Favorite Sermon Add to Playlist
Logo of AdAgrA 2015: Restoring the Waste Places

Cover Crops, Smother Crops, and Green Manures

Larry Lesher

Description

Protecting your soil is one of the most important things you can do. Cover crops can be a great way not only to protect your soil but to control weeds and build nitrogen in the soil. You might ask what is a cover crop? Cover crops are types of grasses, beans, peas, and or root vegetable used to enhance and benefit the soil. During this class we will be going over how to use them in your garden and farm. 

Presenter

Larry Lesher

Owner of Eastward Gardens in Indiana.

Conference

Recorded

  • November 12, 2015
    4:00 PM
Logo of Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 (US)

Copyright ©2015 AudioVerse.

Free sharing permitted under the Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 (US) license.

The ideas in this recording are those of its contributors and may not necessarily reflect the views of AudioVerse.

SPONSORED

Audio Downloads

This transcript may be automatically generated

Heavenly Father we thank you for this day Lord. We thank you for the opportunity to come together and study. To grow knowledge of who you are and what you have as do. Father as we look into this topic of cover crops and smother crops and exactly what the purpose is for them. I pray that your Spirit would guide is in the does. In teaches that we would understand a little closer your idea of Agriculture. That we would implemented according to your will and purposes. And that ultimately it would bring glory and honor to you. We thank you that you promise to teach is that we can rest in the idea that if we put our feet forward you will guide. And we thank you for in Jesus' name for his sake we pray him in. All right. All right. So the title of this lecture is cover crops or other crops angry maneuvers. Money. Larry leisure and. I will be the one engaged in this dialogue today with you folks. Gather in as close as you can. I thought it might be useful to start. Often times we have this idea of what these words mean. But we don't necessarily understand exactly what they mean. Because a lot of times we use than synonymously. And they can be used that way. But they're not always quite so vague. There can be some particulars to them in why they're called what they're called it a given time for a particular application. So I thought it might be a suitable endeavor to go through the terminology a little bit and I think it helps us to define and give us some structure of what we're talking about that makes sense. OK. Sure. You know it's not a. He will talk about this much him. I mean people here are practicing any type of cover cropping because there are people. I mean people here are actively doing any kind of agriculture. So these are actually several these are pretty long definitions. And if it gets a little too tedious for you guys. I'm kind of information. As I like information. Elsie make decisions. And so if it's too much though just let me know OK so. Cover crops cover crosser those crops that are planted to provide a cover for the soil. They are grown primarily as a biological soil conservation told to prevent soil erosion by water and or wind and to foster multiple benefits. In a farming system gets all that these benefits include but are not limited to optimization and or normalization of the of the fertility. Profile. Improvement of the soil properties such as water holding capacity structure and aggregation reefs resource lost fertility. I'm sorry. Rescue lost fertility. That is leached away orders. Could lead to way. So for at least is a way we can hold onto it. Provide deeper channels for the next crop and increase organic matter. Cover crosser typically planted before and after the main designated cash crop in a rotation. Cover across may be used as a ground cover or mulch agreement to or nurse crop or some other crop that cover crops can be. And you will biannual by annual or perennial species including lagoons grasses in the brassicas. Basically as I understand this cover crops. Make up. The overarching theme of what a smother Croft is a catch crop a scavenger crop. Any of these different titles that we're going to look at the cover their cover crops in some form or fashion. That makes sense. They're going to follow me. I'm going to D.'s are all things that are going to get defined we're going through the definitions right now. And so as we go through the definitions they will. We're going to kind of. That's the baseline. Understand what we're talking about when we say what we we say because people will say. Like the title and infers that there's this. Different thing. But really they're all cover crops and they're all just performing a function of like a dream and Newark is a cover crop that you tell him while it's still going right. But still cover her up. Right. Still covering. Right. And so something could be like a scavenger crop like us. Is still a cover crop which is performing a specific task you're putting a specific cover crop in to perform a specific task. And so we're going to say that specific task is scavenging for a tapper reading cover crop that's going to go deep in scavenge things that are in lowering the profile of soil. To bring them up. Every fall. All right so. Cover crop is kind of an overarching term. So now we're going to get into some of the specific types of of cover cropping the first one of the green manure. And he crossed that is grown and incorporated into the soil while it is green or soon after flowering which can improve the soil. Especially with the addition of organic matter plus N.P.N. Cade's everybody know N.P.N. K R Yeah. And other elements contained in the plant. The average availability of nitrogen in green the newer material turned under is typically about fifty to sixty percent of the initial amount. And is determined by a seed or tissue chest. Probably not going to do that just. Unless you're doing in somethin. Very specific and you want to know exactly how much. Nitrogen you took in on a specific route. You aren't going to do probably a tissue no system when you turn it in as a small farm or a garden. Not typically going to happen. But what it's saying is is that when you get the report back of how much. How much our much nitrogen you tilled in as a green manure. It isn't of the immediately available all of that. That's going to come over the course of time as the breakdown of that plant occurs. But because you tilted in green. It's going to break down rather fast and initially follow. Understand insane. OK so very many were was once the conventional method of spline one tree in another fertility to crops and was practice widely before. Commercial nitrogen fertilizer became available that's significant to me. So what is the say to you that it worked. And so do we need. Nitrogen based fertilizers outsourced in our system. Not at all and wide only. It's available right here in the air we breathe in it and all we need to do is figure out how to get it from this gashes form in the air. To some sort of organic form. In the ground right. Some sort of solid form that can break down in a gash form in the soil where it's available to the root system of the plant. Yet. Everyone understand that principle was why that works so well and why it's a very functional. Here's something. Plants prefer elements that were once in a plant that makes sense you know what I'm sayin. You can put an element in the ground in Iraq. Right. You can put it in a some synthesized form into the ground. But it prefers above all of that an element that was once in a plant. So if you can get a plant to cover crop to take up a nutrient or pull a nutrient from the air into its own tissues. Until that into the ground. The plant that you plant afterwards. Is going to prefer that. As opposed to the rest. That's kind of brilliant in my mind. In my way of thinking. Because one of the problems or run into. I bought a ton of potassium for my farm this year. It cost me twelve hundred dollars. That's not cheap. For some potassium testing that is if it doesn't get taken onto a coal a day which is everyone here know to call it is. So in the ground you have. You have a place for the minerals. To stick their negative as I am positively charged and so there's a a drawing magnetic force that they stay on to the soil particle. Let's call it. So if you don't have anywhere for that potassium let's say to go where you're going to go. Going to keep moving through the soil profile. If it's different ones move a different rates. But they're going to through the SO profile and out of your birds own and you're going to lose that investment that you put in the ground. And so one of the ways that we can maintain that investment. Discover crops will take them up before they reach out and then we can save them. Right. That makes sense. So now they're bound up they're tied up in the plant. And now we're saving that are being lost. I probably can't tell you the exact science but what I can tell you is. There's a a. There's different ways that minerals go into the plant right. In the primary way that a mineral goes into a plant is that it's got a symbiotic relationship with the biology in the soil in the biology in the soil. We're going to break down that. That metal or that rock and convert it to a vial of a little form. For that plant in the plants going to exchange some sort of exit date. To that little creature. In exchange for it now and that's pretty rudimentary way to say it but that's effectively what happens. The exchanges in full and complete. Part of what the breakdown of that mineral was stays in that microorganisms body right. And so it's stored there. Just like the plant is going to exude things to make that exchange it also exudes acids to break down things that are in the soil in because the type of. Of mineral like in the from the form that the minerals in. When it's in the cover crop is more. It's easier for the plant. It functions better in the plant and so when I say it likes it better. It means that it's going to be. The plant doesn't have to do as much work to utilize it. And so ice has a preference. Writes the path of least resistance you might call it in so. It's obviously much more complicated than that chemistry and so and so forth but that's the basic way to to explain why it happens that way. And so we just went to green manure. All right. Any questions about what I said so far. Kind of a little bit. Going off of my. What I said I was going to do but it. But that's the way I am. Because I'm very talkative. But I was using potassium sulphate organically approved. Substance and still sulfur obviously newts it's a sulfate form and so it will dissolve in water and it will move. Pretty readily in the water soluble. And so you know. Like if you were to use. Phosphorus for instance. Phosphorus isn't really going to move. Anyway phosphorus news is if it's the microbes in in Worms pull down. Otherwise it's it's in an eye and it's not a cat ion. So it's a negatively charged. Mineral. And it's a triple charge. So is everyone familiar with what I'm saying when I say charged like an atom has certain a charge that's going around it. So it's a triple bond which means it's a very strongly bonded material and so it doesn't really. It's not very mobile doesn't move very much. And so things that are single bonded. You know they just they're just weaker elements that are around his ear if they're water soluble the form they're in can dictate that as well. And so on. Anyway. So I was using a sulfur and I use a soul to form. Because they wanted to be available. More readily. And there's pluses and minuses to that obviously the next definition we're going to look at is a catch crop. And so we can have someone talked about this already and in our discussion. When cover crops are planted to reduce nutrient leaching. They are termed catch crops. These are cover crops planted after the cash crop is harvested or after lagoon plough down. They are also planted in late summer early fall to trap nutrients from freshly spread manures. They are they are grown to take up and hold the nutrients in their tissues. For catch the nutrients from the soil. Especially especially nitrogen. That may otherwise be leached lower in the soil profile and last below. The active crop. Zone. And so you may grow a covered drop of of the lagoon. OK legumes will fix nitrogen out of the air. And you may be killed that in the soil but you may not be maybe going into winter let's say and you're not going to plant a cash crop you're not going to plant a crop that you're going to utilize to sell or for yourself to eat. But you don't want. All that nitrogen just sitting there in in bare dirt. Where the rain's going to come through and leach it out. So what you can do is you can plant the winter cover crop. To catch the release of that material it's either going to off gas into the air it's going to reach now and sensible. In off your farm out of your garden. Been so you would put something down that would grab ahold of that material. Take it into itself stored in its plant to shoo in in the spring when you fill it in it would be available now for your crop nexus of cash crops. Catch crops. Pretty much anything. Would be considered to catch up that's going to take up those nutrients that. Yeah. Well. Pretty much. Yeah I mean you would you would choose it. Based on whatever you want to catch. Sure. Hard read when we would be great if you're wintering over. Because it's not going to win or kill. Time here. And so hard red winter wheat. Clover with the go and read when are we really a nice cover crop because it actually can take out most men are not all plants take up all the spectrum. In winter wheat. Hard Red Winter we will. And so it's a nice. Cover got to use. But it isn't going to fix. Nitrogen like a live coverage of blood so lagoons everyone knows little of doing this. P.S. namely the Clovers. It's me. It would depend on the crop. So it's the seeded oats oats are going to win or kill. And so you would. That could be beneficial to depending on what you're doing is how you would choose which cover crops or which catch proper. What you would be doing. So cover crops. If you weren't here the very beginning. Cover crops is a general term for pretty much all of these never getting the specific terms that you would use a cover crop for. So like. We talked about it. Catch crops we talked about Riemann who are so far. And so there's there's quite a few there scavenger crops. And so a scavenger crop will will read it and we'll talk about that frame soiled. Frame soils that have been heavily cropped with shallow rooted plant such as corn. They become deficient in certain micronutrients deep rooted scavenger cover crops such as certain annual ryegrass is alfalfa red clover. Sweetclover row roots in deep into the soil. Subsoil and have the ability to bring soil nutrients from the lower soil profile to the upper layers. And also into the scavenger crops a leaf bio mass securing it there for the next crop. The deep growing root structure. Additionally helps to break up soil compaction. When these plants die. There to cane roots. Leave not only organic matter but also channels in the soil. That provide pathways for the roots of the following crop. The follow down the profile. These are channels also provide pathways for water drain. From the surface. So you can see it's performing a specific thing is catching things that are lower down in the profile that maybe you need to be bringing up into the upper ranges of the of your soil profile. But they're performing much more than that. Obviously they're creating water channels so that you have water flow and movement in your water. And your water in your soul profile a certain. You can use pretty much any any fibrous material so it pretty much any plant would work as a cover crop. Depending on what you want to do. And so we're going over the definitions of everything. Well you. You could use like a sedan grass but there are certain grasses like you wouldn't want to plant an invasive grass. You would want to pick your type of grass. Pacifically for a purpose. And so we're going to go over these the names of all the different types of things you use cover crops for then we're going to go into more specifics about why you would choose what for what more so. Yes. Some of the grasses become quite problematic until like most grasses you may not as you probably don't know this but they're they're very shallow rooted and. They are in the very very top few inches of the of the so profile and the reason for that is because they're trying to hold the Saluda gather the you get a rose and you have problems which is you know. Water on they're there to soak up water and in sort of help help the soil rebuild. And so once you get beyond this. This mineral deficiency that is there. You start to develop the different characteristics of the soil and when the characteristics of the soil change. The plants that it host. Most readily changes that make sense. OK. And so we have what were called great crops. Cash crops attacked. Attract and harbor particular populations of insect past including harmful Nieman toes. Different species of cover crops can be selected in the rotation. They do not harbor these past or actually diminish their population by interrupting the in sex life cycle. Break. B R E A K. Break. And so what you're doing is you're breaking cycles. So if you grow corn soybean all the time. I would recommend that the. That's what you have had are you coming to the buy a place it's been in a particular. Mano cropping situation for a long time. And you're trying to rebuild that feeling get that soil back into health one of the things you would utilize would be smart to utilize is is cover crops and break crops or cover crop. Specifically with this in mind to break. Certain life cycles and. We'll get into some other ones that we would use but one of them would be something that is going to be tapped rooted in mine deep into the break up whatever plow pan or Hardpan it's been developed to that type of agricultural use. Because you're you're going to use these. This is a remedial purposes as well as maintenance. So remediation. Sorry not remedial remediation. So what you want to do is look at the situation you find yourself in on a particular piece of ground is a. What am I trying to accomplish what am I want to do where my at where do I want to go. And we have to build a reason a little bit from cause to effect. This is what happened before. You know you might come to a place that's Bisping grass. For years and years and years and no it isn't anything with it. You know if you move into a house in a backyard situation. Just been a lawn. Forever. Or you may come to a place that's been haid that farm that I came to been paid for thirty years there's nothing there. And then when I did a slow analysis the phosphorus level of one. You know. Asking was seventeen. They may not mean anything to you but these numbers are basically nonexistent. There's nothing there a mean they're new to it they can grow food effectively. In so you're going to have to do something to cause that ground. To repair itself. And it's not going to do it by itself. Not any time soon anyway. I mean you know. There's no phosphorus there. It's not going to make it be there unless you put it there. In the potassium so low you know you need to put the tasking down but if you're not managing that potassium what you put it down. You know getting it to stick to stay there and just running through in the water profile and running off your farm. Then you're going to find yourself in a very poor situation struggling to to get through for your family or to take to market and so these are tools to help you manage your investment better. That makes sense. And so as we look through these and I mean when I start naming and they make sense right. I mean when I when I started just saying the name your like scavenger crop. Well everyone knows that scavenging isn't so you can kind of started to do so I never really thought about that because we don't think about these things typically we think of cover crops and generally as green manure. Everyone probably recognizes that term. OK It's like instead of putting animal manure down we're using plant material as some sort of source of fertility. Right. Dreman yours. Other term people reckon. Think of this or that term but the other reason why we do a cover up is because you know if you leave bare dirt what happens when it rains. Washes away and you need some roots there to hold it in place and so that you know the things the two things most people think about when they think of cover cross right. Is that was that what you're thinking was I mean tell me. OK so I'm just giving you some new terminology here. So that you can think a little bit outside of that box. So we have nursed crop next. I noticed crop is one that germinate and emerges quickly. Holds the soil with quick cover. In root structure and assist. Development of the slower maturing crop. Oh it's a tell you right grass. Incest You are common nurse crops used to start. And alfalfa tall fest you hay crop. The oats or nursed crop grasses germinate first outcompete weeds for available resources. Then can be mowed when lagoon are slower emerging grass starts to grow. It's right grass infested best deal on. So I know that's that's your own. Yeah so let's say you're going to put something down that's that Germany slowly comes out small doesn't really move for a long time. You can't necessarily have your ground bare dirt that long. Right. And so you're going to put something with it. That's going to germinate quickly. In lock up that ground so you don't lose your topsoil you know you're losing your soil. And it's going to shade out. Competing weeds. And then once you're crop that you're actually trying to grow your author whatever your want to actually grow there has been this instance they were using it. The comparison for like hay or straw and. You would then cut. The first crop. So the now has light and it's not shaded out in they can actually take off once it's a little bigger. That makes sense. Yeah. So like a rider or oats. Something that it would take that. Now. It didn't talk about this in this definition but you would sometimes want to put like and Odes and P.. Next down right. And the reason for that is the peas which relative on the oats. So keeps them off the ground. Right. So that's another tool you can use. Smother crosses the next one. Now smother crop is a fast growing crop icecream crops. Help control weeds by growing as thick. Canopy that reduces the amount of sunlight for weed seeds to germinating grow smother crops grow tall. At a fast rate or quickly produce broad leaves that shade out lower growing we including these cover him. Including these covers in your rotations growing double or triple crops in a single season is an effective strategy for weed control and effective sequence of smother crops is oats in spring. Buckwheat and or sorghum sedan grass and summer and right try to cal or forge brassicas in the fall. Harry vege planted in the fall and overwintering will then act as a spring smother crop. Smothering early spring when these crops can also produce high quality forage. Yeah. I'm just reading do it really quickly so we get the definition we could talk about him. Well it. So all of those you would use a specific times of year. In a cycle. OK And. They would be. Oh it's in spring. Buckwheat or sorghum sitting grass in the summer. But the quiett in sorghum sitting around and some are ready right. Try to cal or forage brassicas in the fall. And T R I T I see a planted in the fall. And that's were for winter in over. Well. It's probably going to be. Depending on what you plant would would have something to do with that as well and why you're planting and. So if you're wanting to do something that will. So you don't want. Likes to say you did a hard winter wheat for a winter crop. Right. If you could too big it's damaged by the cold. So you have to time it somewhat right if you do it too early or too late in the seeds don't germinate in it you could they could rot or and you could have issues with them in the spring. Most of the time they won't come up in the spring anyway. But you. You really want to time it so that the grass is a you know two or three inches tall. When the frost comes. Probably about as bare. But hard to say I mean you have to take the year into consideration and you would look at your calendars and you would start to make some decisions based on how this season is going. But I mean it's tell you it's pretty forgiving. You know I mean there's windows to hit but they're pretty forgiving windows on. All. Yeah yeah yeah so you're smothering out the light you're smothering out the idea that any other sea is going to germinate but you're also creating a large amount of biomass when you do that generally as well. And so you know. The more biomass you generate in a cover crop. The more material. You're putting into the ground when you till it into the ground. And so latest Classico. So five of which tend to restart button. All right so we had our. All right. So what it was had lost my train of smell of consciousness. And so a really good smother crop is Terry that area that is produces. Some people have a hard time telling it down with a with a bushel. It's just it's this very very fiber wrist and it makes a lot of green material. They will become. They also you have to be careful that you don't let these things go to seed necessarily unless you're doing a first Pacific reason. Because they can become pretty invasive as well. Yes. And so you have to you want to kill these things in. You know depending on the circumstances you want to make sure you're telling them in the right time or Moeen them down at the right time to make sure you're not in you know with. But we'd problem from your cover because they can. They can do that as well. So the last thing you. You might choose to do with a cover crop is what's called Alli little touch have a hard time pronouncing this Holly low pass the a little Tassie. You know. Alie all passing I'll I'll give you the definition. A L L E L O P A T H Y. Halley low passing. The term alley little pasty is often used when referring to the weed suppressing a true. Attributes of certain cover crops Alyea low pass the is the inhibit in the in have. As a vision of growth in one species of plants by chemicals produced by another species. It can be any direct or indirect harmful effect produced in one plant through toxic chemicals released into the environment by another the magnitude of the terminal effect on the extent of any other stresses. Such as environmental conditions or biological factors. Such as insect and disease pressure that occur at the same time. Different crop. Cover crops have different. Alley allopathic effects and activity may be reduced or enhanced by microbial action. Oxidation and other transformations in the soil. So basically what that sayin. So that you understand what I'm telling you is that you can see a plant. What do we use to plant we used to plant. Ryegrass. We would plant an annual rise in the spring. We knew that when we told that in. It would inhibit C. germination. And so if you were going to say we were to do salad mix. Sell it makes you direct seed. You couldn't follow. To leanin your ryegrass with Alan X.. He would have germination issues. Because it released a chemical that would prevent seeds from Germany and almost all plants do this because they are basically protecting their environment. And on different levels they function different ways and so when they germinate they'll do it too. And they're saying this is my space. Stay out. Type of a thing. And so. But you can utilize it your advantage because I can take that same process and say in the spring I know that I'm going to have strange plants like kale and broccoli in the breast because they only step they can handle. Still some frost and some cold conditions. And I can transplant them into those dead. That I just killed that into. And there's no competing weed seeds or it mitigates the competing we see germination and so I'm going to have a cleaner bed and it's going to be wet. Because it's spring in the beds are always led and you can never get in there and whoa. Or cultivate. And so now you're using it to your advantage in the spring. To mitigate the weed pressure. But you're getting into early crop. Different crops different. Different times I know you they say don't plant into for thirty days if you tell in rag or as well you know in it that's a generality like it said there are different factors that are going to turn that are going to come into play with that as well. Environmental factors will affect that. That effect as well. Thirty days is what we always would wait if we were going to do. Direct seeding. So that way. I know I have to plan a little bit ahead of time if I have a right grass cover crop going in the spring. I know I'm going to plant salad mix fairly early as well so that means I need to prep some of those beds much earlier. To be prepared for that or I need to have some space. Open in available that isn't going to have that that issue. And so we're we're managing our ground right. To management technique. How you're going to manage to do these things. Affectively without using a bunch of chemicals let's say a bunch of synthetic fertilizers. These are just useful tools. You know you may utilize some you may never use the utilize others. Just depends on how technical you want to be with your garden. Sometimes the weather will dictate what you're going to do. You may have all I have see sitting in my garage should have planned on putting it on here. Didn't work out for me this. This fall yet. You know and you know how the weather goes I may get a man. Still. Absolutely. The break crop. You would break. Some of the disease cycles you can. Depending on what you would choose to plant in there so if you've been doing tomatoes intimate is intimated intimate. You may plant something in there can help cleanse that ground a little bit. That might mine a little deeper than the tomato plant full of some things that you've lost down deeper. So there's different things you can choose to do that you may want to add some nitrogen in there. So you can do. Clover. Something like that you could under so your crop that's in there like it. Let's say it's tomatoes. You could under so a clover crop in there. And I mean you know it looks like the I was there still there undersell it. And then when you pull them out. You have a nice crop of a cover crop to go into the fall with. You know and they're fixing nitrogen. So that when we were at the Black Hills You know we had the grapes and I saw the in the walk past. I was selling clover. With the idea that when those grapes. Reach their roots out into the water that they're going to have that nitrogen source there that the Clovers point into the ground in there should be some ability to you know utilize that nitrogen. For them. And so you know there's does all kinds of things I mean it's not limited to what's been done. It's limited to what you choose to do you know you're managing it and you can try an experiment with these things and you know they they are. This is part of the beauty of of what God is given as in the garden. Right. It's an art project in part. It's our art project that we get to work with God and learn. These sort of principles that he's opening up to us individually. You know. And so we get to play with these ideas on a. You know whatever scale you want to generally a smaller scale to to see how it works and if it works then you're to hear in good shape and mean you just found a new technique to accomplish something like nitrogen a fixation. Well he's using it sounds like he was harvesting weed so it would be a cover crop. And he could be utilizing components of that but he's also losing nutrients in that process as well. So I mean there's you know I mean so you take all these factors in the consideration. And you know there's been a fits in there's losses just like any any business proposition you know you kind of way your cost benefit analysis in your. What you get and what you lose and say Is it worth it and to him it was worth it. You know. You can come back and remember allies or whatever he wants to do you know and he may get some shading on his you know you're losing so with grapes for instance I would assume. I mean the new we serve. Fairly small. And so it may not be real tall but you're losing some of the wind flow which would help with disease in fungal disease and in the great things like that so you know you can I say is it worth it in make this race and any other questions. All right well let's. There's basically. Well I'll skip that primarily when we talk about cover crops there's two real categories. The non Lagunas family in the lagoon this family. Those that affix nitrogen in those that don't fix nitrogen. Basically I mean if if you are an honest person. It's going to hopefully all or most people are using cover crops to get nitrogen. That is probably the number one and I say most people because there are some people that really utilize cover crops affectively for a multitude of reasons but most people are trying to fix nitrogen and it is a wonderful way to get nitrogen into the soil. In a really healthy way. I would say in a way that you're not going to cause. Contamination in nitrogen leeching and stuff. So for the Sabbath rest of the land rest. I think you know and this would be a personal study that you might look into. You can look into Leviticus twenty five. You know the vicus twenty five it talks about the land rest cycles. But I think it would be an acceptable thing to put a cover for out down the the year. Going into your your land rest. Inappropriate cover crop something like that you may put down some clover seed. That could go for several years even. And it would help to be a revitalizing force during that rest till then. Yeah. And so you know you. You are allowing the land have its rest. But you're also being moderately active about not just haphazardly letting anything happen there. You know you're just sort of saying because the land rest isn't just about the land you understand. It's not just about letting the land rest it's about you taking a rest as well as you didn't get arrested but the land rest intention was that you had time to come meet with God and rest in Christ. So. But yeah so that's you know in the land or a situation there you can utilize cover cross I don't think that that would be considered causing a land to work. Something's going to grow there. Nor causing you to write. And so you know I mean. Each person would have to determine that in their own. You know. And be a personal study. So you go to God and you make that choice between you and God. Yeah it's a sabbatical to rest. So. But you know I had a cover crop I think could be useful in that. That's an area. I mean in my farm. I have tons of clover. I didn't planted. It was a hay field before and. There's just a lot of clover that comes up and. I rest my land every other year. I have six acres I farm three at a time. So I farm these three. In these very nice very nice three. And so there's something resting. Every other year. Half my farms. And so there's just a naturally occurring clover. Cycle that happens. For the moment eventually you know it will get worked out of the ground but right now we have clover that comes up by itself and that's to me. That's that's just a great cover for me. It's a red. It's occurrence in clover. And we do have some of the little white closer in there as well but the red clover is the one of them. Yet and educated so there's another component to this that's very interesting to me that anybody here. Attend any of the soil fertility classes with little or were you there we talked about cobalt and in Mali Bynum. If you don't have proper levels of COBOL in Mali your nitrogen fixation will be way love you. Maybe even now and you have to have them in the soil in order for the have proper nitrogen a fixation. And so that is something that you should make sure you have in in proper quantities in the soil if you're going to take the time in finance to to trying to nitrogen. In your soil from knowledgeable fixation. And just actually even to plan to shoot. There are key component to that happen. And so that's part of. Cobalt in. Well. People call it Molly be denim and they call it. Molybdenum in movies all kinds of prints the Asians for it. But those two. I don't mean to give you an idea. It's their very small amounts I had to put down Cobalt on my farm. And we put down one pound an acre. So I mean it's pretty nominal it was about thirty dollars a pound. So it's not cheap. When you look at it in terms of price per pound but you don't really need any so it's not something I would skimp on. It's. I actually did it in a backpack sprayer put it in a liquid in liquefied it. And sprayed on this and I did it in. I tell you if you ever try to put a pound of powder on an acre of ground it. Doesn't really work so well. And just so you know I mean. Since we're talking about it the way that I did it was a took my backpack sprayer it's a four gallon backpack sprayer filled it up with water. Walked out of my field walked the field and sprayed into it was indeed. And I said OK I did my my beds are one hundred feet long by five feet wide and so I walked back and forth a did five foot strip. When I ran out of said I can do this many beds. The farm run out and I go I need a pound. So I divided all that the OK. And you put this much in each backpack. When I get to the end of that I go back fill it up again start there again and go and by the end of the acre of use my pound and I got it all on the field. Pretty evenly. And that's how you accomplish something like that. All right. So. So those are required. We talked about little bit as we say this again in choosing a cover crop for soil improvement. First identifies a purpose or their primary function as a cover crop based on the needs of your system. If somebody tells you this is what you should do because it's what I did. That's like telling you because I broke my arm you need a cast to it's ridiculous right. I mean that makes no sense whatsoever. My ground is in your ground. My situation is that your situation and so you need to look at your individual situation and say what do I need to accomplish and so why am I going to choose to do what I'm going to choose to do. And yeah you need to maybe base that on some intelligent thought about why where you want to go in what that's going to do for you but don't just do something because the guy down the street did it. That's something that we. We tend to fall prey to in gardening. Is it work for him then it's going to work for me and that is not the case. I mean it could. But it's not necessarily the case. So that's the first one of the first things you just want to be very clear about. So providing nitrogen. The name benefit in using a ligament is a green manure. Is that lagoons fix nitrogen from the atmosphere and convert it into a form that is available to other plants lagoons grow in a symbiotic relationship with soil dwelling bacteria right so be. And so that's how it happens. It won't do it by itself. And so not only do you need the coal Balt in the Molly. But you actually have to make sure you have the right rise O.B. a population in the ground as well and so you can inoculate the seeds. Right you guys put down piece this year. Right Richard. And you did I believe a an appropriate rise Obion Oculus on this right so what you do is before you put the seeds out you've you took the powder it's like a black powder right. And you stir it into the seeds. And then when you put your seeds out you know that there are that. That right. That. So yeah. There you go. Did you do a COBOL in Mali test when you guys injured by the curious news in years and if you had them there in the Black Hills. That's the mineral either it's still there. Lot of rocks but generally rich. Well. There was a mine. Some very Some of them bigger than this room I think. But so yeah so that's one of the things you want to take into consideration when you're getting seeds. They almost everywhere you go to cover crop seed they will offer either pre-occupied it. On some places or. You can buy a bag of an ocular and then you would just a knock you leave your pieces or your. You know whatever you're doing. I generally by the bag of the knuckle and put it on the set I have bought it preoccupied in the problem with the preoccupied it is is how do you store your seeds. You know. You've got to be pretty quick with that stuff it's alive. You know it's not going to sit around for days and days. It's going to start dying and new it will. You won't get the benefit it rises over you. It's a bacterial rhizome. Brazil be. So the bacteria takes gashes nitrogen from the air and trapped in air trapped in the soil and converts are fixes this nitrogen into a form that is that the plant can use in exchange the plant provides carbohydrates to the rise O.B. a bacteria. The goons contain one to join in both. Both their top growth. And in their roots so that you get the nodules. So I use a product called. Well it's a peanut flour for nitrogen. So I went and found. Organic peanut flour. Organic peanut flour would be used like if you buy a power bar let's say. And you want. You know they're trying to push the protein levels up they'll put that peanuts lower in there to push the protein level. In the power bar up. Right. High protein. Energy. And so they're using it like a peanut flour to do that because it tastes good. But you can take that protein content into a conversion in proteins actually nitrogen. When it breaks down. It's one hundred. And so it's a it's an idea and so that's what I use for nitrogen. In the plant tissue. You're also getting a nitrogen. Because it's protein building. You're building proteins in the fibers material the leaves and in the stem right. It's proteins that are being built that they build all this stuff with. And so you don't just get it from the nodules on your plants but you're actually getting it in the plant fibers itself. That's why you can use like a grass is a catch crop. Even though it doesn't have knowledgable that's not a. It's not one of the. The crops that will produce nodules with the with the bacteria. You still get nitrogen a fixation. In the plant material itself. So you keep that in mind as well. So the games contain nitrogen in both their top growth and their roots. A high percentage of the biologic biologically fixed nitrogen is in the top growth. So it is important to manage them to let them grow long enough to produce their full high potential amount of bio mass. So you want them to be as big as they can get without going to see. Because you don't want them necessarily to be perpetuated. The residues of these crops can contribute. Substantial nitrogen. So if for instance you can get seventy five two hundred fifty units of nitrogen in a cover crop in just to give you an idea. When you get a soil analysis they will give you. And in our in your soil analysis if it's a good soil analysis at estimated one hundred in release. That is based on your organic matter that you have in the soil and help fast organic matter breaks down in releases nitrogen. So when you put a cover crop in the ground it's the same principle as that cover crop breaks down. It's releasing that nitrogen that in it. Well. And so you can get up to one hundred fifty pounds one hundred fifty units they call it I presume the unit is pound which. There are some pretty heavy feeding crops with a heavy nitrogen feeding drought anybody know. Corn is a cucumber is what I always look at. You can resume day when tomatoes are pretty they went as well. Vining crops are big nitrogen fixers. They take like one hundred fifty pounds a year. But you don't want to hundred fifty pounds at the beginning of the year right you one hundred fifty pounds through the whole year because it's going to grow all year long. Not just in the first three months or first month. You know and so you want that nitrogen to be a slow release nitrogen. You want ALL hundred fifty pounds of that you want to stretch out over the. This is a really good way to do that is a very effective way to accomplish that hundred fifty pounds a night or gin. Without having to use any off the farm. Resource. Plus you have your in are which is what's happened in the soil already. So you know you can be up or around you know as a business with a slow release two hundred pounds nitrogen in your cell which would be wonderful. Chris in clover. Because pretty big. I mean you know it depends on what you're talking about the one off that sticks way a good average. Yeah. I mean I I'd have to be there and see the situation. To really make a personal decision about what I would do a big or how big of an Aries out in. Four acres. That's a lot of ground to to to do that experiment. I would take a small part. And work out what's going to work. When I say small area I'd probably do like a twenty by twenty. Little section and sample things and try different things in come to the conclusion of what works best for me. And then implement it on a little bigger scale in growing gradually into it because if you. If you were to go and try that on even three acres. That can be a nightmare. That didn't work. I just first of all you're over to Lena Secondly your compaction zone is right next to your roof down. And so I would not recommend it. Yes. I mean you're compacting right in the root zone if you're driving up next your plants and so the most effective tool for you this is a wall. Is A is A. No no. And then again when I said. Yeah. We'll use love until you can knock those things out quick. No time to be done. If you've got that much walk that's too much walk pass in my opinion to you're wasting a lot of space. You need to pack a more plants and let lesson light get in there and manage it early on when they're smaller and dust motes going. And if you want to come in later in the season I would undersell it with some sort of under sewn crop. When they're taller. And then you can you can mitigate later we'd. But I mean you would be walking on those weeds basically clover. Some sort of the A white. There is everywhere. To put Yeah. Yeah. There are the traffic. So your beds make your see beds go is. How is your bed system like help how is the tractor tires on center. By foot. Four foot bed. Yes I have two rows one down each side. You come in with a will and you can clean those walk as you know from one have put one foot walk as. If you're doing that specifically they sell a twelve inch. They're making one foot path every time you go down and it's quick work. It's five o'clock and we didn't get as far as I kind of thought we would. Oh no it's not all the same I don't know the answer to that I should know the answer to that I don't know what would be a stronger I know it's interesting week or sweet potatoes and sweet potatoes grow really good imports. Because they have a very strong ass and they exude. And they will break down nutrients that other plants can break down and get that nutrients that the soil. So I know that plants have. They do have different. Exudate that they'll push out to do that and I don't know which ones would be best for that. No I've never grown Him been any form. Well OK but any form has even that it. Real big. Yeah I mean I don't I don't know. You know like I said. There's a lot going on in agriculture. That's huge it's all or Hilma. Yeah. I mean I know she doing grass is supposed to be a really effective. Crop as well. Sorghum certain grass. No it would well it's going to fix nitrogen in the plant fibers but not. Not like you're going to get from a from a game Family yeah yeah the question. I would you know if you have the option if you have the finances in the means. Opening up the ground now in putting down in any of the nitrogen a fixation. That will go. Winter over. That probably would be my first choice. With something like one of the brassicas or a radish. I would probably do like a dyke on radish or something like that. Just to break it up and that will till it. Actually so-called Till it. There so we think of killing happening with metal. But you can actually tail quite well with cover crops. These Tapper to uncover crops will go deep in the. I mean you can get daikon radishes eighteen long into the ground. This big around they will make a hole in the ground that is a huge water reserve and Jim and I mean the close up of it you know you can tell on him but they will bring all that minimalization from down there. Up into that plant as well. And you get a lot of use out of that as well. And that would be a good place to start. Before I did any of that we need to close here. It's five zero eight. But before I did any of that. Are you the soil test. I wouldn't trust it with my life. I would send it to a private lab. I would send it to Kinsey. That would be my first choice. They're the only people that are using William Albrecht's original numbers and still testing model and so it's about the safest place to go at this time that I know of and there's a few other labs that are. Maybe comparable some of the places that he worked with the that Albrecht work with. But I know that they're using the right lad. Technique. I mean I look for organic cover crop seed. Because that's me. But that's expensive. Sometimes it's. It's really expensive. And so you know it's. If you had to get a seed i would it depends on the sea that you're choosing to live it's peace. And it's an Austrian build tea. And it's a basic. But they do an eight zero P. mix with hairy Vetch. Those are pretty common. So you could potentially get a non organic blend of that for a building. Mix. And I think that you're pretty safe. You know I think you're pretty safe. Not getting it organic given. I mean you're not going to eat it. Yeah I mean you're not going to eat it you're going to tilt in I mean. And they're not. G A mode and they're not too many issues that you're going to run into with that and sell wooden. When Fred over it too much. But if I had the option in the choice I would go with than organic seed and probably. There's a place called Byron seeds. And the East Coast. And they have a fair prices. I can get it through the on the show. In the Amish generally by large quantities and give me a better price than anywhere else I would I would look into Amish communities around human in one communities around you and talk to them about where they're getting their seed. Because they usually go into the community in can get better prices. But if you're going to like the same high Moeen. Or you're going to Johnny's are fed Co in these places they're ridiculous I mean we kill. Yeah. So those. That's with the. What I do I get it from the on the show right now. And it's there. It's expensive but it's there. Let's you know in prayer. Heavenly Father Lord we think you that you've given us ways to to manage our ground to manage. Future crop production with cover cross with your with seeds and grass and and lagoons and just different products that can do a tremendous amount of work for his father that can reclaim lost men are allies they can save minerals from being lost that we can come together and share this information Lord I pray that this would be a blessing to people who are interested in that type of a thing and that it would be useful information to them by their prayers we go our separate ways that you'd be with each one of the lessons that people might be able to labor to hear in this media was brought to you by audio person a Web site dedicated to spreading God's word through free sermon audio. And much more. If you would like to know more about audio person or you would like to listen to more servant leader visit. W W W dot. Audio person. Dot org.

Share

Embed Code

Short URL

http://audiover.se/1Rk0Jbn