early enough in the season. That it's not an issue but as the season goes along. The population of these just saw Fla build up. So by fall time when we have our raspberries. It's. It could be bad. And we just don't want it you know. We can't risk. Our customer loyalty or a fruit fly. Well that yes they will attack blueberries. Viciously and. Most people don't ever know they have spotted wing just saw Fla all they know is all of a sudden they're blueberries they're just getting soft and dropping off. You know they're very small the maggot my eyes can't see them anymore. Because I haven't. I've been too proud to get glasses. Yes. OK So if they're wet and the other thing I've seen is. They they tend to have kind of a flat spot and. If you see that at all and if you have young eyes. You can open it up in see these tiny. They're very tiny little white maggots. You know. I won't say. I mean we kind of for ourselves. A little protein you know. OK. Yeah so that's that's an advantage of who pouch growing He was just saying that you can screen it off it's going to have to be pretty fine screen. But entrust is the name of. An organic pesticide that is effective against your soft. If any of you were in our other present taste and I talked about is very expensive. But you use small amounts. It's very effective. Also it's called and trusty and T R Us. T.. Very effective against Colorado potato be larva. Incredibly effective. From our experience. So one thing the children's have learned about and they've been doing is hummingbird feeders Doesn't that sound great. Just hang hummingbird feeders around your berry plant in the hummingbird eat the spotted wing just suffer less. So that's what you call natural pest control. OK so a grower in Mississippi. Puts out ten. Hummingbird feeders per acre and doesn't have a problem with spotted wing just some. We're going to have to go on. But what was the. Drifts off of the D.R. O.-S. P H I L. Just so awful L.A. What you can't you cut the raspberries down after they die. Naturally you know the frost will kill the. So you want to make sure they're dormant. Although I don't know I'm not sure that's totally important. Like I say they're so vigorous. I think you could probably cut them down any time a year and they'd still grow back. You're saying that your year. You were getting berries after the frost. Wow. I don't know about that I've never heard anything like that because raspberries after frost. Well we need to know that variety I guess. OK we've got to move on because we're just coming to strawberries and that's what I know something about. So as I said we grow on plastic in an annual system plant in fall and harvest next spring. We by Northern grown plans are we by strawberry temps. There you know strawberries put out runners. And before they root. They cut him off. Ours are grown in Prince Edward Island and of Green Gables. Prince Edward Island. And they ship them down in the reason you buy them from up there is because the further north you go the less disease pressure you have the variety we use is called Chandler and. It's got many many Venice fits. To it. But it's one. Achilles heel. Is that it is not. Disease resistant to some of the Southern diseases especially one that's called anthrax notice. Not anthrax been interacting else. In which can devastate your crop. And I speak from personal experience. So that's a big reason not to keep them over from year to year because your disease pressure is highest in the summertime. So yeah. You know that's the first question people always asked Why don't you just use your own runners. Well. The southeast. Is is one of the hardest areas in the country to grow. Gardens because of the heat and humidity combined. So so that he many of the is a perfect. Incubator for disease. So that's why we buy new plants. Each year we propagate the runners and replant we get the runners. Middle of August. Propagate. And then set out the plant. The middle to end of September. OK. Propagate means we route them. It's a little bit of a process you have. Because they don't have any routes. They're just going to wilt. So you have to miss them. Have missed on a timer. That keeps the leaves moist and tell the routes. I wouldn't recommend that if you're just getting into it. Course we did at first as I said yesterday We do everything the hard way. You know. Yeah. Well if you want to propagate your own runners you just wait till they get roots. And then plant them and then you don't have to worry so much but if they don't have any roots. What's going to keep them alive. OK. Now. Strawberries are very vulnerable to spring for us and wet spring weather that's what makes strawberries so hard. They start flowering especially if you're growing them on plastic the plastic warms the soil up earlier. And so that encourages them to start flowering earlier. Well that's a good thing in a bad thing the good thing is see what shut strawberries down. Is the heat. So rather than trying to get him to go longer you've got to move the season up earlier. And there's where you get the conflict with the frog in California. They grow. All summer long because they grow them in a part of California. That stays cool all summer. They get seventy thousand pounds of strawberries. To an acre in California. Seventy thousand pounds. So. So what are you going to do belt the Frost Well on a small scale I would recommend using floating row cover this. Do you all know what those are. If you don't my son has a booth Harehills sell you some. It's. It's not easy to find just anywhere. But is very very important to have if you're if you're trying to grow. Most anything. Anything that is cool weather crop. Floating row cover it comes in different thicknesses. And you just cover your plants with it and it will give a few degrees of protection. But the trick is. If you're going to have a hard frost you add more layers. And it creates a sandwich effect it's trapping the ground heat in is what it's doing. And when I was telling me yesterday. We have protected. Tomatoes in a unheated hoop house down to seventeen degrees outside with just floating row cover. Multiple layers. So it works. And of course if you want to get really fancy you use sprinklers for frost protection it's one of these amazing things of nature as as water freezes it releases heat. So you have to run the sprinklers all night long and in the morning. Your field may have. You know this much ice on it. But the berries. The flowers won't be frozen and credible to see. You just you have to keep the sprinklers running and tell. It's above thirty two degrees and tell the the ice starts melting and then you can turn the sprinklers off. If you stop in the night. You're in trouble. I wish I had time I could tell you a miracle story about. But you have to read the book. We're out of time. So I'm just going to quickly I just one more slider. Use use preventative spray program in the spring. You know I kind of think. It doesn't matter what you spray is long as your spring something that's kind of just my gut feeling. I've tried all kinds of different and I'm talking about organic things I'm not talking about. You know harsh chemicals or anything but just spraying I'm. And the theory is that you know you're covering the leaf. Surface with beneficial. Something or other organisms. And that that outcompetes. The pathogens that want to land there. The names of sprays serenade. Yeah out now that she got the pressure on of the time clock and my mind is going blank. Serenade regalia. Regalia. Is one. Triple Nickel or something like any of you know that one. Double nickel. OK. Well inflation it's triple negative. Double nickel and. There's one more can't think of right now it starts with a. OK. Dear protection I would just end with this. This is a picture of that. Unfortunately I don't have a picture of it hanging. But this is really simple fencing to keep deer out you know people spend a lot of money on fancy deer fences. Just get eight foot T. posts. You know it's a little bit of an investment. You get this. Ten accent to flex that's the trade name but you can Google that online and. It's seven and a half feet tall. We just put one little yellow. Electric wire insulator clip it on the top of the the. T. posts. And literally just hang the fence on those. So of course an eight foot T. post in the ground is going to be six and a half feet tall something like that so that fencing comes down in just kind of drapes out. We can put the T. pose thirty feet apart. It's not a barrier it I mean it's the deer can't see it very well. Some people some places call it invisible deer fence. And it's been one hundred percent effective for us as long as we've had it totally. If you leave a gap or something don't get in. OK and well. Last slide in then we gotta stop because there's more classes. Yes. Well I think you must be using something different because the stuff we use has holes this big. I've never killed a snake with it. OK yeah you can buy it like a bird netting which is much thinner this is pretty heavy duty I mean we've been using some of it for fifteen years. And had to sit end of the season you roll it up so you know the problem with permanent fences is they grow up. To stuff. It's a maintenance problem with this you just roll it up. I mean it's a little bit of work but we just fence the things we know the dear life. OK. And the rest. We don't fence. What does it look like oh what does a deer not like well I'm out of time. You've got other classes to go to but just quickly. Carrot. Beats Swiss chard that family spinach carrots Beatrice chard green beans. Sweet potatoes. Those are the things they like. That's what we've sent sweet corn. What if any kind of look good from they like the lagoon. So the lagoon family the. Chana Poti a see a family I think is isn't that the Swiss chard and Beetson and spinach. Yeah. OK Well I wish I had more time to answer questions but we gotta quit. Thank you all for coming. This media was brought to you by audio a website dedicated to spreading God's word truth. Reeser min audio. And much more. If you would like to know more about audio version. Or you would like to this. More sermon leave W W W. Done. Audio dot world.

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