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The Ideal Soil: Environmental Influences

Whitmar McConnell
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Whitmar McConnell

Owns and operates Golden Moment Farm in Means, KY


  • November 13, 2015
    9:30 AM
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So we're going to start looking at the ideal still in relation to biology. When we get to this level. If we've done everything right. We've got all the conditions. Right. This is the final key to optimum growth and fruitfulness. Is getting this biology I call it the unseen agencies. We don't see them in action. But they're doing all kinds of things that might make life more abundant. But they can't work. They cannot work if they're not given the conditions to to do their jobs. But once they start doing them all these things. You know people ask me questions about. What caught what should I do to treat this disease or what do with these weeds or why is this having of the I don't spend a lot of time on that. On the effects. In the work that I do in the study that I do I spend my time on the causes. Because if you address the causes most of the effects that you're going to expend tons of resources on will go away. And so too many people spend their time on figuring out how to suppress the energy that the effects. Rather than figuring out why the effects even there. And how do I limit in. So we're going to look at the different aspects of a still food whether this is just a and. Listen Like I said before with the enter net you have access to information in an unprecedented way. Of course it's going to predict how you benefit from that is going to be determined by what you invest your time in your attention in. There's all kinds of things on there their total distractions and diversions and destructive. But it's unprecedented in history the access to information that people have. I tell my kids they. They have all their smart devices now and everything in. And that their access to their fingertips and of course and patients usually comes with that. You know if you can't have it just you know a person. Personal text and. If you don't respond to a man in fifteen seconds. They're texting back to get my text. You know it's brought impatience with it as well. But the truth is that it's unprecedented in history. The knowledge that you. That we have access to individually. It's not it's not limited by the access to to books or other parts of the world or and in the in the information that could come from that we you can reach the whole world now and the knowledge this fair the question is what Knology pursuing and what understanding do you want to have. So let's just look at the different aspects of this. And we'll see what they do Forth like I mentioned in one of the other classes. There's all kinds of interventions coming in now the soil falling apart is blowing away it's washing away. The biology is dead and so we've got all kinds of manmade interventions to try to compensate for that. That dysfunction in everything. But all of that is done and is done in a much better way than any intervention that man could come up with to to compensate for it. So the first route we were going to kind of start from the foundation. Back to biological foundation and work our way on up. First say we're going to look at is bacteria. Bacteria tend to proliferate in a more Aukland environment. And so if you were to go into the. The soil but the biologist in the biological school of thought. Again. Come from a premise of evolution. Largely. And you need to understand that because a lot of guilt because biology is natural. They think well this is a reasonable thing to think is the solution. But conventional wisdom comes from a foundation of evolution. And so they'll say that life of succession will and. But what you'll see is that it's that succession is one of deterioration. Not one of evolution or advancement if you want to put it that way. And so. And more productive. Ecological systems like grasslands and things like that. You'll have a hire out the ph will be higher in the BE more prolific higher proliferation of bacteria. If you were to go into a farce. First you would go into a deciduous farce and then it would go it would. It would succeed on as they would call it into a cup. A canary first farce. You could switch to a more acidic environment and a more fungal dominated environment. Will you don't want either extreme. You want to balance again it comes back to the balance again. And so in a in a Soyuz is properly constructed the PH falls exactly where it balances. The function of bacteria and fungi in the school so that you get the benefit of both of them without the extreme. Influence of either one. And so there are different types of bacteria. There are the nitrogen fixers. There are basically three kinds of nitrogen fixers and again as I've mentioned multiple times this should be objective has a grower. To get this nitrogen system. This system to work for you you should be spending your money on nitrogen. There's the rise Obion bacteria. There and there symbiotic. They base so say with the roots of live human is plant their trees. And they fixed nitrogen in relationship in it's symbiotic because the plant gives it focused and data gives it. Energy compound. And then in exchange the rise of being bacteria produce fixes nitrogen and gives it back to the plant. As OTOH back there is a type of free living. There's more than just to go back there with this type of free living. Bacteria in the soil. And they fix nitrogen. Independent of any A So any symbiotic relationship with plants. You ever wonder how stuff stays green and nobody puts a nitrogen on. It's because the systems are working. They may not be working at their optimum levels because they're limited by the dysfunction of the soil or construction of the soil. But they're functioning. And one of the interesting things about this when well let me tell you the other one to the other one is Diana bacteria and. That's blue green algae they call it algae but it's actually a bacteria. And it also fixes nitrogen. It's cyano it could be because of the it. It actually produces B. twelve to it's blue green. Because it. The Cobalt that it. That and it's in its makeup because they have the blue blue green color in there. But with all of these. And there is some ability to fix energy. That's where this kind of a transition kind of between bacteria. And what are called algae. But it has done the capacity to actually fix energy itself. Photosynthesize is the term. Then there's a group. But there's a whole host of these. And they're there. They can be prolific in the soil. So like I said again there's no reason why you can't fix your own nitrogen and nitrogen is the biggest problem because it's them up at the high. The nutrient and greatest need. In the plant for the organic grower. Your options are either expensive or risky. And for the conventional grower it's both the same. Expensive and risky risky for different reasons. Risky because they're using highly saw a bull high we saw evil. Materials and expensive. Not only because of the cost of the material. But the cost of producing that material. Tremendous amount of energy go into producing commercial nitrogen. Energy that could be used in other ways that are more productive. The second group of the night your fires. There are robotic. And they actually the ones that convert night you didn't. Into usable forms into and they break it out of the. The organic matter. And into ammonia. And then from there they break it down to nitrite into nitrate a million nitrate forms are both water used by the plant. And so they're essential if you have or Danica matter in your soil and you don't have any of these nitrifying bacteria. You're not going to get it it's just going to be sitting there in the organic matter if they're the ones that have to release it. Well. I take they do partially but. See on the bottom that these are the primary decomposers But then there's denied your fires there anaerobic. And this is why it's critical your soil be constructed correctly. Because you don't want these functioning. You don't want these deny to fire spunk chinning because you don't want your soil anaerobic. Because what they're going to do is are going to take the nitrogen that was was released and made available to the plant. And they're going to turn it back into nitrogen gas and volatilize it back into the air or nitric oxide either one. And it will go back to the air and then it's. It's no longer available for use for growth. And then a fourth one here is the decomposers I put acting on my C.D.'s here this is another one of those groups that are not quite sure how to classify but it behaves more like bacteria than it does like fungi there decomposers but they also produce antibiotics. Have any of you heard of the antibiotic streptomycin earth or my certain. The others. I'm trying to think of here. Man didn't make those up folks. The at these acted on my cds are the ones that produce all as antibiotics and man discovered that. And then they started. Synthesizing it. But it's when these active my C.D.'s are producing these anabolic state it produces a beneficial protective effect to the plant. It keeps in balance. The organisms in a soil. You know that earthy smell you get when you dig still and urged just rained or something like that you smell it or the smell that struck the mighty is active an active my C.D.'s producing that smell. That's the this giving it that smells of the soil. I put a picture up here. Of the bacteria This is a colored They gave color to it. These are not the actual colors but actually some bacteria the bacteria do have different colors. And I don't recall exactly I forgot the to add that and here. You can tell what kind of bacteria is by the color. They are clear bacteria their purple bacteria their is their green bacteria. And you can tell what they what job they do by there. And we'll talk about how you get rid of pathogenic behaving bacteria. A little bit later. I'd include the pathogens in here. Because most of the pathogens are just some of these misbehaving. Or an O.B. Tave OK the next group is fungi. And again they prefer an acid soil. As opposed to in order for them to protect it dominate. They prefer an acid soil as opposed to the bacteria for preferring of alkaline soil and the different groups of funds this is this picture here is wheat grass growing and it's Can't see a real well up in there but you can see all the that this thread. Coming up around those roots. That's all the microsoft. Fungi there. Filaments their Heifetz coming up all around and infecting those roots. And they're not infecting it you know we think of the term in fact. We're thinking of disease. There infecting the the root of the plant in a STEM biopic way. Again. In exchange for exudate for energy compounds they're going to bring nutrients to the plant. And this is a huge a huge thing for growers because the my carousal fungi are this well well there's different types of fungi bit of. This is particular Mike Russell fungi here. Of Bam fungi as I have up there. They can expand the route. The reach of the roots of the plant. One hundred fold. They can go into the into the soil and expand their reach. I work with fruit growers. I have a lot of fruit growers that I work with. And they want to just fertilize the tree line. They don't want to fertilize out in between the trees because they were. They've been told that well but the roots don't go out beyond the tree line. But that's not true. And they don't bother to take into consideration at the fungi. Go way beyond the tree line. And so they don't want to mow grass and so they don't want to have to put the fertilizer they don't want to pay for the fertilizer no one has to put it out in the middle. And everything and I say but putting that you want that whole area to be healthy one because it's going to discourage adverse influences in the environment. But it's also going to expand the access that your your plant how your tree has to nourishment. But there's a lot of. There's a lot of misinformation and a lot of confusion out there about what reality actually is. By proper So construction. And I don't know if you've been in all the classes but when you get the chemistry right you're going to see this recurring theme. The right character to the soil I'll put that term on it. The right character to the sort of the soil. Proper chemistry. Produces proper porosity and capillarity. And when you have those conditions you have proper this so can breathe in other words just air exchange. And so anaerobic conditions are just a lack of air oxygen and so you can bag be caused by poor capillarity. You have water and porosity where you have water. Saturating the Force Base and excluding air or compaction can do the same thing. And exclude the air. It comes back to proper So construction. OK To the different types of finds ice after a fight. Are as just a big word for decomposers. They they actually decompose organic material. Now the bacteria with that in say the bacteria really go after the fresh material. The high nitrogen material they're going to bring breaking down that material. The fungi go after the harder to digest stuff. The. The cellulose in the leg Nin in the pectin. And the the fibrous by in the fact the lifted the. At that are harder to decompose the fungi are the ones that break those down. As the bacteria goes after the simpler. The simpler compounds the sugars in a simpler energy compounds. The second group is a mutual this. These are these are fungi that have a symbiotic relationship a mutual benefit there's a mutual relationship between them in the plant in the soil. And you have the VAM fungi that stands for of a sexual or. Our bus killer. Mike arrival. Fungi. You don't need to worry about remembering that into your to that point you really want to know that. But just. Almost all plants have a beneficial relationship. If they have this relationship with this fam fungi. Because it. Like I said extend the reach of the plan. Into a much much more pervasive. Area of the soil. You have acted so Mike arrival. It. Ecto Mike arrival fungi. And these are these are more on trees it's endo and act. It does. The vampire and oh. They in fact the route. They get into the root. Ecto just creates a coating a covering around the root it doesn't actually go into the enter into the root. And that's predominant you see act. Mike Russell fungi predominantly with trees. Particularly conifer coniferous trees. They have that type of relationship. Erica fungi if you grow blueberries anybody grow blueberries in the room. Eyrecourt fungi. Is the symbiotic fungi the blueberries. That the the air acacias plant. Blueberries is Alieu is rhododendron. And for those of you who weren't in here. And didn't hear it. To best blueberries or is Alieu is eroded Dandridge do not grow on acid soil. You're told that all the time in fact they did research of rhododendrons. Which supposedly requires an acidic soil to grow. And we can't get in all the reasoning here but they raise the PH to eight point four. Which is incredibly high. But they supplied adequate magnesium and it's a magnesium file they all are. And they need to be sure they can get magnesium and they grew the best looking rather than you do you ever saw in your life that a PH eight point four. They gave them the nourishment that they needed. And so if somebody tells you you have to use an ass its will to grow these things. They tolerate it but it's not going to get the best. Plant you're not going to get the best fruit. The high ceiling blueberries don't come from acid. And the high ceiling high squalid quality blueberries don't come from assets will. Production. They come from balance will production. I learned that. Well. I kept being told I grew blueberries and so I kept being told. Yeah that have to have the acid soil and. I kept asking the question why. Never to stop asking the question why. Even about everything I'm staring up here. Why you ask why when you leave here you say. Was he did he tell. Was he correct. If you don't go out of here and you just accept what I believe. You're making a mistake. You really need to investigate it. I mean it may all sound reasonable to you but you really need to investigate it and understand why. But I would always have to question why. And I was just because you have to if you ever got an answer like that. You just have to my kids give me that answer well why did you say that or why do you do that because that's not an answer and. I work with the blueberry girls Association in Kentucky now because I happen to meet the blueberry nursery grown or the blueberry nursery in Kentucky. And he's a Christian. And we're talking and I started explaining it from a biblical standpoint. First from a scientific standpoint and from a biblical standpoint and he just stopped and he said you know I knew it had to be that way. Somewhere in my. Inside I knew it had to be that way. But I didn't know how it was. And so now he sends all the blueberry growers in Kentucky. He referred say they will call me. I can tell you there's blueberry grows can be some of the most. When you tell them to do different way they. They could be more terrified in people you've ever seen. Afraid of. But I did a he asked me Well could you do a just do a printout of paper chilling. Why that would be different. And so I did I just to feel the simple reason why they say. Calcium will. Is detrimental to blueberries now it's not calcium is Deval is involved and sell the vision. So if you want bigger blueberries. You better have good amounts of calcium. Calcium is also important for cell wall construction if you want. Firm Various that are going to hold up. Unique out to you and so when they deprive the plan of the calcium you don't get that you double the size of the blueberry how much an increase and yields you get you double least double Do you. And so and you keep more your harvest there's a lot of. There's a lot of things about it that we don't we can't take the time to do it but they say it has to have monium nitrogen and that's why you have to keep it acidic because I'm monium nitrogen. The bacteria the night you fires that converted to nitrate nitrogen. Or suppressed in an active environment member said bacteria for. There are bacteria that can function in the lower. PH environment. So it keeps it in the ammonium form. And it doesn't go the nitrate form will it that ph molybdenum which is required for the processing of nitrate nitrogen is totally blocked. At that low Ph. And so you've just made the process dysfunctional. It can't work. It's not that the plant can't do it is that it doesn't have the resources to do it it can't do it. If you've kept that low ph and molybdenum has to have a higher PH. To to be functional the nitrogenous enzyme requires a co-factor of molybdenum. And if you don't have it doesn't function right. So ask questions. Don't accept an answer. Because her. It's just the way it is done except. Don't ever accept an answer like that for anything. They will predominate. They'll proliferate in a more civic environment. They'll function in my phone. Sorry folks that forgot to turn off. And back bacteria print prefer. While pulling for eight more in a in an alkaline environment. But remember we want balance anything taken to its extreme. Is not constructive. It's actually destructive. And we don't want. We don't want to those extremes they both function well in a balanced. Slightly acidic PH They both function well. Let's see where we. Yeah I try to get a and an argument for Eric could find fungi and you can't. There's there's stuff on the Web site. Places on the Web site but everyone I went to. They never answer me back. So I don't know if they were just pretending to offer it or maybe they didn't like me or. Pathogenic then the next group is pathogenic bacteria. Those are things like pity and rise like Tony have to fight top through everywhere to psyllium few stereo. I'm sure. If you've anybody's been gardening they've experienced or dealt with these kind of problems. The interesting thing about these organisms they're called pathogen pathogenic organisms. But in the healthy so construction in unhealthy environment. They don't behave like pathogens. They're probiotic. And they actually are beneficial. I'll share I shared this experience and I don't know I didn't let me share this experience from John Kerry from going to share some of his material and we get to the insects disease in test they had a watermelon field. And they were losing eighty percent of the crop. To powdering down email to the fungal. Well not just those but the fungal diseases soil fungal disease as well. And we've talked a little bit about. You know that. To curb it's here is a silicon accumulator and if you don't. That's why they say you need to grow and sandy soil. But they were losing eighty percent of the crop the fungal diseases. But he noticed that and this is an Amish shellshock young guy. They notice that other fields weren't succumbing to it what was the difference. That was out this was actually the motivating factor Dr all right and research he was reading from around the world. Animals were doing better on certain land then they were doing better on other land crops were doing better and what was the difference. What was the difference and it started the quest to understand what the. What the difference was. And it was in the condition of the soil. The problem was but they started with the. They were losing eighty percent of the crop they decided that they were going to restore the right conditions in the soil. And so they big they started out on that. The next year they only lost fifty percent of the crop. They still lost fifty percent of the crop. You know a lot of people would be discouraged and say well that's a little bit better but it might have just been the weather. Whatever and they would have said this. We've got to come to decide on what interventions we're going to use the third year. They only lost twenty five percent of the crop. The fourth year they lost fifteen percent in the fifth year they didn't lose any same piece of ground. Exact same piece of ground. The same organisms. Endemic in that Phil but what happened is you now had a giving environment created in that soil. And so now these organised were be a nourished by the plant. And they are now. Benefiting the plant because in their processes they were providing metabolites plant could take up in organic form which is the way that the most energy efficient way for the plant to get its nutrition is it in organic compounds. Not a societal elements. Know they were applying the right. The right. Amendment. They were determining what the conditions were any were following a model. A Correct. Fertility model. And then they were applying the appropriate materials to restore completeness and balance to the system. That may have included organic materials he didn't elaborate. To me on on all. All of what they were applying it may include that. But there was it was more to it than that. Well they were following a model. They were following a model that was as been it's been well established for decades. It's repeated. If it's true science focus repeatable. Is demonstrably all it's observable. And this model has demonstrated itself in every soil type. You can imagine. All over the world with every made. Every crop major and minor. Forestry landscaping. All of it is demonstrated consistently. Its effectiveness. Consistently. You're probably new to the class. It's the. The Albrecht. T. e c. Albrecht T.S.T. modeling social model and it was. It was discovered and and fleshed out over decades in the twenty's thirty's forty's fifty's sixty's. It's been known for a long time you wonder why isn't it out there in a mainstream. If you know anything about the world you know why it's not out there. Yeah and if you if you're hearing it for the. If you're here for the carbon fertility. Presentation. It was about carbon induction. Building the humus in the soil via your own experience. The plant was building the humus in the soil. Because it was fully functional. And it was a it was. It was storing up oil in the lamp if you want to put it that way. As opposed to overtly bringing on organic material now. You know I want to go through that whole class again but it's. It's that you're bringing somebody else is experiencing. We read books. You're learning it that's. You're learning about somebody else's experience. That's organic matter. Compost. Somebody else's testimony. So you're not going to just read any random book. Are you going to read books that are that are. The give you good knowledge and good understanding and everything or edifying you're not going to just read any old book that my trash your mind in your life. Your life and. So even if you are there are times when you need to overtly apply organic matter. Deliberately applies to you because you don't have enough experience of your own. You're going to glean from somebody else's experience to give you the nourishment that's necessary that they all to my goal is that your own experience is nourishing. And that's where you get the you store up that experience in that humans. And so there's a place for if you're at that's your ultimate goal there's a place for the the application of overt application of organic matter from another source. You just want to be mindful of what you're bringing in with it. What kind of book is it. That answer your question. So when we call these things you go see this. Running through a lot of this vein running through a lot of this we call these pathogenic but in under different conditions. Under healthy conditions they behave differently. Jerry here is probably going to talk about that when he talks about epigenetics. How we change the end fluence is. And you change the way the way life is expresses itself. OK the next group. Are the protozoa. There's three classifications here the silliest the amoeba the flagella side that. I think that. It's either of flagella. And on this month which gel it's probably on the affiliate there. I can find one that had all three of them in it. So but I could get one that I could find. All three of the minute they were single celled organism. And they tend to eat bacteria. They're there they're up the food chain. And then when they when they eat. They don't need as much of the nitrogen that the bacteria did so. A waste product for them is nitrogen. And when it's given off as a waste product. That's not a waste product for the plant. And the plant takes that up as a resource and growth. Because it's nitrogen so then you have Mehmet toads. They're little eel lights looking things are microscopic. I forgot I was going to put a picture in here. You think there's not some cleverness in nature you. There I've seen photographs of a micro rival fungi the filament going around. And last owing the nematode. This like you know a rancher we lasso a calf or something like daddy go last though it and capture it and eat it. OK there's that there's SAP or fight. Predators and parasites. Safra fights or decomposers. They're breaking down. Organic matter. And out of the waste products the by products that come from matter. Or beneficial to the plant. Course when something else sees the nematode then that's broken down and that also releases and makes more nutrients available. The predators. But these That's after fights are just decomposers they're breaking down organic material. The predators. Eat other creatures in the in the system so I bacteria fungi protozoa. They eat other organisms in the system and course the waste product from them also is beneficial to the to the plant. It's organic material. Organically bound. Nutrients. The plant doesn't have to use all the energy this is where you get high functioning high photosynthesizing plants is when those all of those resources are already built into organic compounds that the plant can take up that it doesn't have to expend the energy to produce those compounds. It's much more efficient for the biology in the soil to produce it then the plant can. In a plant prefers it that's why dumps. As I've said before seventy percent of his exudate it's photosynthesis the sugars and starches it produces it dumps it out its roots early on in this life it gives it away. To to expand and build this. This network. This can call the network I don't like that term network. A community. That will support that plan through its process of growth maturity and reproduction that's what we're to do is to bear fruit. And then you have the parasite that. Parasitize. They don't plant. And again in this. In this case. Different conditions bring about completely different behavior. Instead of hostile behavior you have been and behavior. Because the plant. It's being nourished. Everything was to have its food source. And when you when you alter the system you you. You dig construct. The system that was intended to provide dad in there no longer now nourished. And we'll talk about this we talk about that in sex diseases in past. Because that's how you eliminate them when they're nourished. Then they actually become beneficial to the system. And when they're not nourished. There's dysfunction and so sometimes they go after things that are already demonstrating that they need to be destroyed. We've talked about this too that. The whole admonition that if the apples good enough. But the apples good enough for the worm. It's good enough for me well that foolishness. It's simply telling you that it's. It's not good. OK We go up the chain a little bit further to the arthropods and it's one picture does have a whole collection there and I'm not going to try to tell you what every one of them is because a lot of them. There are two groups shredders their shredders and predators. The shredders break down. Organic matter and break it down into smaller smaller fragments so that they can be broken down even further. And there are predators. They eat other organisms protozoa bacteria fungi. Nematodes. And they. What they're doing is they're they're just diversifying the the available nutrition in that soil for the plant. Remember we were talking about compost. And these all have their own roles in a so if the accomplice you have too much brown material well. That's GO K. for the fungi but it's not OK for the bacteria and you can to create imbalance there. And vice versa they all have their role in order to bring that organic material. Back to a life giving situation again. And then earthworms. I thought you like that that's why you like that slide. That is a real earthworm. It's a giant earthworm. And they exist. We had to Nightcrawler's. I didn't put on here the different kinds of earthworms that we had some night crawlers in our. Our yard. Under a mulberry tree. Boy those days that earthworms love those the. The food from that mulberry tree. Because we had we had worm castings all over underneath that thing and you go out there at certain times of the day and they all be off out of the ground just kind of hanging out laying there and everything. They were they were about this long. They were grown really well and of them all the moldy tree. But they were that big around to they were they were pretty big. But I've never seen one this big OK Everybody's all excited about the earthworms So I think. I figured I needed to throw it in there. They're recycle or again they will take organic material and they will break it down and digest it and process it to bring it to a more stable and available form for the plant and. They increase neutrino availability. Now let me make clear. Make make it clear what that says. It says they increase. Nutrient availability. A lot of people think that they will balance your soil out that they will. That they will increase to the mineral balance. They will improve the mineral balance in your soil. No they will not. They will increase the nutrient availability so what you have in the so particularly trace elements. What you have in this field they will make more available. They will make it more balanced and they will make it more complete. Does this make more available what Isn't it so. So if you have complete naturalisation they're going to make it more available to do the plant. And improve cell structure through their tunneling to their tunnel holes that they leave behind they leave channels that water can infiltrate American infiltrate and when we were talking about the tillage and I know all of you haven't been in the class the whole time but we were talking about tillage. We were talking about you know. Iron is not always the best at alla Geo plowing often in plowing deep and. If you get good soil structure. You don't want to destroy it. Once you have you got a plow off an Impala deep into you get the try to conditions that you needed at that point you need to start using other methodology. Like Tiller outages are off Alfre or other top rated crops to keep the channels open but once you have this. This is going to keep the soil open. This is going to keep that the root the root channel that that when the roots decompose. If those channels remain there earthworm tunnels. All of that when that becomes it gets developed. You're going to be going to be maintaining that and so then you have your management decisions on tillage how to be determined by you know what do you need to do to to plant the crops. You may only do a tillage couple inches deep. Just to create a sea bed because you don't want to damage all of that structure. Or if you've got a compaction where somewhere down in there you may want to use a stub so and go through and and break that. Compaction layer. But you don't want to damage all of that nice shared. I shared about some research that was done growing. Q Khirbet with. Just on open still on soil filled soil. Till soil with Baltar on it. Soil that was had a agreement or a crop crimp roll crimp down. And an agreement or crop roll crimped down and mulch put over it and the. The crop that produced the earliest was the the one on the crimped down. Mulched bed the one with the crimped down bed was the next. And then the other two came along after that. But it was like three weeks earlier. The crop came in three weeks earlier why did that happen because the structure of the soil. And you go in with the tiller anything or plan you till it all up you just tore apart your bike arrival networks and. Sorry. Communities. Communities are Real Networks are just something to be used. You roll it down it's a it's a type A roller way or has blades on it kind of blades in it kind of cramped it when it's going in as opposed to you know. Cause it to dehydration. So when you get earthworms like this in your so you know you're really doing well. But earthworms are an indicator. An indicator of the fertility of the soil when I first started working the land we bought in Kentucky there there were no earthworms around. They were this year. We were doing at the Tate is earthworms just came. We just put the fork in and pull back in earth when you come shoot up out of the ground all over the place. I thought earthquake was happening I guess or something and. They're everywhere now. And as you prove. Improve the conditions these are all indicators you know people ask me how can we know what are so in these or any other way besides taking it so I'll test and I said yes there is. There's observation. There's not there's knowledge and understanding of that knowledge. And there's a lot of all timers around the can teach a lot of that. But that's a process that might take you ten twenty thirty years to learn because we're way behind on that. We threw out a culture a long time ago and so we really don't have a whole lot of vision. In this area. So we really need something that's a little more immediate force until we can learn that process. OK I put this up there this is a soil biology primmer that was done by Dr laning them for U.S.D.A.. I forgot to bring it with me so I just put a picture on here so you could see it this is really a very distilled down very good book. Dunder stand about how the biology in this will work the laning them. If you just search for it with under U.S.D.A.. It was published by the U.S.D.A. she just she says the author. She author did. Excellent if any of you know Dr Elaine Ingham's. If you want to know about the soil about food web. She can tell you a moron you want to know. And she can do a really well. I'll tell you what I do. And I'll tell you what most people do. When I I have this new ground we've been in Colorado for twenty years and so I had a lot of things work in the way they needed to be. But we had to leave because of water rights issues. We fought for two years and gave up on that because too political didn't have deep enough pockets. And there were other priorities. So we're starting with a new a new area and what I tend to do. Initially is dives or. What's happening. And I correlated to what the conditions in the soil are from the soil tests that I've taken in everything. So I do some interventions. But I don't do enough intervention. Me Because look if you need the food. So something's better than nothing. I mean you can't go hungry. But I try to. I try not to over intervene. So that I can observe what's happening. What are the conditions here what's going on what. What things are. What effects of my getting here what insects what passed. And then I can kind of tell where where that you'll see when we go to this pyramid that was done by John camp. You'll see. It's telling me something about where where the functionality of the soil in the plants are so that I can better. Better make better management decisions about what I need to do and everything most people just use interventions. So yeah they squish the grub. I wouldn't. But I'm not telling you not to because it could potentially be harmful. It could be damaging and they could potentially be beneficial You don't really know but I would say there's anything wrong with that I just I I tend to try to leave things going as way they are more as much as I can. And still get a crop. Like we had being beetles. I grow a poll being called for tax. It's an open pollen a variety and I'm six five I don't like bending down the harvest off and it'll grow ten feet tall and we get huge eels off of these wonderful being. But they were being Beals on and so I did some mild interventions the kind of keep them under control with I didn't completely eliminate him because I wanted to I want to divert through the whole season. Was there where these environmental stresses that were causing this where was I As far as fertility went. And I shared in one of the other classes that my might to made is in the high tunnel. How the start of beautiful unary feet tall and trusses the to made isn't any stage of rightness from wrong. You know most read all the way up to just setting the fruit. And the rain came and the cloud came in there wasn't sufficient photosynthesis produce enough energy for the plant at that stage when you got an eight foot tall. Plant trying to maintain its frame and reproduced. Bring be fruitful. There wasn't quite enough potassium. For for that crop and it was under that stress to do both frame and reproduce at the same time. And so that's when you get early blighted. Now girlie blight. Early boys botak interest deficiency in a stress. You know stress on the plant where it can't maintain if you know sufficient function. And I got early blight on him and they look pitiful. I had a picture of them but it didn't look. I was gone to Colorado and I was going to lay a thing about Lane I'm down but my wife's asses pull him out because we don't have time to really miss them but when the stresses from the environment which we're going to talk about. Subsided. We get back to sunny days more moderated weather and everything they've got a green on top again. And they started growing they look beautiful. There's a there's a lesson in this though. A lot of times we're not prepared for the stresses. We have hidden hunger. Were malnourished at a level we don't realise and we're doing fine as long as the conditions are sufficient for us to do that but when the stresses come. And it's important we hear that because stresses are common folks also and we realize we're not prepared. We're not anywhere near prepared to deal with those stresses and that was with an illustration. Was it was for me so I try to. I try to as d'oeuvre as much as I can so in that situation I know well. They just to come because we're not there yet I just started on the fertility. And it's not anywhere close to. There wasn't enough reserves built in that plant. To handle the stresses and so when they came it just it crashed that it would of been my objective was a grows many to me that is I could sew and I could've. I could have pruned it off and I actually did that I took a bunch of trusses of fruit off. To reduce the load off of it some to. Yeah I did add some follow your path into it. But at that point. It was they were and. You know I'm just now getting so I can go back to full time managing a farm. Because we're in the process of moving in all the transition and stuff and. So I was unable to to do the things that I needed to do sufficiently I probably could have Foley or applied to task it was Boron deficiency you could see the growing tips were starting to succumb. I could have done folders to compensate for it but I didn't have the time to manage to do it but yes you can. That's why it's important to know what are the symptoms going on here. And it's important to know and when we will say that when we do the insect disease impressed. So now we're going to look at environmental influences your so this is the other part of the growing system. This is the other part of life folks what we do internally. Is like that like soil. But there are X. turn to lend fluid says on a small the time the same thing is true there's extra influences on that soil. And so we need to look at what those are. I don't have extensive slides on this because I think most of you and you'll get it as soon as we're looking at it was just will just elaborate on a little bit. What are those influences. And it's important to take these into consideration. But it's not more important this is not more important than the soil. What's important is that the entering allin Vironment is properly constructed That is correct because that will give you the greatest ability to buffer. These influences. I don't know if anybody else noticed flag I have that the world seems to be getting a little more a lot. Not a little more a lot more erratic. Extreme. Everything seems to be more extreme. People's behaviour seems to be more extreme the weather seems to be more extreme Everything is because there is no stability anymore. There is no buffering in our lives. Because we're more and more and more imbalance. And further away from the image of God and. And it is happening. You know all the environmental stuff you hear environmental stuff all the time it's just it's been used as a control technique it's not being used because there's a legitimate care and concern about it. If there was they would be looking at the problem. The solutions to it not just how can we control people more and restrict their lives and in everything I have people come up and they get mad at me all the time because they ask. I ask them they'll start talking about it the whole increased carbon in the atmosphere and everything like that and I said. I thought I always say I thought plants love carbon. Why. Why is the vegetation on the planet not proliferating it should be just proliferating because of the increase. Commercial greenhouses inject carbon into the atmosphere. To get increased growth. So. So I asked them I said you think the problem is is the increased carbon in the atmosphere is or not it's for from the carbon in the atmosphere. Or why the carbon is in the atmosphere. And the problem again comes back to the soil is the same thing the environmental influences. Force. Society goes into culture goes. And all of the extremes are going on there the same problem. It's a character problem is the character of the soil. It's a mineralisation problem. It's not properly mineralize then you don't have the right spirit of that at the porosity to it. And we need on how those things that can't function. If it was. If that was right. That carbon would be in the atmosphere. IT WHEN be there. You can actually measure it's almost all of the carbon it's burned burned out of soil is the difference between what's not in the soil any more stored up as oil in the lamp. It's up in the atmosphere. Corrupting the spirit. You want to put it that way. So I am Ingle these things together all the time and. If you don't know what I mean just ask and hoping you'll feel the. OK So obviously you have the weather. You have light. How much light you have sunlight or the lack of. You have temperature. How hot it is how cold it is. You have more choice year how wet is it. How dry is it you have when. How windy is it how common is it. And I put on air pressure too because you have changes in barren metric pressure depending on the conditions that are coming along in that pressure influences. Influences the crop. So the thing is that you're not going to do a whole lot about these things unless you use some type of climate modification technique which would be like putting a high tunnel in or a greenhouse or. I have people like out in Colorado. People say why don't have a whole lot of money and so what can you. If you want to increase the microclimate around your plants will be have jugs empty plastic jugs put some water and it put it around your plants it'll door Peter in a day and give it off at night or stones put stones around your plants and they'll absorb heat and I'll give them off at night or put a cover over a tick. To shed some of the rain. There are ways of modifying some of these things but you're not going to stop them from coming. They're going to they're going to be expressed an unfortunate thing is we don't have optimum light levels anymore. Where I was in Colorado we were seven thousand feet elevation. We got on average ten thousand foot candles alight a day and plants only need three to four thousand. It was too much. It was too much light and so I would have raspberry plants growing outside. And they would only get about four feet high. Sometimes they get a Ties five feed. Twenty on the more surreal to put on them in a greenhouse I had some some raspberry plants same variety. They were eight nine feet tall. And we got we got e-mails off of those people tell you know this is what you get match for you. I don't follow the charts anymore. I just you know. I expect to get at least with the yield chart says that. We got somebody but it was a Golden Raspberry plan. Variety was and. And it was the cane was this thick. It was it was a Lisa enchant and a half thick going going up. And it has all the branches off of it with the. The fruiting branches and. We've probably got three or four or five point to blueberries off that one plant. Of one plant. It was just just producing and well we gave in and better conditions we have modified these influences. So that they were more favorable for optimum growth. Optimum growth is going to be reasonable light levels. Reasonable temperatures. Reasonable moisture and reasonable. When conditions. There was another problem I had out in Colorado as we had wind all the time. You guys die if you're not from that part of the country that has went all the time you don't know when does. You just get used to the idea that is blown ten fifteen miles an hour. Sometimes twenty miles an hour every day. And when you get a calm day you're wonder what happened. But that what what are the consequences. Actually this go back to the light. You know you go back into an area where there's more cloud cover. It has to do with photosynthesis but it also has to do with the plant being able to to hydrate itself. But in a highlight environment like that you have more than enough focus photosynthesis that's why there's a lot of commercial greenhouses out west because you have so much light. But the problem with that is then you have more Easter stress on the on the plant. And you also. You also have. You know what we call ultraviolet. Can a fully functional plant. It produces essential oils will see that it laid out produces these thicker. Slippage layer. And it produces a lot of essential oils with the search. Surplus energy produces when it's pressed down and overflowing. And in doing that at present. It produces a protective layer that interlace itself from that extreme ultraviolet on there and you know we're told all the time. Stay out of the sun stay out of the sun. Because it's dangerous for you. But the truth is it's only dangerous because we don't have the internal environment to be blessed by. And so actually when you put all that stuff all over you. You're actually playing putting more danger on you than a son with son would be to you. But if you again if you don't change the internal environment though. So that it can adequately interact with these influences. You will protect you will have problems. So I'm not saying you won't have problems but to all this is a man made solution here. OK. God gave us the son to be a blessing. Stay out of it. But you know out here. Now in areas where you get higher cloud cover more frequent cloud cover that's what happen to my tomatoes in Kentucky we had just record rainfall. Cloud cover the plant doesn't get enough light. And so it's it's. It doesn't can't produce adequate energy to to run the plant. If you want to put it that way. And so it comes under stress it can do everything that it needs to do because it doesn't have the energy resources to do without dismantling part of the plant itself. And that's where the early blight comes in that plant starts dismantling itself to reproduce. That's it subjective. That's what our objective is the bear fruit were to bear. The fruit of the image of the of God. That's what go back to Genesis again that's what we're called to do. So it starts taking resources from the plant itself from the frame to provide for the reproduction and when it does that triggers. The indicators. The signals of. And that's in the plants dying. And that's when they that's when the Alton area which is a leaf dwelling fungal organism. Organism. Begins attacking the leaf. Because it's given a signal that is dying. Temperature. Again. We we feel most comfortable at certain temperatures right. It doesn't feel so good one hundred degrees. Even in low humidity and how you can tolerate a little bit better but just seventy degrees and high humidity can vary. Can be pretty stressful. So this same thing that's happening to me and you is happening to the plant is trying to maintain its function and the stress is being but if it's an extreme it's been an imposed on it and so energy resources resources have to be diverted from growth. Maturity and reproduction. To dealing with these buffering the stresses. And so if you don't have adequate resources to do that and continue the process. Then things start breaking down. And so you. Again. If you can modify it like there are climate modifying techniques you can put shape cloth. To help break the sun and some of the radiant heat that's coming from and a reflective shake off the specially to break that you can put foot covers over to warm. I don't know if all you all over your in in here when I was sharing that is that when I was added in valley. I was told that I couldn't grow melons there because that we were. Heil of a sion was six thousand plus feet on a member what it was exactly. A high desert climate. Dry climate. You don't you lose heat at night because there's no there's no heat sink. There's not enough vegetation and heat sink to the hole that he feels just dissipates back into the atmosphere at night see. You can have huge temperature swings. And so I just had to figure out what were the. What were they in the conditions that were necessary for me to grow melons and that environment. Well they needed more heat. We were sprinkle irrigating. And if you've ever been in a dry climate had water hit you I don't care if it's a ninety degrees outside. You have water which you're going to get cold. And again you just affected the temperature. The plan so now resources are being diverted to bring the temperature back up to functional level. As opposed to cause it was chilled. So I just had to modify these conditions so we want to drip irrigation instead of overheads frankly are a geisha in the black drip tape. Warm the water because it was snow melt that we were watering with warm the water up. And we put I put on our team all choices a green or brown malts did. Transmit infrared. But doesn't doesn't transmit visible light. And so we can warm the soil. Well not allowing weeds to grow under there. And I was able to produce melons as early as the Arkansas Valley in Colorado which is a much lower elevation and. Just by understanding these conditions and understanding what the needs of the plan are now you can always economically do that you can have to decide if you live up in Alaska you want to go bananas in the wintertime. You're you're going to have to look at the economics of that. And you may have to decide well I better get everything I need and in the days are long. Maybe look at a little lemon tree or something like this media was brought to you by audio person a Web site dedicated to spreading God's word through free sermon audio. And much more. If you would like to know more about audio version or you would like to listen to more sermon. Leave the W.W.W. audio first topic or.


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