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Fresh Produce in January

Edwin Dysinger


You've been enjoying fresh produce from your garden all summer long, why not continue through the winter? You don't have a heated greenhouse? You don't need one! This class will introduce you to the critical factors that must be addressed in order to have a successful winter garden, including: Day­length and timing, temperature, crop and variety selection, and various simple, low cost means of crop protection. We will NOT be discussing heated greenhouse production. 


Edwin Dysinger

Work on development for Bountiful Blessings Farm



  • November 12, 2015
    4:00 PM
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We're going to be talking about fresh and local in January and. If you read the description. I tried to make it clear that we're not talking about growing in a heated who pelt. That's the that's a whole different subject. What we're talking about is. The how to for low technology. Low capital investment. Winter growing. That by the way is our strawberry fields in in April. Where we're protecting the strawberries actually by by running the sprinklers on them. OK so I'm going to be talking about four basic issues for growing on the back side of the garden calendar. We're going to be talking about latitude. Time mean. Crop and variety selection and protection. And basically all I have time to do. Here is just let you know what's significant about each of these things. But I can't. We don't have time to go into details on on any of them really. That's my wife by the way. Harvesting some greens there. In that picture. So this is a picture of our farm. We are located. Almost smack dab in the middle of Tennessee. East West North and South. We're about an hour south west of Nashville. You can see the countryside is gently rolling. Our farm is using the land of the summit most of it's owned by my my folks and. I own a little bit and altogether we have about two hundred acres. And we're actually cultivating about seven of those acres. What. What you see here is probably about just a little over half of what we're cultivating. What you see in that picture basically just. These fields here in these who poses. And then we have some fields back here that we've been growing and. This is the a little bit of an older picture. And we have a three more who pals is over here. So our farm was started in one thousand nine hundred eighty eight by. My brother John and his wife. They started by growing organic strawberries. In two thousand and their goal was to make a living off the land growing strawberries. In two thousand and three they had a bumper crop this was their largest crop and they had actually taken out a mortgage to in order to make the investments that they needed to really. They realize they. They had to make more investment to really make it work and so they they did that and put in an acre and a half. And it was rained out. They. They basically just barely made their cost. So the question is what do we do next. And so in order to survive John went to Elliot Coleman. Books. And he started our first winter C.S.A. So you know the strawberries. You know the season finished and. June. Finishes in June for us. And that's not time enough to get a summer garden in. But it is time enough to get a winter garden in. And still. He the started our first winter status say with twelve subscribers. My family. So my family join join John. In two thousand and six and. We're now in our seventeenth. When tourist season. Growing growing produce through the winter and. So we started. Market gardening. By growing winter produce. And just about. And it was about five years ago. We got into growing summer produce to kind of do things backwards at our place. All right. Latitude. What is latitude. I'm not talking about giving someone space here. The position you know when you look at maps. There are these lines that go. Up. You know across and up and down latitude. Are the ones going across. Now. Latitude has significance to the winter far mean. Sorry. OK. Latitude is important to winter farming because it determines your day. Your day length. Do you understand that. OK. If you've studied geography a little bit in school you remember. It's interesting the. You know the the. The lower your latitude. The shorter your day length is. Year round. In general the higher you go. The shorter your winters are in the longer your summers are. But you know as you as you as a move down then you don't get those really long days you get it's. This is just moderate. Things until you get to the equator and you have a twelve hour day year round. OK so what's what's crucial for winter growing as the day length. Not temperature is the principal deciding factor in what can and cannot be grown through the winter. OK. It's day length. That's the crucial factor. So we're where we are in Tennessee. We're on about the thirty fifth parallel. And if you fall if you were to follow that parallel. Going east. It would it would. It would enter into northern Africa. In Morocco. And it would go through the northern part of Algeria and to Nea's the. And then it heads out across the Mediterranean. Right through the island of Crete and the island of Cyprus. And on into Syria. So we're talking about Mediterranean. Mediterranean climate what kind of things that they grow around the Mediterranean. Olive Garden. Fig the cell. Theoretically. We can do those kinds of things where we are the. The issue is that our temperatures are cold or we do have the. We have the day length. But we have colder temperatures. And so the idea is is that if you can. If you can provide some protection. You can grow similar things. OK now I'm going to put a little Kathy A on this because I'm not totally convinced. And I'm going to be talking about it more later to. I'm not totally convinced that the very simple kind of protection we're doing. Would provide. All you need. Simply because although our. Maybe our our average. You know went to temperatures. How do I say it. Anyway. The issue is that we have these irregular deep freeze is that come to us. And they're the issue I think in being. You know where you wouldn't normally have them but every once in awhile. They come and they would take out. You know what you. What you're trying to protect with just the simple protection I'm talking about. And I'm thinking particularly of trees I haven't tried growing trees. You know all of these are lemons or. You know things like that. I am thinking. It could be possible if you had something. Some sort of a. Passive Solar. You know of. Thing like water barrels of water or something like that that would that would kind of lottery. Those temperatures but I haven't tried yet. So OK timing is critical for winter growing. So we're we're we're talking about timing now that's the next factor. As as the days get shorter. We enter. What. When to growers have have coined as the purse of phone. Period. And that's when day length reaches ten hours or less. And what what we've noticed is that when. When day length reaches ten hours or less your plants. Pretty much stop growing. OK So that's kind of the critical issue there. So now. Not every plant will actually stop growing. Some of the ones that I've seen that are most sensitive are ones like beets and charred. They really seem to when when we get to that ten hours. They've pretty much stopped growing. Kale. Doesn't grow very much either. If it grows it's very slow it's interesting the collards seem to continue growing at a faster rate than kale. Spinach will continue to grow some and let us will continue to grow some. But the issue is that all of them are slowing. Way down. OK so your days to maturity. Are just lengthening by by big amount. So there are. I didn't think to put this in there. You can you can just do a google search on the internet for for. There are charts. Where you can. Where you can find a link. You know for your latitude you feel you can find out what your latitude is and then you can find these charts that will give you daylight for your latitude and. So for us this person's phone. Period is from about November twenty sixth to January sixteenth. So. The. The challenge for the grower. Is to have your crop. At maturity or almost at maturity. As you as you enter in to the person phone. Period. You've got me. And so then you can be harvesting off of them. But you know you're not expecting them to be growing for you during that time. So I'll say here that. You know while we're talking about this the most difficult time period we've we've found the most difficult time period. To have crops ready for market is actually the month of March and April. Why is that because we can. We can. We can bring crops up to maturity. You know for harvest. Through December and January. You know we were harvesting them. Right through. Even into February. But. But to have crops that are ready to harvest in March is very difficult because they had to be started back in that person's phone period actually back towards the beginning of that person phone. Period. And so they're just sitting in the ground basically is a little seedlings you know. Not doing hardly anything and you've got to be babying them. All through that period. As a very long time to have these little plants own thing. So all right. So. For example. With you know. There are a lot of crops that have a normal. Days to maturity of forty to fifty days. And so that's what we're looking at on this chart here. So if you were to plant one of those in early September. With that normal forty to fifty day. Days to maturity. You'll be harvesting towards the end of October. If you plant that same plant in early October. You're going to be looking at harvesting it in January. If you plant that same plant in early November you're going to be looking at harvesting it in late February. OK So you see what's happening here. This is another one where I'm actually put on there the average number of the approximate number of days. So. Planting it in early September and harvest the unit in the end of October. Is sixty days so we've the days to maturity has as length and you know. Ten or ten or twenty days. By even in September. So in. It's in August that the. The days to maturity. Towards the end of August that it starts to go up. And so early September it's already a few more days. So if you plant it in early October. We're looking at about ninety days to maturity. If you plant it in early November we're looking at about one hundred twenty days. To maturity and what I want you to notice here it's not a. This is not a normal bell curve you know we're we're used to seeing these bell curves that are symmetrical. This is not symmetrical. The days to maturity is climbing very steeply. During the month of September. From. Actually from the. It starts climbing. The end of August and it climbs very steeply during the month of September. And then in October it starts to taper off and by the time we get to to November. It's kind of plateaued. November. You know as the as you enter that Persephone period it plateaus and. And then in in January it starts. Gradually coming down it comes down. It doesn't come down as steep as it went up. So just climb very steeply in September and then it goes down. Kind of gradually on the other side. So you see both. If you're planting an early November or December you have one hundred twenty days each but in January. One hundred five February it's ninety. March is sixty. So you're going down. Less steeply Yes. You can. I'm just I'm I'm I'm specifically talking about very low technology low cost. Ways that we can do it you can. You can add lights you can add he to you can add lots of things and you'll improve your result. But you know where we're looking at doing something very cheap and simple. Which is what we can afford. Yeah. We'll be talking about covers and. In just a minute. OK so. Crop variety and selection. So obviously growing. This way without heat we're not doing tomatoes are cucumber zur green beans. That clear and. What if you. If you think about the winter season versus the summer season. A key a key thing. A key difference is that during the winter. Most of your crops are going to be. Leaves and Root. OK And. During the summer. The bulk of your your summer crops are fruit. You know speaking of fruits in the in a technical sense. Considering you know green beans fruits it's the. Fruiting part of the plant that you're eating. Felt. What. What do we actually grow. I am. The the slide has been a problem for me. But I am. I'll try to read it. And there are. When I when I started growing in the winter I was introduced to all kinds of things I'd never heard of before. There is there is a much wider variety of leaves than roots. Then I thought possible. Selves. So we grow all different kinds of lettuce. You know there's there's romaine lettuce there's leaf lettuce. There's many had there is butter had There's Oakleaf. There's there's just all different kinds of lettuce and and. Each of those different kinds tends to have a red and a green and. Sometimes a bronze in between and. And I like drawing all the different kinds so that we can. You know that makes salads really interesting to have all these different colors and leaf textures and shapes. And chicory. Do you know what chicory is. That's that's really a family kind of like let us as a family. Chicory are dandelion is a chicory. OK. But then there's another very common chicory that most people. You know it but you don't know it. And that's called ridiculous. You know when you buy a salad mix. And it has these little pieces of purple in it. That's the ridicule and the. What's characteristic about about the chicory is as the. They have a bitter flavor. They're good for seasoning a salad they give a salad more more body in the flavor. But not everyone's. They're not everyone's favorite on their own. At least American pallets aren't used to them. Europeans love them. But there are there are some chick or ease like like escarole is very good and white bean soup. For example and. There are different things like that. Then there are other salad greens like Matias or Rula. Crest. I said Persian crest here but there's you know regular watercress too and Clay Tonia or miners lettuce and different name for it when you Tina and several others. You'll know what Matias corn flour corn salad. You know that it's actually an American weed. That went to Europe and got upscaled. And in France particularly. It's a really hot green they need a lot of it actually. And it's a very nice when it has a very you know it's not like the chicory. It has a very mild kind of a rich. Flavor. Own. I'd like it very much. In fact that first that very first picture. You saw a hand with a little green plant in it. That was washed. And then miners lettuce. That's also an American weed that went to Europe and kind of. Got upgraded. Yeah. And then there's a whole bunch of Asian greens. All different kinds of Asian greens. You know the mustard greens there's just all different kinds of mustard greens and colors and leaf textures and shapes and from yellow to green to red and. And then there's the things like bok choy and tots so a and Tokyo because A you can us of Oit's Mizuno and met Buena and. There's just all different kinds of a whole family of grains there and those are. A lot of those can be grown on their own or. Grown in as as baby greens and mixes. And then they're very nice that way. And there's Chinese cabbage of course too by the way. We were looking at a study that was looking at nutrient values of different vegetables and Chinese cabbage actually came out as as number two. It's very high and in just the study was looking at I think about sixteen different items that you know. You could rate. Vegetables on. In a great a Chinese cabbage way up there. I had no idea. And then there are. Then there's the brassica family. That that includes cabbage brussel sprouts kale collards broccoli cauliflower Cole Robbie. All of of that founded you'll know what call Robbie is OK as a big round stem. It's not a root. It's a stem. It's really nice. It's a little bit like Hickam a for for Lexie knows if you're familiar with the. Oh. How case that's what I'm not seeing it very well. OK. All right and then there are the. There are the root things like beets and turnips. Rutabagas all there are all different kinds of radishes. And then we grow. Carrots. Carrots and more carrots. We love carrots and. What what is what is really nice about winter carrots. Is that they are the sweetest carrots you'll find there. The. There is something about the cold. That sweetens them up and then brings out the sugars in them. And you have never had a carrot until you've had a winter carrot. And what we found. You might want to take note of this is that we have a window of about ten days. In in late August. I'm talking about like the last the last week or. You know into the into the third week. Through the end of August. Is a window that we've found to be right for seeding carrots for us and. When we seed carrots in that. In that window. From about the second week in November. Through March. We are harvesting those carrots out of our field. There are almost mature. On the second in the second week of November. And then we're harvesting them fresh out of our field all winter long. If we get them in before that they tend to get too big and if we get them in after that they don't quite get big enough. Now I will say that. This year. I'm doing an experiment last year. I tried growing some in a in a greenhouse in a in a who pound and they did well but they grew a lot faster then out in the field. And so I'm trying it again this year and I actually started them one month late. And so we're going to see how that works. But I'm really pleased with how they're growing. So far. Yes. The window. It's it's the last right at the end of of about the last ten days of August that something like that you know. Pardon. You know I we have found the Bolero works very good for us as a storage carrot and it works good. You know. Storing it in the ground and. You know as we harvest it. You might want to experiment with different ones. The Bolero is not the variety the Eliot Coleman. Up in Maine. You know that's not his favorite he says. I think it's not pully is the one he likes. So I think it does make some difference where you are which which variety might be best for you you know. We don't put a hoop else over them. We we have. We use a floating row cover over them too and. Well. Would just usually keep the a single floating row cover layer over them all winter long. But when it's getting really cold. Will will put a second one on otherwise. They tend to get frozen shoulders and. The frozen shoulders or are softer there. They're just not so nice we would like to cut them off. If you're going to eat them. Floating row cover your I'm going to talk more about that. Yes. If it's going to be probably from the mid teens or less. Yes. That's a good question. You know we we we like to keep the WHO palace for let us for chicory. For for baby greens for. I didn't I didn't get in this last group here. For Swiss chard. We have grown Swiss chard outside. Also the. It's nicer inside. Yes. Baby greens are they can be anything just about. They could be anything from the brassica family. And anything from the Asian Green family and number of these European greens. Even beat greens. Base. The idea is that your your your seeding these. These seeds. Very close together. And you let them grow to about this tall. And then you cut them. And so they're really good at salad or. Are some of the like the brassicas and Asian greens some of those we do what we call a brazing mix. That you just you know lightly. Braise you know. Miscellaneous like spinach. Swiss chard celery. Celeriac fennel artichoke. Scallions Leaks herbs. Cetera. We. These are all things that we have grown through the winter. Now. I want to be clear on not. Not all of these will actually grow all the way through the winter. For example. Broccoli and cauliflower. The. The plants are hardy but the the heads that you're wanting to harvest are not hardy. And so we try to do those four for November. Maybe even the early part of the summer we can keep them protected but to try to take them all the way through the winter is a challenge. I've never tried to do that actually if if the. If they get frozen. You've lost them basically. So what I mean what we did one time where we accidentally. We thought we had a a hole. You know two hundred forty foot roll of broccoli we thought we had it covered. And I mean we did have it covered but we had forgotten to put the sandbags on it. And the cover blew off in the night and the temperature dropped. And so we came out in the morning to frozen broccoli. And so we just we cut it all immediately and put it in the freezer and gave it to our customers frozen. They got frozen broccoli that year. So. Yeah. Most of these other things you can actually artichokes are very finicky. And you know I've I've put it there but we have not had good success with them. When I say we've not had good success that it's like on on a good year we might get fifty percent of our artichokes all the way through. So we've actually stopped trying to grow them. You know on a free market at least. It's not really worth it for us. These are these are the. The globe are to chokes Yeah. Now Jerusalem artichokes are are a totally different thing and they're Yeah it's a route. And those are the. They are a very good winter crop. We have some of those the. We harvested I think last February. Was in it. Yeah. We dug them up in February and. That was great. Drusilla Marta chokes do not need to be covered. The other ones. Like I said they're very tender and. Yeah they need they need. Lot of protection. Yeah. Yeah you don't want to plant them where you might not want them permanently. You know it tastes exactly like artichoke. They're. The the roots. The roots look a little bit like ginger root and. And they have a Drusilla Martha job. April I'd say the fin is the ground thaws. We actually did ours in. It was later. I think it was in Maine. That we got them in there. They're very forgiving. I would recommend trying to get the man on the early side. But you know we we didn't. And it worked. OK. Going Going to the the last part protection. The last. So we were looking at Latitude. Time means variety selection. And then protection. So before we get further in protection I want to clarify what we're talking about because there are there are a lot of names that are kind of thrown around out there who passed high tunnel cold frames. High hoops. Low hoops. And greenhouse. The the difference between all of these things that I've said and it ended a greenhouse. Is that the greenhouse. Has a heat source. It has and internal source of heat that's heating it. Whereas these other things are just protective structures that have no heat source inside them. OK. That clear. Saw on our farm we have one greenhouse that we just use in the spring to to help get our tomatoes. Out. So that we can have early tomatoes. But we don't we don't use it for actually growing in the winter produce that we're growing. Yes. Yes yes. So when we're talking about protection we're we're talking about two basic materials one is plastic. And the other is floating row covers the plastic we use is is greenhouse plastic it's six millimeter. Thick. And it usually comes with a four year guarantee and. It doesn't necessarily have to have what I call an anti Condit's and film. We we like to buy. Plastic that has. If you if you buy. If you try to just use any plastic. Chances are it's not going to hold up very long. It'll break down quickly. It might not let all the you've a U.V. rays through that. That you want and need. I just don't recommend trying to use some kind of plastic. That's not a greenhouse plastic. The anti condensate a film. Allows the. The condensation that will. That will collect on the on the underside of your plastic. You'll just get all these little water droplets in there. And they actually reduce the light. That can come into your your greenhouse the anti condensate film prevents those drops from beating it makes them disperse on the plastic and just kind of run off and. And that allows more light in. And so we prefer to use that kind of greenhouse film. I'm not sure. I mean if you don't if you already have plastic and it doesn't have that I wouldn't worry about it. You're going to have to replace your plastic and three or four Amien in four or five years. And just you know. Get the get it later. OK. The floating row cover I'm going to have some pictures of floating row cover. Coming up but basically it's a it's a lightweight. Spun bonded fabric it's not it's not a woven fabric and. If you're you know if you've ever use these dryer sheets. In your dryer. That's what it is. Just imagine out on a large scale. Big big sheets or rolls of it. Yes. No lows will not carry those things. There is a. Well. The. There is a place online called Farm tech or grow tech it's two different names for the same company. You can. You can buy. Greenhouse plastic through them. I think they do floating recover to another place the farm tech or grow tech. That's two different. You know if you go to either one you know you'll end up basically on the same website. Another place that we prefer to get from is Deerfield supplies. There are a Mennonite of and there are a bunch of catalogs of theirs. Up in the. In the in the exhibit area. They they didn't they're not online because they are there Mennonites. But they have. They tend to have cheaper prices than other places. There in southern Kentucky. Just north of Clarksville Tennessee. There are a good place for a lot of different things. In addition to that my nephew. Jonathan. He is selling the floating row cover. If you're interested you can talk to him. Here. Yes. Yes. Yeah that's it is. That's you know that's what we're talking about. No he's not selling plastic. He might start. He's starting to Seldon quite a few different things. But I'm not aware that he's telling plastic right now. All right. So talking about protection. You're you're acquainted with the concept of climate zones. The U.S.D.A. has divided the country into climate zones and of. So we are. We live right here in climate zones. Seven. Basically one layer of protection that that's one layer of either plastic or floating row cover. Will will move you about one and a half climate zones south. OK. So if you put two layers on. You're down in southern Florida you can go on vacation. Crawl under your covers there and you know. That would that would bring you down into the own eight. Kind of on the edge of seven and eight. You know. Yeah. I mean I said. That will. Right I'm going to I'm going to talk I'm going to talk about how we do the covers in just a minute. So yeah you probably will not be able to. I mean. It is going to be different for you. They're done for us in Tennessee. But you can still do it. I mean you're still not and should go back. You know Eliot Coleman is heathens own five. And on the coast of Maine so you know he's growing through the winters the you could you would be pretty similar to him. So. We like. Elliot Coleman's minimalist style. And what he recommends is using a single layer of plastic. You don't like in a who POW and then using floating row cover inside the WHO pelf. And so that's. We do a lot of that but I will say that we. We grow. A lot of our stuff outside. I mean we grow almost all of our brassicas outside. And we've done as much as half an acre of brassicas outside under floating row covers only. We do all our carrots outside. And we do beats outside. Yes. I thought I had that in here somewhere. No that's the plastic. OK the. The row covers. We use our our one ounce that's a medium weight. They call it one ounce. What that means is one ounce per square yard. And it. It allows about seventy five percent light penetration. Now I'll just tell you some some name. Some brand names of different road covers. There's there's Agra Bon. The name slipping me on the. There's another common one that's used. Anyways what we use of called Grow guard the factory is in Alabama and. And that's what Jonathan is selling it's grow guard. So it's one out seventy five percent light penetration you can get all different weights you can. You can get. You can also use floating row cover. Very lightweight floating row cover in the summer. To to protect your plants from in sex. Or intense sun. Yeah. You know. So that's that's a common. That's a common organic grower practice for. Yes. You know. We have. We have tried. We have tried. Lumber pipes. Earth. You know you can just he Perth on the edges. We've tried. Probably anything you can think about to hold down our floating row covers. Sandbags are the best thing by far. I mean they're just so much easier to manage in use. If you're going to do it on any scale light. I wouldn't recommend anything else. Yeah you can you can do that but it. You know if you if you're you know if you have lots. You need to have a sandbag the that has about fifteen pounds of sand in it. And so if you have. If you. If you have something lighter than that. The wind will. I mean even even that fifteen pounds when the wind gets over thirty miles an hour. You start we start having trouble. It's. I'm going to show you some pictures that are you know. So just. This is this is something very interesting that L.A. It tells about in his book. When to harvest. Manual and. So he's talking about under a double layer. This means. You know a single layer of plastic. And then a floating row cover. OK so the outside temperature is twenty five. Under the floating row cover it. It's thirty one to thirty two. This is this is a nighttime. Temperature. You have to understand that in the WHO palace and under the floating row covers. During the daytime the temperatures are going to go way up. But at nighttime under a single layer of plastic. You're you're only. Maybe two or three degrees warmer than outside. Your protected from the wind which is very significant. Don't minimize things. Even you know without any floating row cover things and who pals growth so much nicer than outside. That's just the facts. And it's. It's really worth it to have that covering if you can do it but the floating row cover adds a little more degrees of protection so you have about six or seven degrees of protection with the two layers. At that kind of a high temperature. At fifteen degrees. It's twenty seven or twenty eight. Under the floating row cover. That's giving you twelve or thirteen degrees of protection at zero degrees. It's twenty five under the floating row cover you're getting twenty five degrees of protection you notice this. Yeah. So if it's not it's not just that you. You only have X. number of degrees of protection under the cover. As as the temperatures get lower the amount of protection increases. But I want you to notice also that your plants are freezing under they're OK. That's not a problem because we're growing plants that are that are cold tolerant. OK. And so you can. You can come out in the morning and find all your crops are just frozen. Looks like you lost them. And it's very disheartening. Until about eleven o'clock in the morning you go back and look at him and everything's fine and perked up and the disconcerting thing is if it's on a harvest day. Because you cannot harvest frozen vegetables. Unless like you. Like I said we harvested that broccoli and we put it straight in the freezer. But if you if you harvest it and let it fall. It's no good sell. There are a few things that you can harvest. Seems that scallions For example you can harvest them frozen. And they don't seem to be bothered. Just a few things. As a general rule you don't want to harvest them frozen. That's a very good clue of the very good question and. Yes I would. I would definitely try to do that as much as you can not just for the light that is an important part of it. But but also because your plants need airflow. Now. What's significant is that you do not want air flow when it's cold. And that's part of the reason for having the floating row cover over them that's part of what it does is the reduces and minimizes that airflow. But what you want it swarm. Your plants need airflow and and you'll. We've we've noticed that if we leave our floating row covers on during the day time we start getting all kinds of disease problems. So you want to take them off as much as you can during the day. And then put them on at night. We we we talk about tucking our plants in for the night. Now. I just do it at dusk. You know as the light leaves the hoop elf try to put it on because the earlier. I mean you don't want it to get you want to try to capture the heat that has that you've gained during the day. You want to capture that under the row cover. For the night. If you can pardon. Know if it's a. If it's a cold but sunny day I'd go ahead and take it off. Now. I mean. That depends if it's a it's if it's a very very cold. Like like in the teens or less you might want to leave it on even on a on a sunny day. And what. Another thing is that. You know even even outside where we're growing with a single row cover. Like our brassicas. Well it will put a second row cover on when it's going to be very cold. And I've even done a third row cover like for my broccoli. To. Because I didn't want to lose it. And that works but. But you always want to take that second and third row cover off during the daytime. You can leave one floating row cover on all the time I've done that a lot. And it that's fine but. But the second or third floating row cover. If you leave those on all the time. You're actually going to have colder conditions. Underneath. And so they need to come off during the day. And then go back on at night. Only when it's needed at night. Just a few things about. Who passes. We prefer the Gothic shape. You know the. The the shape here. Than the in the rounded shape. It's so much nicer to have straight sides. And then. It showed little shed snow. A lot easier. We like to do roll up sides with a with a bit of a. A wind. Break there. And it also keeps small animals from from entering the WHO pelf. Rather than taking your rolled up sides all the way down to the ground. So I think that's that's a significant thing. You don't want to crowd your who poses too close together just keep in mind. Shadow. You know because the WHO pals will cast a shadow. We like to. You can you can run your who palaces. North and south or east and west. But we we prefer running our Who passes. North and South. Because we like. We prefer to have beds running north and south. And the reason for that is that as. As the sun comes up and goes across the sky. You get light on both sides of your bed. If your beds are running. East and West. You have light on the south side in the north side doesn't get light and we've noticed the beds that that run that way. We have more frost damage on the north side. So I think it's you know you can we have we do actually have who palaces that run both ways but we run all over beds. North and South. It's just nicer to run them. The whole length of the who posts rather than across the south. We do use movable who passes. And there are times that I'm this going to go quick here. If you if you're interested in movable hoop houses you can talk to me or my brother. We try to lot of different designs and we have ideas on that. That's talking about the different designs. These are these are floating row covers in the field. So you can. You can use quick routes are are you familiar with the concept of quickly. If you go down to your hardware store you can get electric conduit. In ten foot length. You can get gray plastic P.V.C.. Or you can get metal. E.M.T.. Conduit. You can use either one for these hoops. Do not use. White P.V.C. pipe. Because it will break down. The U.V. rays will break it down but the grey. P.V.C. is U.V. resistant. If you buy the metal. The metal pipe. You have to get a bender. To bend them and Johnnies sells Bender's. And they have instructions on how to do that. So these these hoops will. Will cover. To thirty inch beds we like to grow in thirty inch beds and we put a one foot walkway in between. That seems very tight. Bit. You get used to it after a while. So we have a. We have two beds in here with a one foot walkway and the hoop is spanning six feet. OK. And. And if you saw if you get a. The idea is that you put your hoop. Down into the ground. About roughly a foot on each side. OK You know you drive it into the ground. And. And so you have about eight feet of hoop on top of the ground. So if you buy a floating row cover that's ten feet wide. That'll give you the one foot on each side so you have eight feet of floating row cover covering the hoop. And then one foot on each side. For the for your sandbag anchors or whatever you're going to use as an anchor. So you can see these are sandbags here. At something to think about when you're getting sandbags. Make sure that they're U.V. resistant. You know that we bought a bunch of sandbags where the stitching was not U.V. resistant. That was real disappointing. So you need to make sure that. You know now I've had somebody tell me they tried using melted jugs. That doesn't work and and. You know like Wal-Mart shopping bag that's not going to work. You know they're going to be got done before your season's out. And you know you just don't. It's not worth messing around with things like Down. Another. Another thing if you're going to do these Kweku on a large scale. Like we're doing here. We found that we could take a a thirty foot wide. Piece of floating row cover and we could cover for such of hoops with it. OK. And that made. Covering and uncovering a lot easier. I'll just tell you you can. You can grow a lot of stuff under a quick hoop. And it's a very cheap. It's the cheapest entry level. To went to growing. It's about one tenth of the cost of a greenhouse. But it is very labor intensive. It's a lot of work but. You can reduce that labor by covering for hoops for such of hoops with one cover what what we found is that we did need to run sandbags. Down the center of it because the wind. Would you know if we just tried to take it straight across all four sets. The wind would get underneath too much. Sell what we do as well will put a sandbag on every single hoop. OK. You have a sandbag on every single hoop. And then down the center I just ran a sandbag every other hoop. That wasn't so important but I just needed to hold it down. Yes. ARE THEY HAVE THAT ONE FOOT walkway between them also are. Oh it's. It's about five feet. You know and you don't want to end up getting your hoops more than six feet apart. Because then your than your arches. Is not as steep. And we've had snow collapse them. Especially the plastic hoops. So if you're if you're interested in doing that hoop. I'd encourage you to talk to me because there are a number of little details I can't you know I don't have time to say but a little touches the make it a lot easier and more effective. I've you know normally you'd want to pull the road cover off to harvest. But on cold windy days you don't want to do that and I've called down the WHO path. You know harvesting and dragging a. A box behind me to put stuff in. What one person can do it I have done it by myself but it. It takes longer than twice is. I mean. Second person can make it less than half the time. It's worth it to people working on it. On these quick roups. I don't know you know Eliot Coleman uses them. And he gets a lot of snow. Like I said we we had them. Spaced a little further than six feet apart. And we had some collapse. So. And that without was with like maybe an inch and a half of what snow. So in summary. We can grow our own fresh local produce through the winter. The basic Tuck. Technology is is very simple and low cost. When Adam and Eve sinned. They saw that that they were naked. And then God clothed them with a covering of skin taken from a lamb that represented his righteousness. That covering enabled them to grow in the winter of sin that settled on the earth. I really like this verse in Isaiah sixty one I will greatly rejoice in the Lord my soul shall exult for he has closed me with garments of right of self a sions. He has covered me with the robe of righteousness. For is the earth brings forth it sprouts. And as a garden causes. What is so in in it. To sprout up. So the Lord God will cause right just missed and prays to sprout up before all the nations. This is one way. You know. This is one way we can. We can reclaim the waste places. You know the way season. We have. We have seasons that are waste also and. You know instead of using technology to preserve food for the winter. We can. We can actually use technology to grow food so we can have fresh food and. I'll tell you we we have. We have reduced our candies. By by having fresh food we we basically grow. Canned tomatoes an apple sauce. Don't do hardly any other canning. Because we have all this fresh stuff. This media was brought to you by audio person. A website dedicated to spreading God's word through free sermon audio. And much more. If you would like to know more about audio verse for you would like to listen to more sermon sleeve visit. W W W dot. Audio verse. Dot org.


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