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Growing Transplants

Larry Lesher Alan Seiler

Description

Growing good transplants is an important skill for any gardener or farmer to learn. During this class we will be covering how to make potting mix for for starting your seedlings, and different potting, blocking and paper pot methods to put your soil mix into. 

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  • November 13, 2015
    2:45 PM
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So my name is Alan Seiler from Better Together farm in south central Oklahoma. We do. About one sixth of an acre of production we highly use transplant so I'm really excited about this class. Because this is the linchpin of small system. Agriculture. If you don't have transplanting down it's going to make it a lot more difficult for you. So this is extremely important. And this. And let me just put a caviar in here we're not going to be really talking about time mean. Succession plan your anything like that we had other classes earlier this week we're talking here strictly about method. OK. Pot size what type of thoughts or blocks what are the differences. We're going to be talking about where we get our seeds from we're going to be talking about. If you're going to make your own mix. How would you do that and if you're not making your own mix where would be the best place to buy it and things like that we're also going to be presenting a little bit about what's called a paper pot planter which some of you might have heard about really a little bit more for maybe a larger scale productions but it's. We just want to introduce you to some of the methods out there. So you can make intelligent decisions on how you're going to choose. What you're going to use on your particular application. But Larry. Your introduce yourself. Larry lesser farm and southern Indiana Guard. Eastward. Like the Lord God planted a garden. Eastward and Eden. And so that's all there is no about me. You're going to pray and now is OK and I would encourage you to know with me and we will start with a prayer. Heavenly Father as we come together and look into what it takes to start. Plans to look at all the different methodologies in the ways that we can do that Laura we asked for your spirit to guide and direct as and lead us whether each person here. I pray your spirit is speaking to them and talking to them. Even in this. Which seems may be an removed from your work we know that all these things are all bound up together. And if we can't see you in it and there's no value in it really. So help us to see you even in this process. And to know that you care about all these little details and. We need to be close attention to how we do these things always says that not one fiber. One hair. Of the root. Should be misplaced and so Lord I pray that. When we contemplate how we start our starts and we endeavor into this you would be the teacher. And you would guide and direct as according to your will and purposes in Jesus name we pray. In that. OK. So this is how we're going to address this topic. First we're going to start talking about environment. Now. When you're starting to see it environment is very key to get maximum germination on the plants that you're planting. So Larry. When we're talking about environment what would be a few things that we really need to be thinking about. Before we even start as far as what do we have in place like. You know greenhouses moisture What are some of these things that we need to really pay attention to when we think about starting to see what are the environmental factors that are going to make our cities germinate the best. The first place that I would encourage you to start is you need to know where you're at and world. Your geographical location is going to be different from one another and so how you're going to go about this is probably going to really. That can have a key factor and how you even begin to think about doing it for instance. I used to start starts in South Dakota. That is not in any sense. Well options in any sense. It is radically different than southern Indiana. We would hit on a regular basis. Every winter. Near negative thirty. If we had negative zero word. Were pretty cold in southern Indiana. And so the timing. Changes dramatically of when I start and. What a star. Based on just that simple geographical issue. And so where you're at in the world is going to have a play on how you go about thinking about how you're going to do it. I would start they're going to say something totally unassociated. Maybe I don't know. All right doc you if you say I'm already what. What I would like to see if we would mean Alan talked about how we wanted to do this we would do it morning dialogue fashion. Right Kind of Iraq bounce things off of one another but it's not just me and Alan talking to one another and you guys listening. If you have questions. It's really important to me and I think to Alan as well that we make sure that we're we're answering your questions. Why you're here. And so if we can bring you into this discussion. You know we need to control of a little bit there's quite a few people here. If we can have a healthy discussion I think that would be probably the most beneficial for you you would definitely want to know your first frost date and that would be part of. So how much before the frost date. Do you start is the question So when you ask a question because we don't have a roving Mike. We need to repeat it. So audio version whoever is listening to this isn't. They don't know what we're talking about. So. What. So for instance if you're talking about frost date. It's getting a little bit off of subject not that we don't want to address that subject but we want to stay on topic as well. OK here's the situation we're talking about method. Frost date in day temperature a lot of these things that are outside of actually growing transplants because for instance in the transplanting situation. We're more concerned about what we need to do to alter the environment so that those transplants actually sprout at their ideal rates and at their ideal perfection. And so we're talking about things of how we're going to alter the environment to make this accomplish. As far as you're planting date. That's a little bit of a different subject. We could go into that but that's not exactly what we're trying to address here we're talking about method as far as OK. What temperature should my greenhouse or indoors be to make sure these plants sprout best. On how much should I water. How much daylight should I actually have to be able to sprout these seeds. Things like that. So as far as the your frosting to the good but there are certain things that are going to make any difference like Allianz and things that you can put out before the first roll. And so those would be different and say your tomatoes. You want to ask those questions. Well. My question actually a statement with a question is that you consider planting the seed in your trays as part of your transplant. Or as part of the process of starting transplant. OK transplants is basically a method that is used. Separate from direct seeding into your ground that we used to put in the kind of an artificial environment. To give them a jump on the season. Inside of controlled area and then they will move out into the field. OK. Transplants can be done not only in the spring. But they can be done throughout the entire growing season and that's what we do. Can you define what you mean by a transplant because some of us coming thinking that you're going to each as the wind a starter seeds when those become trance. You know when you start moving them up to larger pots and then when you put them in the ground we see that whole process is transplant. True. In there and that's the part of the process of transplanting but that doesn't necessarily correlate with. As far as what your last prostate is or not we're talking about an artificial environment here. Usually when transplants are started in something like this and you can correct me if I'm wrong wrong Larry. But usually if you have in a container like this you're looking at about four to five weeks. As little as three depending on what type of amendments you put into the mix to keep them going. And then after that you're going to have to either PATA monarch get him out in the field every time you have to take this out of this pot and move it into a bigger pot. It's costing you money. OK because it's more material more time or labor. So the better you can time your system out the better you're going to do a far as cost it all comes down to getting those transplants out when they need to be out so you don't have to block a moment and. One thing that you want to consider when he's talking about this when he says four to five weeks. You could keep a man here longer. But. But they will perform the way you expect them to perform. When you finally get them out and so timing is crucial and how you choose to do it will differentiate. Time link that they can manage to stay in a pot. As far as I mean artist or tray or or your cell block or however you decide to do it. And so this is the thing we're trying to help you guys understand so that when you come to it and you make a decision about how you're choosing to do it. You understand why you're choosing what you're choosing to do you understand what we're saying. So give us some parameters Larry as far as moisture. Temperature in daylight or either if it's artificial light some people I know grow inside. But give it give us some things as far as how how what do we want this mix when we're starting whatever mix it is. What's the ideal temperature. OK. If it's a variable and then. Wow much data how much light should these guys have to be able to do well. So most your was so let me let me say that the first thing that I do is once the starts mix. I make my own starts next and we have a handout for his start and we'll get into that and a little bit down the road here. So once I have my starts next. It's a pretty dry mix. Yeah. And so seeds obviously moisture to germinate. So I will let the next. Until And this is the way that I judge it. I'm not real scientific. I'm kind of more of a have a feeling. And this is my feeling. When I wet it I want to let it enough that it sticks together. But it doesn't it. When I squeeze the mix like if I grab a handful of it and squeezes. I wanted to have a little bit of moisture that rings out but not runs out. And so I don't know exactly what the percentage of moisture that would be but that hand I have judged it all Hanta. I just know that that works well. It's going to germinate the seed so you prove you present your mix before you put it into your true I do. OK good point. Something to think about. I've noticed this too and I'm doing pots is that if you don't pre-mixed it especially if using P. or even coconut core. Situation here. It really is hydrophobic. It doesn't let the water through. And so if you don't three do it your the like. We heard of infiltration through your mix is usually going to just bubble off the top and not go through and penetrate the mix. And I want to tell you what is the other thing that I find is very important is. If I let say I do it dry and I put it all in here. When I wet it. I'm going to find that it's going to be going to lose like a quarter of the cell. As far as it's going to shrink the shrink. And so that's a quarter less nutrients and root zone that I've just created for my start. And I want to maximize all of the space that I have here. I choose the size cell. And the deaths of cell. Because I know that's how much. I want to give my roots with a lot of time. Do you follow what I'm saying. OK. And so I want to utilize it all. I want to be for the other thing that is is really important. I do not have a lot in turn a lot in terms of the past. And I'm very specific with them that when you. When you do a tray. There's a couple of techniques that I use. One is I want it totally level. If you have little sections where the where the dirt is going over into the other ones. Your roots will cross over the climate and then when you're translating it the chair of those roots. Because you. You know you've got to separate them. That is not what you don't want to do that you rationally if you leave him in too long expression. If you leave him in too long and. And I see you don't want to leave him in too long but plants I'll tell you got is so nice. They're forgiving. They really are quite forgiving I mean you can't be ridiculous about it but they are forgiving. And so the other thing that I find a very important is because it's wet. You can really packet. And then you can really fill this thing up. But then your roots have a hard time. And air. Has all the hard time getting in there. And so there is a balance to help Hax You want to make this if you pack this too much. You won't have good plants. And so. Alan can you hold this woman called the mike in front of you. Yeah so I can kind of show him. So what we'll do is we'll take dirt. Philip put it on top smooth it out till it's news. And then I'll actually pick the tray up. And I just kind of knock two times. Now. I'm very specific two times. And you don't you don't just kind of do this. Drop it in this letter kind of fall down by so you can get a firm. And when you do it. If you just did like this and let go all the dirt balances out. So. So all it. On the table two times. And then I filled it up again and smooth off the top and I leave that top part on pack. Because it gives me a nice soft area kind of like I've created children see dead. Only had obviously filled it is just how to do it. So tell us a little bit about temperature. OK. Temperature can depend on your. What you're choosing to grow. So give us a very film would say like lettuce lettuce starts or something like that or kale starts what are we looking at temperature wise kill starts. For these are called the crops right. So if you have the means a germination chamber. Would be the most functional way to get the highest. So what are we looking at temperature in the in the in the germination chambers for you and I'm I'm pretty. I can tell you specific temperatures. Allen probably can. He is a very methodical man. I work a little more on just this is what he feels that we're right here. You know when you've done something for a while you just kind of know. That's how I function. But Larry this doesn't help these people I mean. Well how does it doesn't but I'm going to I'm going to lab right on my gut feeling. OK. If you go to the free seed catalogs. They will all tell you this. But probably around seventy degrees. Is sufficient seventy two. Eighty six Jan is correcting me. It's. It's a variable. It really is a variable. Because LET is concerned many very well at fifty degrees actually finish won't Germany that eighty five degrees very well you'll have about ten percent germination. It's going to vary on the crop. Reference you to Johnny C's catalog these catalogs are filled of information we couldn't begin to go all over all the specifics as far as temperatures are concerned. Warmer other crops anywhere from seventy to ninety degrees probably cold weather crops anything from there but anything that drops below forty degrees it's going to be really really difficult to get that thing out of the ground. So the way that I do it and this is. I think for me. There's a certain measure of practicality in time. And so I know that if I'm comfortable. Probably going to Germany fairly well. And we're comfortable what temperature you comfortable wearing was seventy five degrees is OK OK good and so my house is where I do most of the starts in the spring. Because I'm starting a fairly early because I know that eventually they're going to go outside but right now they can't live like couldn't germinate on the outside. And so in our house I have a bunch of sure. You know the. Silver kind of Baker's racks. They come with like five levels. Two feet deep or feet wide. I can fit twenty trays on their lights on to set of double lights on each rack. And so those lights I can raise and lower on a chain. And that heat of that lamp is going to heat up. That area. So I know if my house is seventy degrees. It's probably about seventy five to eighty degrees underneath that light. I use daylight lights I don't use and use broad spectrum no specialized just regular light is all I use in there would be the same for me I use three thousand Callinan sixty five sixty five hundred Kelvin. The mind you're between the two. Gets the balance of what you need least doubts what I read. And that's what I use and it seems to work so I'll go at that. So that's the message that I use we don't do it I do that again. Just go buy the Calvin just go buy the Calvin It's on every package. Three thousand Calvin and sixty five hundred Kelvin lights. You put two of those in the bulbs. And so you get the mixture in the cross between the light and your good. Three thousand cal but you can use a regular the cheapest shop light fixtures that you can buy and lows. And then just put those two lights in there. And that works it works really well. Now three thousand Calvin and sixty five hundred. I think the sixty five hundred is a day late. Maybe it is. I just go by the Kelvin so you can just price it out. Price out the difference. I don't know as far as hell Calvin relates to L. E D's. That's not. I just don't know. I just use the. You know they're longer life. Well they don't have any but you get life. Well you're going to have to add a few most likely Anyways yeah. But yeah I'll go back to the germination Chambers Well one of the conditions is humidity. Humidity is very useful and germination so is another gut feeling or do you have a percentage. I don't know. I'll tell you how I do it. And you know. I do OK. You want but what ideas I've If you've ever been to a Tractor Supply and you see those little cheap. Greenhouses they have there like twenty five dollars the zip up. I bought one of those and people are like. That's a real professional greenhouse. And so I have this. And my wife. Praise the Lord for my life. She lets me do things that I don't think most people would let her husband's do. Because she believes in what we're doing. So in my living room. We have these three. You know and I fit like. What is it. Twenty flats on each one of these and there's three of them and their load it with all the starts. And they're still there. So this has been since. When her. And I have this little in our kitchen. Are in our dining room. I have this little greenhouse thing in the bottom. I put a crock pot rock pot. I have a fifteen dollar crock pot and I fill it with water. And I turn it on medium. And it humidifiers that little thing and I put my starts in there. Six tries at a time. And they germinate. Really quickly you pull them out and you put him on the rack. And you can cook you know the same time. And you can later. But it works really well. And I don't know the exact humidity. OK you have to be careful when you do it because things will mold if you do it. So I put him in that little greenhouse I was talking about because a plastic cover all had a plateau it captures was already. Capsulated. Oh it's like this tall. It's like this it's just enough to put two trays. I put a foot to these trays in there one on the shelf the shelf the shelf the shelf and in the very bottom. I have a little fifteen dollar. So Larry this lady was asking about the pup is tiny. I could do like six at a time and there for winter. Like in the winter when I'm just starting out eons and stuff like that tomato when you say allium clarify when you say alliums onions and leaks. OK. Basically just kind of. It's just kind of humidifying bubbles up the curriculum and Russia can kind of went in the least and. And so then pull out. So the zipper is just the plastic cover that has a zipper so you can get into the thing and use if it down so that it holds all those the humidity in OK. I don't do that I my systems a little bit different than Larry's. But I think his system is good so that's that's good with me. And we were trying to move on to the next thing here. So what do you do. What do I do you do you well you Matt. I I use I use heat mat. And what I'll do. In this is only for the high value crops like tomatoes. Everything else I found really doesn't need a humidifier in it. But especially tomatoes. What I will do is that I'll take so. I use this little soil block maker. And we make. There's a mix I don't have it on here but Elliott Coleman I just use the book. I use the mix in his books for small blocks. OK. It's called the new organic growers for those that are taking notes. It's a great book and has some good mix mixes in it that are pretty tested in pretty good. I think Larry's mix probably is better. But it's a little bit simpler Mixon. Anyways that works for me. That is actually the mix that I use. Well. If he doesn't use chickpea flour. Because his blood meal. Oh that's right so your title I have taken his percentages. And what I'm getting on that right. So and then I put in these little blocks and then I take Saran Wrap. From the kitchen and I just put it over there. On top of the heating mat and it holds the moisture and humidity and I put it. You don't want to have it suspended because sometimes that he the humidity will come up. Hit that condense on the plastic in the new will go to only one side of the block you want to be wrapped around it really close to that. When it comes up it keeps the humidity right on the block. And I found that very successful. You don't want to do that with all things with things like peppers. I've found that when you put the thing around it will rot the seeds. Tomatoes are better. But with peppers you just need to make sure that they don't dry out. But you don't want to cover them. I found my experience with this is these are such small little blocks you really gotta pay attention. Is able to dry out really quickly. And the thing is is that heating mats are very expensive if you use heating that they can run. Like for a two by eight. Sorry to buy four. Sounds like these would. But a two foot by four foot thing it can be like eighty dollars for these maps or more depending on where you get it. What's the place. Morgan. Morgan County seed in Missouri. Sells those maps probably at the best price that you'll find them. I think they're like fifty dollars for a two foot by four foot mat in Johnny's like a hundred. So you need to just shop around for them. OK. So but that's what I use but only on valuable crops with everything else it's pretty much let the weather take care of it. We just put a double layered greenhouse. And we put it all outside in the spring. And the double layer seem to work well for us this year. You know when you have a heated house those things are going to sprout a lot faster and get up there. But for me right now I can't afford to put a heater in it. So I do the best I can just with a double layered a greenhouse but no added he just passive heat. Your family. If this is just for your home your family use. What would you do different. I'm not. Cobblers. Yeah. I would just. I would just make what Larry does with the seed starting rack and put some lights on the top of it and go that way. The thing that I would do. And what I would add to that is it's the exciting process. You just use less volume of as you need less space. You can do it smaller scale. Let me give you let me hold on. How many hours a day do you leave the lights on I turn him on when I wake up and I turn him off when I go to sleep because in my room and I don't want to sleep with those lights on. I have a timer. I use a timer. So the he doesn't this is good. I have this a little bit. So I use a timer just like you would on a light like if you left and you want to do your lights to come on and also people rob you go Home Depot and get one of those little timers. And I put them on the timers. Based on when I plan to plant them outside. So whatever the daylight length is going to be. When they move out of this. My little protected area. You know in the house or in a greenhouse on that are in our in your room than there in the living room. OK so I miss big diff. And so whatever if my daily. Is going to be six A.M. to nine. Let's say when I move them out. I will schedule it to be on that time frame. And that's what they will live on until I go outside and the time doesn't change. It's important because some things are light sensitive. And if the light changes drastically. With onions specifically. It can you can have some really poor outcomes. I mean some people don't think so but they're light sensitive. And so that's why I do that. So now let's talk about once these things have sprouted right. Now we're going to talk about all these notes for a just this last thing and then we'll go into methods OK. So no no I'm done. But yes. He's got a question. And letting him. I do it with than just you know God or ng. In the living room can be a challenge and let you have under your trays to keep the floor safe and. You're talking about sprouting already going forward. Well. Sprouting is really connected with watering. So how often do we water these things and how we do it I'll just put a thing in here. What I do is I get one of those five gallon backpacks prayers from Lowe's or Home Depot or whatever it could be small it doesn't have to be a backpack sprayer. I just fill it up with water. And then I'll take that. And I'll put it on the fine miss. And I'll just missed the tops of those. I use oil blocks currently but I'm thinking about changing We'll talk about that a little bit later. But that's what I use. That's what I use to water inside outside. I get it's called a drama. Fog and D. are a him. Him. And the so. DRAM. Thank you for that nozzle I think it's a gallon a minute. You can is the one half gallon one gallon two gallon. If you get the two ones that are too high gallon they put out the water two thousand going to blow your blocks away or your trays away so I do. I think I do the gallon and a half maybe or gallon is a gallon dollar to Yellowstone soon but it's a little brass thing it has three little nozzles on and that's what I use outside and once the plants get a little bit bigger I'll even use a larger drawing which has a bigger. Head on it and puts out more volume. Because it will take a long time to water those seedlings. If once they're up and pull in water it's going to take a lot longer to water them with the Foghat nozzles so I'll step it up a little bit and have a little harder so harder. More Quick watering method. The Rose said the was called pretty the. Roses are pretty. So I use a backpack for years. Well just like he does. The difference that I didn't hear him mention is I also buy a ten twenty flat. And you going with holes with holes I get in without holes and that will catch the water. Ten twenty flat. It means that it's ten inches by twenty inches I think is why they call it ten twenty Yeah it's the dimensions of the base of the flat. So yeah that's a flat. So this here is a ten twenty flat. And you can see this one has no have slits in them with the holes. This one does not. And I take this. This is what I start much Nato's and I don't recommend it though. It takes up too much space. You can start your tomatoes in a much smaller and have many more and and you know you have one hundred percent germination. And so I'm changing some of my methodology but that's just part of farming you learn things and change things so how do you do water once they get up and sprouted in bigger you don't have to use. You know. I still use the backpack spare the whole time until I move out into the greenhouse. So once in the greenhouse. Drum. Drum. OK So they are using. It's a good nozzle. I know that you haven't used. Automated systems to water. Have an automated system you haven't put it up yet. But OK. I have used it a one. An overhead system then by made by net a fan with Mr novels that you put every three feet. One of the things to consider when you're doing this is that if you have more of a controlled. Who pass environment. You're going to have more consistent wind patterns over those plants and believe it or not especially with soil books I'm not sure about with trays it probably is a bit different. Probably not so touchy. OK Because because you don't when the wind passes along this it's it in plastic it's not actually hitting your dirt inside so it might be a little different but I found with the overhead Mr systems. Especially with the house that has events on all sides. But the when will come in they will spin inside that house and parts of the House will get dry and parts of the House will get wetter because it's pushing that mist over the top of those plants when you're watering. And so you need to consider how the wind patterns are moving to your house if you have vents on one side it's just blowing the air straight across. I don't think it would be as bad. But in our situation. I with the automated system. I was finding that I was having dry blocks over here and super soggy blocks over here. So I've reverted at least currently to the fog IT system. Because I can manage I can water more here. And I can water less over here because I'm visually going through each tray and watching how it's either true dry or two way. And that's important very important to let makes a big difference. He was talking about hydrophobic that everybody know what hydrophobic names. Resisting resist water. The peat moss. Becomes no. If you let it dry out it is you can take you a long time. And you will think that soil walk is wet. But inside the core of it is dry as a bone. And so it's really difficult. With a draining system that has holes in the bottom. It's really difficult to over water it if your hand watering. Which is really really system. They can take a lot of water will hold a lot of water. I used to use peat last mixes. And I started using a coconut color mix and coconut Coyer is a lot less hydrophobic. It can dry out as soon as wet on those instantly that was one of the reasons I switched the other thing about it is it holds water. A lot longer than you can over water. Easily if you're used to watering A P. Next. And you switch to a coconut Coyer mix. And you keep watering at the same rate. You have to in this is the key to all really the real fundamental key to all of this is you have to be observant true if you don't do something because what you always do you do something because it needs to be done. And you have to be able to look at your plants or your stars or your starts mix and say this is how I always do it. But that's not going to work right now. Because right now in this condition I need to do something else. And so I would have a real struggle with internes when they first came in we water every day except sometimes. The sun doesn't come out and in South and South Dakota where I had in turns the sun's always out. But some days the sun wouldn't come out and we had three hundred sixty days of sun there right. And so when it would be cloudy. They would still want to water just the same. I don't like to you can't do that would go where they are you have to look and observe what you're doing. Because you do with the plant need not what your have it you will have it is because you're trying to tip the balance of nature in favor of these plants so that you have the best start. But the just kind of threw out some ideas there. In the wintertime or in the early spring so let's say from about February to about March. I will water probably once every three days because it's cold there's just not a lot of evaporation going on in my house. Once we get beyond that it's probably going to be once every two days and once you hit the probably the. No probably once a day. And once you hit like into June middle of June time onward to probably mid September and a little later. It's probably once twice a day. Sorry. Twice a day. Not once twice a day. Yeah. So you're going to do it in the morning. And you're probably going to do it around four o'clock. And you just do that every It's just too downright hot. And the there just they're just go to need a lot of they're going to need water and it might be it's going to probably be different with when you're using this because you don't have so much surface area. In the block system you have more surface area for of apparation to take place especially on the edges. Here. It's a little bit I would imagine more resistant to evaporation. One of the things that I observe. Wife is frustrated with me because I'm picky. What happened yes that is that the corners. And the edges of your flats Wally's I don't know why it is. But it's always the case that they don't tax on the nothing there. Always lower than a hose much. So you don't have as much dirt in there to begin with the sun if this is on the edge like it's this was our table to say we're in the greenhouse. You know and all of our flats are lined up on this table. And let's see the sun is going like this across the sky all day. Right. This side right here is going to dry out. Way faster than this side here. Because the sun just cook in it and so when you come in and you're watering. You may need to water this way more. You might need to come in in the middle of the day and water it. Well you wouldn't touch the rest of them. And so you have to be observant and pay attention to what is going on in the world around you and reason because to effect and say. What am I going to do based on this circumstance and I can't reiterate that enough that the most beautiful thing that I have learned and agriculture. Is that you have to pay attention. And you have to do what needs to be done. Based on what's happening. And you have to be a thinking person you have to be critically thinking. All the time you to be an observant person. And you have to reason from cause to effect. And it will affect you and everyone else in your life. Because you start thinking like that. You'll start reasoning like that and it says it's a good quality. So let's move on Larry. To systems. OK. As far as plugs raise to twenty trays. Or whatever it's called. Whatever the numbers of trays and stuff like that and we'll talk about a little bit about soil blocks the. The pros and cons to that. And then we're going to touch a little bit hopefully here. On Ben. Well we have that video ready to go when we need it here. OK good. We're going to be moving on to that part. It's called the paper pop plantar and we'll talk about some pros and cons in that area as well. The question being very sane G. or tied or conservative do you ever use the trays again. Oh absolutely. How long have you had this trailer. Would you say. Since you bought it two years this is two years now. I will point out you can't get this straight. You can't buy the stray. It's history. Well. That is true it is my trip brought it from Indiana. So you could look at it. This is a. It's made specifically for a specific nursery. And they order them very rarely and. They don't sell them. And so in order to get them you kind of have to be the right and lays on the right time and know the right person and. It's a hard choice hard plastic. And so this will last me probably it could last me twenty years or could last the rest of my life I mean it's just. They don't really break down though seeing that's not available what's the next best option so most of the trade you're going to get is like this it's kind of a little bit flimsy. You can hear it Franklin and stuff. And so if you take care of them. I can get about three seasons. Roughly out of those depending on how well they get handled and if you know. Things don't happen to them. I think you can get a case of one hundred for about all eighty bucks. And so and then also on our handout she here we have the names of companies that we recommend that carry stuff like this and so maybe you don't have to buy a hundred you could buy. I think the. I don't know what they run individually they're probably the like a dollar twenty five each or something like that. And so. So what are the advantages of having to trace this them a plug trace system Larry. Are you going to take a question are you going to do you do you do this in second does in fact them. It's a good idea. I don't. In the way you would this in fact it is. Philip a tub with bleach water. Though it in the bleach water. Disinfectant. Let it dry. You know that bleach is going to dissipate and be gone and won't matter. That's what people do I've done it and I do it periodic Lee if I feel like I need to. But I haven't really had any issues where I feel like it is really necessary if I don't have to use bleach. I don't. And so. Yeah you can see like. This is obviously been used several times and. I have a high calcium water so you can see all the white on there is calcium build of just from getting wet. Every day. So what are the benefits to plug choices. Well maybe we should talk a little bit about so everyone can see you know you're going to put soil in this are going to water it. It's pretty self-explanatory. But really when we start looking at other methods when we know how to cross compare and say OK what's going to be right for me. And so let's move on to the I think that to be the next best step who are who here as a whole heard about soil block makers. OK so not all of you. But some of you. The soil block maker technique and this is what we use on our farm. And we'll talk about. We can talk about the pros and cons once we have something to compare to it's like you know if I know that there's only apples in the world then I'll never know what a peach. Looks like or taste like so we need to cross compare here. So how the system works is basically you're going to take a mix like Larry's pretty much OK. You're going to wet it to about the consistency of peanut butter. OK. And mix this thing up. And then you're going to put it in like those seem in trays. Have you seen those at Lowes or big tubs black to this that you put on the ground OK. And you're going to pour that into there and you're going to mix it up either by hand or put it in a mixer we actually have a mortar mixture that I've pulled out of the weeds. Someone's place than brought it home and spent too much money repairing it. But anyways. And so you're going to mix it up and once you get it to the right consistency. You're going to take this thing you're going to push this for thing down into it several times twisting and stuff like that then you're going to scrape it off on the edge and then you're going to inject it. The blocks into the tray here. OK. And as you can imagine. Think about this. I'm not just mixing it. I'm waiting it. In mixing it and then I'm not just letting it mixing it. I'm actually taking this machine and I'm forcing it into the mix compressing the soil. Into the form a block. And then I'm injecting it and I can only do about a third of a tray at a time. This is where foil blocks really stink. OK. Tell you the truth. For one thing they're very compact which I haven't personally noticed a big problem in C. production in. I know Larry said that he doesn't like these two Pac and it might be because he has edges on these. So it's going to he's not going to get the error of movement around or the oxygen exchange when you have a block that doesn't have any side. You have Air Print one two three four five six you have six sides that are going to have air exchange in them. So it's going to make a bit of a difference. But it's the physical aspect of this when you're having to do one hundred trays. It's really daunting and. You're doing this thing. I mean I've gotten blisters on my hands doing this. I know a lot of people that do this dicing years of done this for years and. I'll let them share their own reasons but I'm highly questioning. I'm highly questioning the long term. Where on my body. Using this machine. OK. It's something you have to consider you only have one body and one life. If you wanted to do this for forty years you have to think about how is this wearing on my body. Is this really ergonomic. Is it efficient and another thing is that my mom's going through are back out doing this. You had one to think also about situations on which. It's not just the farmer that has the big muscles. I don't have big muscles but has more muscle mass. That can actually is the ONLY WANT TO DO they can do this you want to have something that's more universal. That any worker can accomplish not just you. And so that's one of the downsides. The upsides to this is that you don't have to buy any of these flimsy trays that you replace every three years. So this is a pretty good life time. Investment situation and it's going to work day in and day out. But it's going to wear on your body. And it's not everyone's going to be able to do it. The other downside to this is that let's say I make a mix. OK. Once that mixes what I have. Pretty much. Twelve hours to get those blocks done. And seeds planted in them because be on that time. Because you're putting so much water into this mix. It's going to start decomposing in methane is going to be given off which is an inhibitor of seed germination. So if you don't hit that window of time. Basically your mix the shot and you have to start over again. Which is a real downside. Not necessarily because he can. OK The question was is that Larry way. What's his mix. Anyways. And so why you know what's the difference the difference. This is where the just or in flies the difference lies is that Larry can pre make his mix and he might not do this he can doesn't need a pre wet it to use it wedding it is simple. OK. But he can make this in math and have it in storage. Anyone can know what a mix lightly. The thing is that I'm using my mix tell it I when I squeeze that it's going to just drip on the floor I want to be what enough. But with his mix it's not going to be super what. So it's even the weight that you're having to move around. Physically is going to be different because of the concentration of water you're putting in the mix. I can mix it ahead of time but then it's not so much mixing it it had a time it's the physical aspect of actually mixing it if you have a mixer. But it's the. The amount of time and. I know people that don't what their mix. That put it in and do this is well but here's the biggest difference. Watch this. But say I have this OK. I put it. Let's say I have a table here but I put it on the ground. I take my mix and I just poured in the top pat it down and I'm done. OK with this. And you know this a little because you're on our farm it takes about a minute to do a tray. Maybe a little bit more. If you don't have enough you know you have to mix it down pack it up and stuff like that. I would say that it's the manual labor. Part of that is really the only. The other things you can mitigate. You can figure out ways around like she's saying but it's a more complicated process. It's a more complicated process. It has upsides his air pruning. When you transplant he has less transplant shock. True. It's a it's a really good method for the plant. While it may not be the best method for around. Body is a good method for around. Plant. And so I might not a survival but the plants will. If you have good strong nourished soil and plants growing on. You'll be rejuvenated and. But. And I used to it was as well. I don't just do this and then one of the reasons why I got this. I spent five dollars a tray you probably would pay ten normally but the reason my did is if you get close enough. Every one of these blocks has a little slit. On two sides of it. And you can see how big that hole is in the bottom. So talk a little bit about air pruning so that people know. OK So air printing means. Effectively the route as it grows out once it hits air will stop and. It doesn't necessarily work all the way on soil blocks they will grow into each other after a certain amount of time. The outside blocks doesn't have the air pruning but the inside. Blocks will grow into each other if you leave them into wrong it really all comes down to the timing on any system you use. Yeah. But. But what that does affect of that I get an error pruning. So they can't root wrap regret means the roots will just go around in a circle. And they'll just keep was when you plant them too long when but when you planted the roots have a growth pattern. They're not going out and going down they're going around in a circle. And so you lose. Real your plants are not going to be as good. They're going have a harder time. And I like to say I mean I probably will never give up the soil block situation completely because I will use it maybe for larger crops and stuff like that. So it's not necessarily a situation of. OK that's the worst thing ever. I'm never going to use it it's saying. What will work for what applications. And so for instance. I will use this for squash. I'll use it for bigger crops that I don't plant more of. But things like spinach beets I'll actually do beets and blocks and stuff like that. I'm having to do. Like twenty four trays. Just for one plant teen with tomatoes I might have to do three trays. You see the difference in the amount of effort. In the amount of blocking you have to do. So we're going to be switching up to two another system I haven't quite decided. But that's when we start looking at the paper pulp planter which or not going to play just yet but because I want Larry to say anything else that he wants is they before we move on to that thing. Yeah yeah. OK. That's really good. So Alan's got this it is that one of the happens yeah this is an inch and a half block or. They make a two inch blocker and a three inch blocker. Right. And they might make something else but I don't know if now on his You can get. And the little guys. You see how this has a little devil are in it if you look in there. You can see actually here. Let me get these little guys here. That makes a little devil in your blocks and put your seed in one of the things I found with these is some of these for small sees Legacy's likes light light. Needs life in a generation in order to Germany. If I had a hole that big and I filled it up you get really erratic germination and that was a problem for me. Now we just water it lightly. And it was sort of fill in. And I will get better germination. But they may also make a square one. That's the size of this plug. And so when you would make that block it would have a hole in it this big and you would take these. Once you start it and you would. And that's what I do so basically parted on. They have a four inch Potter you might have seen that when it's just a one thing. I don't use that in the bigger reason is that I find that. Where the plant meets the ground. It will sometimes snap over because it's too weak. I actually once we get to the two inch size block this is not a to ensure I actually planted at the bottom of a four inch pot. And then the roof. The little furry part of the tomato plant actual grow out and I'll have a better root system that way. So I only use these up to the to exercise and then after that we part I'm on if we need to. I would like to mention though as far as Larry mentioned covering seedlings. Some people use oil in the sprinkle it over the top some people would use whatever. I just make a hole. I use a really technical way to do this as a marker. Wow. And I make a little hole in the middle. And when I put the seat and I just push the dirt over the side. It's very technical. If you need me to show you that come up afterwards and. Mine's a little. Well less technical I just what I do is I use what's called a vermiculite OK. You know. Anyways but we're making a light is really great it's actually like. Expanded Micah stone. So it has high magnesium and it's actually. People use it because it actually inhibits dampening off. If you've ever had that situation seed starting were it actually will. This little fungus will come you know basically girdle the bottom of the ceiling and it will fall over and so it allows more air exchange but it also holds more Easter. And I find that that is really works really well for me. So anyways it's like perlite except it's made out of a different stone. Sorry. You can get it at a local nursery store by the way. Every nursery pretty much will carry and I just get the Find textured from a killer. When using the soil block or. What do you reckon it would. What container Have you found best. Hold on these aren't great. Here. These will work. I would put holes in the bottom of them. If I was you. But they have these that they're more of a mesh I should have brought in one actually there is one. Breed could you. Could you check over there on the Agra table and see if there's a tray over there at that's actually the one that I use it on called a ten twenty trait. But they haven't. But they have different mesh bought out the Johnnies catalogue while your own in different in different density of plastic mines a much harder plastic. OK. Yeah. No you need to make sure she was saying that there she has a lot of big swell blocks in there and sometimes because of these trays or week they'll just you know go over so you want to make sure that you have a really sturdy secure. Like polycarbonate tray or a mushroom poly Tele of your flat Yeah. Question over here. Elliott Coleman actually just uses. Have you seen that greenhouse paneling it's about that thick and how like a slam made on two sides with like air gaps in the middle. I don't know if anyone it's a polycarbonate sheeting that they use on an greenhouses. It doesn't need to be that but you could just. Quite honestly you could just take plywood. And just cut the dimensions of what the blocks are three in a row. And then just block on to that flat piece he just uses that he doesn't have any edges or anything on his and. You'd be able to stack them tighter in your in your greenhouse if you need more space. I used to use these for what they call them. It's a ten twenty trade but it's got a mesh wedding. And I would so block into that. And then I could use these and set them inside of it. And that made it more rigid. But then if I wanted because I wanted all five. He said there are six sides of air for an issue as you put it on a flat surface to air printing in that the bottom of your roots will run along the bottom true. And so I like the idea. I would use those little trays if I can find him in the Johnnies catalogue. I'm pretty sure that they have a picture. There is here. It's just called a master a. But if you look at the Johnny's catalogue on page two twenty three. Yeah. That's what I use this one on top. The top one that so that. That allows all your sides to air prune. And we are little more ridges a heavier plastic because it's got so many Michel's And if you don't want to. If you want to. If you're in the house. You can set it in this. And then when you move out to the greenhouse you just pull it out of that set it on your table or whatever you have that you're using your starts tables or OK. Works really well. So there is a new type Well it's not necessarily new I don't think but it was used in Japan for actually. We haven't talked about size. Sizes. Sizes of blocks. Why would you use this when we talked about what some of the sizes. But yeah. This is called a seventy two. Self lab. And they get their numbers. Purely based on how many squares there are. This is a fifty. So what would you. OK And. I use one twenty eight I was talking with Maher on the way over here I think he uses like a four twenty eight small water you very tiny ones. And he starts his stuff in those. And he possum on Cannot way he knows he has one hundred percent germination. So you start. You know you have four hundred twenty eight. To MADE A starts. And maybe you get three hundred eighty of them to germinate. So you're not wasting a bunch of dirt. The didn't ever serve a purpose. Because it's expensive. Starts mixes and cheap and so you don't want to waste it. So then he can take that little innocent as a germinates and it gets like about this big pot it on to something like a bigger. You know more nutrients for the plants. Basically. And as far as sizes. I do all my brassicas. And what the brassica cabbage broccoli cauliflower. Brussel sprouts. Was on this. The whole family Romanesque go all the things that are pretty big like that I'll use a seventy two cent self. Things like let us all use a one twenty Excel flat. Herbs a lot of herbs I use a one twenty sell flat. And then bigger things like tomatoes squash. You know as you can any one or squash melons. Cucumbers even I use a spit the self or I will use the one and a half inch or so of law. Just depends on my mood. Are you planting directly out of those into the field. When I do. I don't. I will do everything in my power not to have the pot something up. Because it just takes a lot of time and it can become a little bit frustrating for me. On the only person on a farm doing three acres and so I try to find as a little double handling as possible. And so yeah. I get about four to five weeks of probably right six weeks. These need to be out. And in the ground. Lettuce seven weeks you her own way and on how desperate I am OK. Hopefully they're in the ground if it's not raining for Fuselier and the reality is the world is is real out there and you know you get to do what you want to do it dictates a lot of what you get to do. It was a question about beat. When you send in the BT plant one B. in each of those or I'll plant. Three seeds to a blog. Press for. We've been going down to two seeds I think we'll have better because beat seeds are all tied face there like a diamond so you'll have actually three individual or four individual plants and one seed. And so too will be pretty much the fish and they will make up for the ones that might not germinate. So that's what I do as far as beats are concerned. In a block. I want to just do a little rant here as far as. Why are we doing soil blocks anyways or why do we do pot entrees anyways. Think about this way. Let's say that I have a twenty six week season. OK that I'm growing in another marketing and selling. OK. This is a very very intensive time I want to maximize the square footage that I'm growing in. These are going to be end. This for probably three to five weeks. OK depending on what we're doing OK. Got three to five weeks that they're not out in the field. They're not in the field. Taking up space. You say OK we'll get three plant hundreds per square foot per year. Now you're looking at about three months. Which is about twelve weeks. That you're saving off of that twenty six week period. That your plant doesn't actually have to be in the ground taking up space in the field. That means that you might even be able to put on an extra crop. This is where soil blocking starts making sense because you're maximizing the land that you have especially on a small farm system. Because you're taking basically half of your growing season. And you're making it happen in blocks or trays. And you know that every time you transfer something in the ground. There's a plant a seed. Maybe maybe not only. You know. And so it's a it's a really smart way to. To make sure that everything and that's the thing about putting on. Like in my house I have twenty flats that I can do one of those so I have sixty two for six sixty. Flats that I can do. And that means. I can transplant anything earlier. I have sixty options. Right. So if I can do in smaller trays that means I get a lot more plants under those lights. And if I can potter moms you have somewhere to palm onto. But if I know that everyone. Say I do. Three flats. Of that. And then I transplant them onto a fifty sell flat let's say. I know that every fifth. Every one of them have fifty. Plants in it. It's I do it. If I see. Just into this. And let's say I get ninety percent germination. You know that means on this and if you plan. You don't make any money off of the plants that don't sprout That's right. So that's one of the benefits of plotting up from a small cell at once so I'd like to just highlight this thing we're going to play it just in a second but this is a this is a technique. We need a kind of moving on but if you have a question just hold that thought. This is a technique that was developed by some Japanese growers that were doing sugar beets because they were wanting to maximize their season and get more production. One of the things with transplanting is that you spend a lot of time down on the ground. You're bending in you're putting that transplant in another reason to have. You know appropriately space bed so that you're not killing your back. Or more mechanisation or something like that but this is a system that was developed there are upsides to it there are downsides to it will talk about it after we watch the video here it's just it's fairly short. So if we go ahead and play that that would be great. There's no sound with it. But just just watch the technique that's being used here. OK. So think about all the time you don't have to be on the ground. Planting each one of these individual plant. This is Gene Martine for today. He's a grower in Quebec and. This is this is a system that's he's using especially for smaller transplanting systems. There are benefits there are downsides to it. But we'll talk about those after we watch it. So he just takes it out there. He turns this thing around. He puts a stake in the tape on the end. And then he pulls at the opposite direction. And this is available in the States right now from a company called farm works. I believe you can just put in paper pot planter in they should come up with their website they're the only dealers of this piece of equipment in the states that I know of one of the things in your think about and I was reading some reviews on this I haven't used it yet personally but the idea is that you can see his beds here actually hundred feet long. If you have anything much shorter than that when you're having to turn around Turn around turn around turn around every time you do it. So something like this is going to become more and more practical for growers on a larger scale with larger bed runs because you're not have to take the time to turn around on a smaller system it's going to take just a much time to do this to turn that machine around as it would be for someone to manually plant it. So just turn it off now. We don't need to go the next one. No no her Huish. No it doesn't basically it comes in a honeycomb shaped flat you basically expand this little compressed piece and it expands out. And then you hook it in a tree. Between two kind of suspension. Rods and each side. Then you fill it with your mix and then you release it now that has the mix and it holds the trays open. So downsides to this. You have to have a very very well prepared seed beds. No trash. When we're talking about trash we're talking about things like sticks leaves a plant residue prayer. Plant residue it really takes a clean seed bed because this thing can get caught up on it. You want to bet. Sorry. Rocks. You just want to make sure that they're below your cutting edge there. OK some people have really rocky soil I have personally have quite rocky soil. But even on my soil I saw Jean Martine soil he has rocks in there like this. I had a rock this year you had a rock this year on. Wow. OK. Downsides to this. You want to have really good germination was a stud so good key. Another downside to it is the material in which it's made from. And I have a few questions about it I don't really know what type of paper it is what type of glue there is. I know that the people that have this. They usually have like a fungicide in the paper so it doesn't break down so fast. What type of fungicide is that. But they've now got it in a supply that it doesn't have the fungicide So it's just the paper in the glue that you would have to get over in for Larry that's a big question and I have a question about it too. But in some ways. If you can improve that germination even if you had to go down to one hundred foot bed and replace five or six plants as you went. You have to start. You have to weigh the cost between is this a fission with the scale that I'm using versus the time that it's going to save me. And also think about being down on the ground to plant all those things how much is it wearing on your body. There is a lot of questions I still have with this specific ular system. But it intrigues me enough to think about looking into it more. Sharing it with you. Using this system. Would you put two seeds in breach one of those little blogs or three seeds. That's a really good question it depends what you're planting I would probably use the same plant teens. Density in my blocks that I use in this in those trays there. You can always prune. So like we do chard we put chart in a block. We don't do beats because it's just easier to direct C. to be in my opinion. Not as secure and getting a beat. As he is. If you get fairly good germination out of these are you so you get a lower germination and you like you can. You can oversee to be pretty cheap seats unless it's a golden beach seed. You can always print. We put charted here. Well with a chart and. This one and. You know it's going to bring up. Three charred plants probably or something like that two three four. Jarred science and we go through him for an amount. So you can plant as many as you want proof down. Seeds are relatively cheap. Generally speaking to your questions how are you going to investigate the glue in the paper. How would one find that out. And then secondly how do you get your plants. Out of these things without hurting them and making it time a fact of our breaking them apart. The glue question would be just like I research everything I put in my mouth. I call the company and I talk to the scientists that I have to satisfy I'm not satisfied with. We don't know. Well. Somebody made it. You've got the paper somewhere. Give me their number. And I will just keep going until either find out the answer. They're not willing to say that I don't think it's a suitable company I don't trust them and so I won't use a product. That would be my answer to that question. And then as far as this goes. We have sticks. They grow on trees. And we push them right in that little hole. And it pops it out just a little bit and take the plant and. And so what we'll do on the whole this for me. Hope for your game. For me again. So that's why I like this one a lot because you can see these have really large holes in my fingers. Well I'm a kind of a wife says they have nice Ronnie. Is delivered in a big for the sun a lot of those holes that my finger will go like all the way into this one. And so I just problem out of my finger. And so I'll just before I started a row I just go through and literally pop them all. And then. Ideally if I'm not by myself I'm by myself and I what I call with a plop or a planter. Somebody plops in somebody's plants or else. It's me and I'm a plumber and a planter. So I will plop them. But I don't. You don't want to leave your leaves on the ground too long. Out in the sun expression on a sunny day. And so I kind of figure. I've been doing it for ten years and I'm really fast at it. So I mean I could do this whole flat and. Really. Two minutes. You know I can plop it all out. Come back and put it in the ground and I will tell you. Did you see how that was sticking out of the ground. And the picture. It dries out. We talked about hydrophobic and what was he fought. Outside of the ground. It didn't plant at all some of them yeah. Some of them were Shall I went to I went to Z. Martine's class and it really has to do that was the first time he like started using it. You know just like you look video this thing. You can calibrate the depth of the cutting blade that actually makes the whole and he's like yeah. I just didn't put it that low. For those passes because the first time he pulled thing out there was like what's video it. You know the rights of thing. And so even if you're doing it by hand you need to be conscious. Conscious that you're covering those because the sun will drive out. Now. The other thing I was going to say thank you Alan. You're welcome. You probably can't see me pretend I'm kneeling down and this is the dirt. I was two fingers. And I it's laying on the ground I just grab it by the base of it's of the plants right. So that it's not ripping it apart and. I'm moderately careful a kind of cup. The root zone with two fingers and pick it up. I think these two things put in the ground. As a slide over a slide the plant in and cover it. I can do that and walking on the bed. You know. Is a little hard on your back. But it's a fairly quick process expression for something like like a brassica like a broccoli lettuces a little more complicated because you've got to be careful you don't want to cover the Crown up and all that and get all dirt inside of it. Then you have her. When you take it to the market and people are like your lettuce is dirty. Hard to you know pleasant. And so those are the things you got to think about when you're doing it. Do you pack. Around it or is it like loosely. I've AIPAC pretty well personally. Around the plant none I'm not going to walk around with my foot but I'll I'll definitely. Push it in we'll make sure there's good soil to contact. Yeah you want. So true contact I mean I can just tell you and I go so well and things and. I'll irrigate it right away with a drip taper overhead. And that will settle out all the air pockets. Even though you might not pack it down as well as other people might pack it down. If you're gay right after you can. There's a lot of forgiveness. On the say that it's a very forgiving process. I think what plans do you put two or three seeds and. Do you have any plans of the just one seed. You know because what he's like you have three beats that are all coming out you don't mind that there are so tight. You know. This last the crop we did the. The two seed. Which means that you're probably putting about six beats in the same area. OK. And it was our best be crop. Ever I mean we were getting some excellent size be space equate what you do is that as you pull them out. The small ones have a chance to grow after the big ones. But usually you'll have about three that are going to do exceptionally well. And so. Just think about it this way you either are going to plant the beats one two three within a six inch area or. You can have three of those breech growing in that area and plant them every six inches. So that makes sense. So for instance. You can plant them every two inches one bead at a time or you can plant them in a ball. A block. Three together. Every six inches. It's the same square footage it's just they're tired or. In one space but it's the same. Soil to plant ratio will help answer the question I think is that they will push each other around. And so they're not going to be like really bothering one of the you may get like a little flat side where they were touching. But basically even if you direct seed those which is what I do. You're going to have the same Should you have the same situation and so beats are just forgiving in this manner. You can do it and it doesn't bother them. Oh. I personally do onions. Onions are going to Tory us for taking a lot of time because you're doing one every two inches or whatever. Like that so I actually put them in a block three onion. Seeds per block and this fall it worked pretty well for us. You know to have it is there very heavy features if you can't feed them. You need to give them their own space so I did what they did them. I don't just put three really close to every two inches I'll put three. Every eight inches or every twelve inches almost like what you would do let us out so you space that wider. But this. Here's the thing is that onions don't have a very good. Canopy. OK they don't have the leaves to overlap each other so that they block out the weeds. And so you have to think about how I'm going to weed around these onions if I have so many rows but if you put them together in a bunch. And then leave space like a foot between these bunches of plants along the row. Now you have a place where regular hokum fit between and you can weed and between these plants and keep them really clean as far as lettuce. If you want to head lettuce. You need one plant. If you have two plants it will look like a beautiful plant and you'll cut it and you'll get to a little ridiculous looking when I'm looking like Larry. We're all time when we spoke to you three forty five. When you think about close up here Larry you know what these people go out for I know I'm guys excited about our conversation. Fun. We're just having a good time. Absolutely. We will answer whatever questions. We can probably need it in for the audio. So we should learn his article is a but pretty much everything else like lettuce broccoli kale chard what else. Names and Romanesque. One to block. One one seed per cell. Yeah. Personnel. Are surely down to one bottle Shorey one Chinese cabbage. One cabbage. Salad next I always directs the home side always direct Cebu Dula. I always do reveal a lot of the part of myself next. If I'm doing a brazing next. Which would be a lot of things that you might not like you might like chard for instance in my brain makes I directed that Dick at me and probably what else. Here's a good hair like homilies book the new organic grower and get Jean Martine's book. The market gardener. Those are excellent books that have space scene. Plant type multiple seed blocks what you need to do in one blocks. Block sizes. All of that information. So that you can take this home and you can read up on yourself and reference these books when you forget what we have said. And if you. If you won the best resource that I know of. I have it in my greenhouse. In my house in the wash day ssion always is Johnny C. catalog. It's one hundred percent free. And the amount of information is staggered on scene. When you get for free. Diseases. Past. When to plant. What the plant spacing. Everything that all the. It's all for free right there. You just go to the plant I'm going to plant. Broccoli. Go to the broccoli section and block there's tells you everything you need to know. And it's pretty accurate it's pretty much always accurate. So before you leave. If you would like. We only have thirty of these unfortunately and I don't think you know enough. I went. Well you start talking about other stuff Larry. I mean what can I say. I have a Stars makes recipe that I did that if your guys are welcome to it there's a whole stack of them up here of how I make my starts next. And I have a basic thing I have though I do mind back here and he has a lot of those when it goes through portion size so if you want to do I have it down to a two point two five gallons. And what you would do. Forty point five gallons what you would do for your eighty one gallons. He's very tech rebels he would be one hundred sixty two gallons with the rest. He would be. And it's a very complicated process because I had a lot of trouble I do began it. And so to to meet the nutritional needs of the plant. I had to do a lot of trial an air. To come up with a recipe that actually grew good starts. And the starts. That I grow now. Are fabulous in my opinion. And so it is on my website Yes. If we don't have a. If you don't have one for you would be happy to email it to you will just take you to the east or garden. Dot com. Eastward. Like the Lord God planted a garden. Eastward in Eden. If you can remember that. And you should have memorized. Then you can remember the name of my farm. Gardens plural. There's only one garden there I don't know why. Pluralized. We'll take more questions after done but we need I think we need to close all right to journalism for sure. Let's pray just tell your head. Your Father in heaven we just want to thank you for the stay that you've given us for this time that we've been able to spend here talking about transplants we just pray that we'd be able to whether the nation in the way that would honor. By you please keep us busy reading time of year from the gym with this media was brought to you by audio person a Web site dedicated to spreading God's word through free sermon audio. And much more. If you would like to know more about audio version. Or you would like to listen to more sermon. Leave visit. W W W dot. Audio person dot org.

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