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Soil: The Major Cations

Whitmar McConnell
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Whitmar McConnell

Owns and operates Golden Moment Farm in Means, KY

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  • January 25, 2017
    1:45 PM
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Father in heaven. We're thankful for the the good nourishing lunch in the fellowship and we just pray now as we nourish our minds some more. That you would prepare them for that and prepare my words so that they would be a blessing in Jesus' name. OK so we've kind of given you the the framework for the modeling and we've defined some of the terms so now we're going to go into the individual the individual elements in that in that model and see what's what with those and what they're involved in and for the next to the next two hours we're going to be spending our time on the major cat ions which are calcium magnesium potassium and sodium and we're also going to be addressing tillage in prosody because it's to categorize these major cat ions that affect the prosody of the soil until it is also related to the prosody the soil of the soil so we want to look at that a little bit. Some people have some questions about you know comments the Spirit of Prophecy is made and how do you relate to those and and some of the stuff that people are doing or not doing and you turn this on. OK So the first one. What I'm going to do is I'm going to go through. I'm going to go through the individual elements and then we're going to look at them combine as they enter interact with each other. Calcium is a and it's roles it's a double plus charged. Ion it's got a two plus charge to it which makes it a just have more attraction and more more attachment than a single plus charge were would which you'll see where it will get to Cassim and sodium are both a single plus charge. So it's roles that are in so all construction cell division. Cell membrane. Function in material transfer in and out of cells soil structure and it is immobile. In other words once it's it once it's put in place in a plant it's not moving. And so you'll find you'll see and what we'll see in just a second here. When you wind up with deficiencies on it it will always show up in the younger part of the plant first because it is immobile not going to move and the younger part of the plant the new growth because it's immobile. OK deficiency symptoms on cows in the terminal but dies in other words the young growth the new growth young growth doesn't have enough calcium the terminal bug will die young leaves get hooked kind of a hook look to him and you'll get blossom and rot on fruit or the blossom and turns black to go on tomatoes. Now it is in relation to that it might not be a lack of calcium in the soil. But if you don't have adequate transpiration water flow into the plant it might not get enough calcium just because of that and so you might have plenty of it there but if you're not getting if you're like if you're in a high tunnel for example and it's warm and humid in there and that in the transpiration shuts down on the plant and it's not moving the nitrogen. I mean I'm sorry that calcium into the fruit sufficiently as it's developing the fruit you can still get blossom in raw even though you have adequate in the soil because you're not getting proper transpiration in the plants because the roots have to go to the calcium the calcium doesn't come and if it's really dry. You're not going to get adequate calcium uptake as a result of that and so you can leave the blossom and rot so you might have to eat do a soil test and you'll go sell testis as oh wow. I have plenty of calcium there but this is where environmental can. Missions environmental influences come into play on what happens and approaches. Quite a bit of it is not all of it. Another reason you'll see we get to it. Another reason you can get blossom and rot is there are not enough Boron Boron facilitates the uptake of calcium in and mobilizes it. And if you don't have enough Boron you might not get enough mobility in the calcium and again you might have adequate calcium in the soil but it's not adequately mobilized and so you can still get blossom and rot on your on your fruit. The symptoms of an excess of calcium is tired of other nutrients. This is the biggest problem. Calcium is the heavy hitting kadai and in the soil. It's the heaviest one and it's the heaviest it literally control everything else including the Ana winds. And if you get excess of amounts of calcium in the soil it can shut down your other nutrients from being adequately taken up the ironic thing is you can have hot. If you have everything else in good quantities and you hot you have high calcium as long as you have adequate quantities of stuff grows really good calcium is the only element. The only element that you can have excessive levels of it and things do better as long as you have everything else you don't have everything else that's not going to work and I'll give you an illustration of it that the talks of England are high calcium soils. But they're very productive souls and the only difference is that where they have all of the other elements in the levels that they need to have them they do really well and so it would you would never be able to bring the calcium level down to what would be considered the optimum level because there's so much calcium. They're. The farm out of Daystar they have they have tremendous reserves of free calcium in a slow and so even though all on the coal is they have only seventy five percent. They have this tremendous reserve there and so the tried and they have a coming in on our water and so to try to bring that down to the optimum level is just not realistic. What you have to do is you have to bring everything else to its optimum levels and just let that that that level be where it is if you can get it to the optimum level. Well I call calcium the love element because it makes everything work better but if it gets out if it overwhelms everything else so that there's not. And you put it you don't have structure. You don't have obedience. In frame. In the context of that love. But it's the only element you can do that where you can be you can be higher than what optimum is as long as everything else is in a good levels and things work pretty well this is the form it's in a double plus I on form that it's held on the cup the call is in the soil. This is the form the double plus charge. Ion form it will break down to that will look at and say OK and the symptoms of other nutrient deficiencies as talk comes back to the type of other nutrients on it if you have excessive amounts of it you don't have adequate levels of these other nutrients. It will sufficiently suppress them in time up to the point you won't be able to get adequate amounts of of those nutrients so those what you. This is what you usually say one thing that I will say when we're talking about these deficiencies in Access is almost invariably plants are her having hidden hunger. When you can't see anything they're already in hunger but the symptoms are not manifesting themselves yet. And so that's why it's important to really know what you actually have to be sure that the plants are getting you know what they need to grow because a lot of times they're suffering from malnourishment and you don't know it because the symptoms of not manifested themselves efficiently to for you to be able to observe it. If you if you have adequate everything else you can be as high as eighty five percent that's not ideal but eighty percent of their soils that are running eighty eighty one eighty two percent have everything else and they do great. They do fine but I don't you know in saying that in the book the ideal soil by Michael asked her if any of you have looked at death book he actually says to you should run your your calcium eighty three and a half percent. If you're over a Ph seven. I don't agree with that assessment is particularly if he's trying to use the Albrecht modeling. I don't understand why he doesn't elaborate on why he recommends that there's no documentation of anything and where he came up with that number. I wondered. I actually was speaking with the manager of the research for our University of Kentucky and we were talking and he was saying something about well Dr Albrecht you know his later years were recommended on higher PH just recommended you know higher levels of calcium and I don't I recall reading that by that I saw Or maybe I missed it and I didn't notice it and then he said yes so we just since hearts are pieces are about seven we just push it up they three and a half percent. I said eighty three and a half percent where you know why eighty three and a half percent. Anyway he couldn't exactly tell me why. But then I was somebody asked me a question about Peaches oversoul. When and where you should run and they were reading the book and and so I went back and I got the book out and I looked at it and sure enough that's where he got it from he got it from from asters book and you know the ideal soil because that's what he recommends eighty three and a half percent calcium. I can't say is numbers wrong I don't know where he's you know he uses Logan labs and so I don't know where he's where he's going and number he doesn't elaborate on where he doesn't. Why he recommends that but I completely disagree with the idea that just because you're above seven that you should run your calcium at that level. Why there's no no explanation for that I can't think of one that would believe it or not you actually do have enough room to have adequate I could element you're not going to have any you're not going to have any hydrogen ions you're not going to have any acidity in the so ill and a lot of people say that they don't want any acidity in this but actually Dr Albert said that you actually do want some acidity in soil and the reason you do is when when you apply that the minerals that Big Day Out conforming tatt ions and they exchange without hydrogen without hiding goes on to the rock material and I decided he starts breaking down the rock material and making minerals available out of that out of that pair material. So a little bit of a city is actually good. That's why you may that's why you're you hit just on this slightly on the side of a city not way down and a lot of people say well I want to fill it. So up with with nutrition nutritional Catalans someone to fill it all away to seven but I will purchase her say but if you really want to work on any research. You might have in the soil then you're going to want some city city there to do that. You don't have to but you definitely don't want to have them above what your ideal levels would be design you do start pushing out space on the on the call it the colloidal sites and and limiting your trace elements because calcium will tire out the the others can kind of tie that to all right thank you for mine. So the question why is the question was if you're if you're running your calcium levels at high. Do you want to proportionally lower the other cabins the magnesium potassium and sodium you'll see when we get the magnesium there's only so much you can do go down with magnesium and then you're going to be deficient so you would run it on the lower end of those ideal levels but you you wouldn't go down too far on. OK these are sources for calcium you have high calcium line which runs between thirty and thirty eight percent calcium thirty eight percent. You don't usually see a lot of that's a really high purity high calcium lime and it's got minimal magnesium in it. And it would be the material that would be preferred in cases where you have higher magnesium levels in the soil and you don't want to add anything to it but you need calcium. It's one of the one of the preferred sources on that and they can. All add a line and I'll explain why they call the law something's line and why they're lining materials and why other things are not lining materials and then there's dolomite line dolomite lime is about twenty to twenty four percent calcium typically and ten to twelve percent nine easy i'm It can vary out of those ranges but that's typically about what it is. One thing I need to point out here when you're getting a limestone like that is how much of that you're actually going to get is going to be determined by that. The size of the particles and otherwise. How much goes through you need sixty percent to one hundred best green. The reason for that is you the smaller the particle The larger the surface area in the larger the surface area. The more surface. The more the microbes can work on it and break it down. So if you don't you. I actually have to do a calculation to determine how much you're actually going to get if you use you look at a three year release and so you have to actually do a calculation to figure out based on what the screen size is how much goes to what screen is how much you're actually going to get in three years the rest of it you'll eventually get that is going to be over ten to twenty years there growers that I have who have applied what they call agricultural line. It's a more course line. There's not as many finds in it and they've applied at so many years over the last few decades that now they have so much of that coarse lime and they're breaking down that they really don't have to put a lime on anymore and they probably will have to put in the on for a while because all of that residual that didn't get released in the first three years is being released over time it's actually a good way by the way a lot of people say well I don't want that core stuff because it. You know if you need it right away then a finer grind is preferable but you can even take those coarser grind because a lot of times you can get it for less money they had a For Sale up where we were for fifty. Cents a ton out of the quarry. You know I would do an analysis on it and see what its finest to grind is because and then I could calculate out well if there was a fine enough that I could put it on and get it all in three years. Well if it's cheap enough then and even if I have to put three or four times the amount on then I'm building that reserve in the soil that can be released down the road and I could still get what I need in three years to get my you know get it back to where I needed to be so it's not necessarily a bad thing it's just a matter of you trying to restore the balance to your soil you want to do it in the quickest time frame. You can they actually have finally ground materials that are go through two hundred three hundred mesh screens on this in they'll release all of the release in six to twelve months. That's a fairly new thing within the last decade or so that's become available so and that was one of the reasons it would take three to five years to get your soil and soil balance because you couldn't find the fine enough grind of limestone to get it to release out that any more quickly than three years but now that they have the fine. They pelletised that they finally grind they pelletised in and you spread it that way and you can get a breakdown six months or a year depending on the conditions and bring things up to where you need to be a lot faster. Another thing to know about all my line and I'll probably say it again. Is that magnesium doesn't start releasing this is another factor that has to be taken in the consideration magnesium does not start releasing out a dollar might line until the second year. All of it will release in the last two or three years whereas the calcium the high calcium Lima start releasing right away and it has something to do with enough calcium has to release there before that magnesium will start releasing out of it. That's important to know depending on if you're borderline on magnesium and you put it on and the calcium goes up really fast but you don't have the mag. Going up at you and you tank down below your minimum level of magnesium you're going to have deficiencies in magnesium on your soil and that has to be taken into consideration when you're making recommendations to because you might have to use a material that releases faster like a mager. Or Epsom salts magnesium sulfate something to supplement some of that magnesium to make sure that you stay where you want you need to stay. I'm going to talk about it later. There's a one to one relationship between calcium and magnesium this is one of the things that's missed in asters book but he doesn't take into he doesn't factor in if calcium goes up one point. Magnesium is going down one point if magnesium goes up a point calcium is going down a point in our relationship works pretty consistently until you start getting into a very deficient low levels and then it's more resistance to that suppression. But you have to also take that into consideration and a lot of people don't take into consideration a lot of people who say the Albrecht system doesn't work because they're not some of these factors that they're not taken into consideration and it's not working right. And then they say oh well this doesn't work because they don't understand those those issues. So it's a one to one relationship one goes up the other goes down and when you're doing the calculations you've got it. You've got to factor that all into. Unless Yeah pretty much unless you've got massive amounts of sodium or potassium and sometimes they can interfere with it but that's that's a rare situation and you probably wouldn't be grown a thing in there anyway because it wouldn't grow because of the excess the excessive amount of those things. It's the magnesium in the Dalai Lama magnesium component will not start releasing generally now after I told you that there is a New Zealand and the dollar medical either getting out of that quarry. We'll start releasing right away. Nobody seems to know why. It's just a different way the way the deposit formed it's but. But pretty much they they they are there aren't any other cases of that anywhere else. Now. OK why do they call it a line just a lining material is because when the carbonate separates from that it neutralizes the acidity in the soil. And so you could put something else with calcium in it or magnesium in it and it's not a carbonate and it's not going to neutralize the acidity so they don't call it a lining material but if you need the material. It's irrelevant whether it's a Cup It's a lining material or not. OK so the third source is gypsum gypsum is the stuff they make the sheet rock out of in your house don't by the way don't ever use don't ever grind up sheet rock and and put it on your soil it actually has a bunch of chemicals in it to binder's they actually use potassium sulfate which is also another good source of fertility. To solidify the set it up at the glues and everything the stuff they use in the papers and not really not really the greatest to be put in your garden gypsum will not affect the PH like the lining materials will because it doesn't neutralize acidity. And it's usually twenty to twenty four percent calcium and fifteen to eighteen percent sulphur in it in the soil analysis that I use by a pair Kinsey agc you must have sixty percent saturation of calcium before you start using chips and this is another factor that's not taken into consideration before you start utilizing gypsum if you don't have sixty percent saturation of calcium before you start even though you're adding calcium with that gypsum it'll strip calcium out. And nobody's. Quite sure what the did. Yeah it's soluble ises it and calcium already leaves really easy with nitrogen and other things and so but you have to have at least sixty percent saturation No I I can't tell you what that number is on other soil tests so don't take it if you don't a different test and they've got a different percentage there. I don't know what that number would be but this is another factor that's missed a lot of times and so you can imagine I was telling you about that origin that orchard over North Carolina they put four tons of gypsum on that's four tons of chips and that was twelve hundred pounds of sulphur. They're putting on and the way you get that way you get cat as out of the soil if you have excesses which we'll talk about more when we get the sulphur is with sulphur sulphur a leech. These are all of the major cattle and civil leach all the Catalans out of the soil. If you have it in excess of quantities and since this is a double plus charge for every pound of calcium it'll take two pounds of sulfur to take any act excess out of the soil for every pound of calcium you'll need two pounds of sulphur for each charge you going to need a pound of sulphur So two pounds of sulphur to remove one pound of calcium would also be a factor as you well know you won't. It's only if you have it if it's only if it's surplus sulphur if you only have enough on there and this is another thing you have to take into consideration you don't want to put more sulphur on than you need if you've got good levels and you put more sulphur on than you need you're going to be leeching stuff out and losing it and just wasting it it won't be. I would have to look at the whole picture and see you know what the rest of the Catalans look that look like because it'll go after what's in excess of the most and so it may be that magnesium is what's in excess the most and it will target it be able to target it more than it with the calcium. But if you had excess of magnesium you need to get rid of it too. It always go after what's in the most in excess and pull it out. They really stabilizes down as it gets that's is another indicator that the model's correct. The closer you get to the to the ideal percentages that you want the more they should stick around. They don't they don't go anywhere unless they're taken out by the crop. OK moral is a as a material that they get out of the ocean in it's thirty to thirty percent calcium and has clay impurities in it. It's a great source if you can get it. It's usually fairly inexpensive primarily for calcium. Oyster shell line is also thirty the thirty eight percent calcium oyster shell lime is usually is usually a coarser material and so you generally you're not going to get it's usually easy to find because they use it. People are raising chickens for for as layers for eggs. They'll feed them oyster shell lime to give the extra calcium that they need. So a lot of times feed stores will have the oyster shell line there. The problem is if you look at the open a bag and look at it there's a lot of big pieces in it and so it will take quite a while for it to break down. Other sources. Phosphate if you need phosphate most phosphate sources natural phosphate sources are about twenty percent calcium sometimes as high as twenty five percent and about twenty percent phosphorus actually is twenty percent phosphate I'm sorry not there's a piece there but it's actually twenty percent phosphate. I'll talk about that you know what the difference is and why it's a weird thing you know when they when they put those numbers on a bag if you're got a bag of fertilizer and have the three numbers there. When they with the number that's on there. It's based on phosphate instead of the middle number instead of elemental phosphorus and the last number is based on potash K two zero rather than K. rather than elemental potassium and nobody seems to know why it's done that way except that that's the way they started doing it a long time ago and and somebody said well if you think you get more fertilizer than you you are what you're paying for. By putting it on and an interesting phenomena with this with that reality and I touch on it again when we get the phosphorus or sulphur is that phosphate phosphorous is considered a major element in this requirement but sulphur it doesn't leave much sulphur leaches and if you take sulphur which is usually measured in elemental form and you turn it into sulphate converted the sulphate which is the form is used by the plants pound for pound it's almost the same the requirement if you're growing vegetables particularly high sulfur and vegetables like the alliums in a brassicas things like that which are Alan's are engines of garlic and everything in a brass broccoli cauliflower high sulfur requiring crops. They're pulling more sulphur than your pull and phosphorous but they'll compare an apples to oranges and say oh we need all this phosphate we don't need very much sulphur but if you convert it up to the sulfate form so you have apples to apples or you consult. You convert the phosphate form down to elemental phosphorus pound for pound there are equal and sulphur leeches and we'll talk about some more issues with sulphur we get there that make it make it a problem. This is a dilemma for the organic growers and the reason is a dilemma if you have high calcium and you have low phosphate or low phosphorus levels. Your only sources that are certifiable have both calcium and phosphorus phosphate in it so you have to overload the calcium when you're already excessive in it in order to try to get the fosters and Larry can contest to this because we're working on a situation like that and how you compensate for it is you put more sulphur on the leach out the extra calcium you're putting in the catch with that is sulphur is antagonistic to fight phosphorous and if you're already low and you put yourself or on to leach out the extra calcium you're putting on trying to build a phosphorous you're antagonizing what the sulphur and it becomes a very very difficult situation to try to work with will see how it's working now after a couple years. It's leaving with the groundwater Yeah. Now if you're like out west where you've got in a dry climate you're not moving enough water and prevent you getting more evaporation than you get in infiltration. It'll bring it up to the surface and it'll leave it on the surface the water all of operate and then the calcium will stay there and you'll see it as a you'll see it as a white crusting on a surface that's not always so that's salt it's its mineral SOLs and so yeah. When I was out we were out in Colorado for twenty years and and we had to really be careful to make sure we ran enough water to get that water to go down out of the root zone and not come back. From evaporation most people do not use enough water in a high tunnel greenhouse situation. I you know almost every sample I've gotten out of high tells you greenhouses there have been an accumulation of salts in the air because they're not run in and of water through that soil and that goes for high rainfall areas as well as low rainfall because in a high tunnel. It's not getting rained on and so if you're not putting enough water in there to to leach it down out of the root zone. It's going to it'll actually it can actually come up and get into the road zone and then your electrical conductivity climbs because all the Cybil salts and that started burning your roots in causing all kinds of problems. Yeah it's being held up this being kept up there by the sulfur kind of a brownish is kind of a tan. Yeah yeah it's staying up at the surface it's not actually get wet and been infiltrated down into the oh he was saying in his greenhouse is high tunnel. He was seeing what's looks like a light tan and looks like the fought that the colloidal phosphate or the ten of Tennessee Brown phosphate accumulating up on the surface and that's what's happening. Yeah it's coming up and accumulating on the surface and has a light tan it's kind of a light tan color to it. Not enough water moving through and you're using drip irrigation and that drip irrigation is focused in at a spread out down underneath you have a lot of the top of the soil it's not it's not going down. You have to really use some sprinkler or some other means of irrigation is to totally wet the whole surface and work that down all of that down. I had the same problem in my high tunnel. Where I needed to put more I was using drip taken so I had to go to a different type of irrigation to you don't have to do it all the time and just you know a couple times a year if you just you know wash it. You know get a flush and flush it down out of there and get it on down where water's going to spread and continue to keep it keep it down there. He'll be OK that would be that could be calcium it could be magnesium it could be potassium it could be sodium and any of those are going to come up and have that white crystal look to see that is all you need do is get it out of the root zone it'll go all you need to do is get it out of the root zone out of the robot's zone when it gets down there. It'll go laterally some way or another. Unless you're in a bowl. I mean if you're in a bowl where it is going to concentrate down in there but yeah usually works its way down and it worked. Wherever gravity is going to take it. It'll work its way that way and it will come out you know in a spring or a creek as it works its way out of the ground at the lower elevation and work its way eventually works its way really deep into the subsoil or it works its way out into the groundwater and and washes this way to the ocean so. Well it probably will take some of it will go and go into it and they have about the same percentages in a Tennessee Brown phosphate as a reactive phosphate and you try to explain it and the other was a cause a colonial phosphate they're basically the same thing. They're both from raw phosphate they both come from rock cost. And there there the washings where they take the rock they're taking the rock phosphate or out and they're taking it off to make triple superphosphate which is a high commonly concentrated phosphate source that's typically is the most common use source in commercial agriculture is triple superphosphate but they're basically the same basically the same thing. The Tennessee Brown phosphate let me just say this about it so that people are Gammick they way they want to understand this phosphate and phosphorous is highly reactive and it reacts with heavy metals. And so all your natural sources of phosphate rock are also got heavy metals in. The Tennessee Brown phosphate is the cleanest and I tell people I say you know if I need it. I use Mannone and phosphate I say it's actually a cleaner source than the natural sources are because it does they the heavy metals have been pretty much removed out of it. So it's not a problem as long as long as you've got buffering there and you've got to you've got balance calcium is a tremendous suppressor of having So you always want to keep your calcium levels. You know optimum if you've got situations like that. It's just the reality of the phosphate is highly reactive phosphorous is highly reactive and it can react to the lots of things but it likes heavy metals. Is there mining the rock phosphate the appetite rock and it's the what is that the washing when they wash it to the ship off to process. It's just stuff that washes off or the soft smaller material that they do stone. That's what most of the stuff coming out of Florida is it's all of the stuff they washed off from the mine mining of phosphate raw. So it's not it's not. Now it's just it just gets washed off in the process of processing your prepping the OR for shipment because this is what records make me he said. I'm not sure it is the triple super The triple superphosphate I'll tell you a story about phosphate rock when we get to sulfur and how times change and people don't and also and find themselves in a bad way. OK. Lerman who are which can be variable in this content is really high in calcium because they supplement oyster shell to the chickens to strengthen their eggs and so most of that calcium goes on through and winds up in the north and so if you're looking for calcium and you want some other nutrients with it you get a compost layer manure compost you'll get really high calcium levels in it while I'm doing that just so I don't forget copper if you need copper turkeys Turkey manure is really high in copper copper turkeys are very susceptible to aneurisms copper is used to build collagen the stuff that makes your skin elastic your bet your blood vessels. You know elastic so they get stretched and given but they don't break turkeys or releases that they don't they don't utilize that copper very well so they have to supplement to on a majority that goes through in them in order to and so you get turkey menorah Turkey litter you can get a lot less expensive source of copper. Than what it cost of my in the elemental in coffee. They usually have but they usually. Prove it but you would have to ask your certifier they probably do you would not believe the stuff that's OK as long as it's natural. Yeah right. Yeah they're supposed to be composted first and then of course you know what people call compost sometimes it's questionable but sometimes it's just aged manure because they the reality is they're feeding him so many antibiotics and hormones and so many drugs and everything the antibiotics are killing off the microbes that would normally break down the manure and compost it. And so then it just sits there in ages because they unless you an ocular it if you unoccupied it and and right. So the heat the heat will will kill Wheaties and stuff like that and possibly pathogens but you really didn't composted it didn't really break down into actual compost people find their way around all kinds of things and the lazy you would would stand your hair on end. If you knew them all so you know it's OK in the last one is industrial by products it's variable have killed us here sugar beet waste they filter sugar beet juice is that they when they're making sugar and squeezing the juices out of sugar beets. They filter it with with high calcium lime and you can usually get it pretty if you're close to a sugar beet processing plant. You can usually get it for near nothing. Just for the haul it away because they get mountains of it right. So a big chunk of sugar beets are now G.M.O.. Sugar beads and so you've got that reality that come into play. The reason I say this is a fundamental course because I could very often every single one of these and start talking about all these issues that you need to. So what you need to do is you need to get fundamentals first and then you need to start looking at refinements of how you make you know I need to take this into consideration and that into consideration a lot of people don't want to use any animal products because that high levels of drugs and and stuff and it's not degrade not degraded so but you even have plant based products that that can be a problem if you using cow manure. They're all eating. They're all waiting G.M.O. corn and soy and all of that and it's not it's not degraded life it's a doesn't degrade anywhere near as fast as they say it does and it's causing is causing major problems. This is another reason you need to grow your own stuff because the food supply is a real mess and real mass and it's it's only going to get worse and in fact it's rapidly getting worse. So anyway that that that given that there are now that that might not be the greatest source they use and they also use it to scrub areas kiln dust and cement processing everything like that there's a few other sources like that some people. If it's clear it's close to them they can get it really cheap the second most important thing to get information from a soil test is the reuse the right materials and so some of these materials given their overall scheme of things are OK but if you have a better source any better off. I just put it up there because those are sources and there's a lot a lot of people use I'm not a whole lot. How you know. Here. This is yeah this is before this is before they hear it you know it's just straight Portland cement the actual compound. Not after that I know that they're adding tons of chemicals to it after the but in the processing of it. This is the dust is generated it's prior to when they add all the other additives to it. But I don't now. I mean that stuff changes you've got to stay on top of it the whole time because it can change and you thought it was this way and it's not that way anymore and we'll see that when we get the sulfur a lot of things happen like that. OK man. All right. OK so we'll move on to magnesium Magnesium is also a double plus charged because a double plus charge cabin's that's why magnesium in calcium vie with each other. That's why they have that one to one relationship and they they you know one can push the other out of the way if if it's one with levels raised in the other the other ones not and if you've got low levels of both of them. This is an important factor if you've got low levels of both of them and you need to raise res one and it looks like you have enough for example in magnesium when you raise the calcium and you don't take into consideration how much magnesium used to be off offset that you'll just drive your magnesium down into a level and I'll talk about that issue in just a second here. You'll drive it down into a deficiency level just raising your calcium to where you need to be it sounds kind of weird but you need to raise in both together even though it looks like you have enough there. You need to put more on in order to offset the influence the suppressive influence of the calcium. OK so it's part of the chlorophyll Moloch. It's actively involved in photosynthesis it aids in phosphate metabolism is actually involved in a lot of metabolic activities that activate several enzyme systems and I talked about the enzyme systems and hormone systems the enzyme systems require minerals minerals or co-factors for all of these enzymes and in the Krebs cycle that produces energy there's minerals that are co and Co factors in those enzymes and that generates all that energy in there and if you're missing one of them then you disrupt you don't you don't get all the energy out of that cycle that you should get and you also wind up accumulating certain elements because they can't do their job and you can get an accumulation of a trace element in there that begin starting to cause problems because of that because of its build up because you don't have a balance system run in there because you're missing some other trace element supposed to be there is a co factor is involved the soil structure like I said before and magnesium is mobile. So the plant will take and move it if it doesn't have enough it'll take and move it from the older leaves to the newer growth and so you're deficiency symptoms will usually show up on the older leaves of the plant first so be the older part of the plant that you'll see see that the symptoms on first and that deficiency sent them is a yellowing modeling of older leaves the older leaves at the start to get a kind of a model yellowing look to it's an indication of magnesium deficiency and the excess symptoms of excess are actually similar to the deficiency symptoms but you usually don't get an excess. Unless you're applying and explain why Magnesium is made available in a very narrow range. I've got my my ideas about this element and what it represents but on. I'm not ready to go there yet but it has to be in a very narrow range if it goes below ten percent. You won't get enough if it goes above twenty percent. You won't get enough and the only the only way the only reason for that is the higher the magnesium goes the tighter the soil gets and it gets locked down between the clay plates and it's not available and so you can have their source with twenty five thirty percent thirty five percent nine easy and they've shown deficiency on on the plants you have to actually come in and put Foley or magnesium on when you got all this magnesium in the soil but it's only available in that narrow range and the higher you go ten to twelve percent twelve percent is optimal in the most cases until you get into the lower but from ten to twelve percent. Once you start going up above twelve percent. It starts getting harder and harder to get it. So for elemental sulfur same as it is for calcium a pound for each charge so two pounds of software will remove a pound of magnesium you know. But it's actually ironically it can be too much magnesium in your tissue but it could also be too much calcium. Now I could veer off on a subject. This is the thing that changed in the culture and nobody paid attention to it when people used to eat more whole foods they all ate the whole grains and stuff like that silicon is what's the issue and people are supplementing calcium we could talk about this later but the push to supplement calcium is supposedly is deficiency. None of the studies show that that any. Supplementation of calcium is reducing osteoporosis or or or any of that because it's not calcium. It's the lack of silicon when people stopped eating the skins of potatoes and they stopped eating the whole grains and they were getting the silicon with it. Silicon produces college into it produces that that matrix in your bone. It's not the hard part which is the calcium in the fosters. That silicon and and we're not getting in our diet anymore. And we're getting excessive amounts of calcium honestly that people who the way people are supplementing and that calcium can either. It can build up in your tissue they call it fibromyalgia and a few other painful. Autum in diseases from from calcium building up in your tissue because the body wants to conserve it because it's so in the body in your body calcium is a critical element of magnesium as well. So the bottle just starts storing it everywhere if it gets in your bones and joints. It's osteoarthritis. If it gets in your your vessels your blood vessels. It's arteriosclerosis your body's storing calcium everywhere it's becoming the irritant. And it's all about. We're putting way too much calcium in and we're not nowhere near enough silicon to offset it and but magnesium can be a come a problem too where it can build up and build up in your system too. And a lot of cases it winds up in not enough magnesium because people supplement so heavy with calcium that remember that one to one relationship the same thing happens in your body. It'll push out the magnesium and then you wind up having not enough magnesium. In your tissue in the pain is actually a lot of times coming from calcium. Excess is all stored up in the wrong places in the wrong places in your body. A lot of the the problem all these auto immune diseases in everything we've got we got all kinds of build up to things that don't have the the complimentary factors with them so that they can be proper. We utilized in there. They're just they're just wreaking havoc on our bodies. We don't have the nutrition in the balance nutrition is supposed to have. OK these are your sources for magnesium dolomite lime again. Again you need to take in remember that you have to keep in mind that magnesium will not start releasing out of my line until the second year starting the second year not the first year and so you need to make sure it's not your magnesium lowers are not going to go below the minimum levels until that starts releasing Otherwise you have to supplement it with one of these other two materials here that are more Cybil there is a mag and came to brand names of what is potassium potash magnesia sulfate sulphate itself eight of potash Magnesium is what that's sort for it's a Tassie magnesium sulfate. That's easier to say OK Magazine other brand name for the same thing. It's typically twenty two percent there. If you wanted the actual elemental K. you have to multiply that by point eight three to take that the oxygen out to get what your actual percentage which is is actually one point eight three or something like that percent eighteen point three percent. It's not actually twenty two. If it's if you're looking at actually elemental task eleven percent magnesium typically and twenty to twenty two percent sulphur. Most of the most of them are twenty two percent. There's a certifiable organic mind source it's only twenty percent. So for Treo and then there's magnesium sulphate Epsom salts you guys all know probably what that is choosing nine to eleven percent nine easy eleven to fourteen percent sulphur highly. Source. There is another source. It's just become available. It's called Keizer it is. OK you're probably not going to find it anytime soon. Commercial big commercial growers abuse in it's a little bit higher analysis magnesium and it breaks down a little bit slower comes from Europe. K I K E K I E T S E R I T K I S E R I T. It's called Keizer it. It's a it's a mine material to a little bit different formulation and in this one. You're not going to you're not going to find find it in any garden centers and it'll be a long time for that which shows up. It isn't It is a better source actually yeah man. There's nothing wrong. Magnesium sulfate is just highly Cybil And if you have to use a working with you know keep farms over and in Tanzania I'm working with them and they have no dollar might so they would they need both calcium and magnesium they need a lot of it and they have no dolomite line stores in the country or anywhere nearby because it's all high calcium line there's no deal on my line and so we're having to use magnesium sulfate and I'm not really comfortable with doing that because the amount of sulphur we're putting on there deficient in all their major cattle hands and to put that mound of sulphur on to try to offset on the magnesium is not a good solution the solution is they need to ship it in. So anybody with a lot of money. Who wants to help them out and say that they can't find they're having a hard time finding that the fertiliser resources that they need over there and they've got a lot of crazy laws like Boron was outlawed. He was able to find a use in the glass industry if you. That corral dishes you get it gives it that that that temporary Boron gives that temper to the glass and so he was able to find it in the glass industry over there to be able to get it but technically you're not supposed to be allowed to use it. Tanzania Africa. The biggest challenge working in the mission field is is the find the sources you need you can do the we can do the testing from a distance and find out what you need but some parts of the world can be a real challenge to get the materials you need. I mean you could ship it in by the container load. This is a project I would hope that people would have means they want to be supportive. It would be a really good thing to support is helping to to move those type of resources to him. So they can have the best materials to because they have tremendous potential over there they can take they could be producing a couple million dollars worth of avocados off of that farm but they've got to get that they've got to get the tele elements into that ground. OK I talked about that one to one relationship with calcium and magnesium when you're applying calcium you have to take this into consideration in order to make sure that you're not going to undermine in order. You know if you want calcium and it can look like and I've seen this done. I'm growers and they came to me after they had a problem and you always want to get people's problems. But then you start getting the get once you fix their problems then you then you start getting you know everything from them but you know where a consultant told them to actually over in Tanzania Kenya do it that the lab over there. They had so obsessed on over there in the lab over there recommended high calcium line because they said you have enough magnesium but I told Jason I said if you do that. I said you're going to drive your magnesium into the ground and and your trees are going to start suffering they're going to have a problem. They're going to be hard time because they don't have they don't have a very big bucket on the soles over there either. So they don't have a lot of they don't have a lot of wiggle room to mess with that. Again it came back to the same thing they were looking at just the pounds they were looking at the size of the bucket how many pounds you actually had to fill the bucket appropriately. OK As these two relate the soil structure these two play the major role in structuring soil from a chemical standpoint. Calcium flocculation the soil call oids clay call oids are like plates like flat plates kind of like the pictures. I'm not a great artist but kind of like I have drawn they're the kind of like a plate structure. It's a it's a crystalline actually when it becomes Cloyd a clay it's a totally transform from a soil particle to a crystal and lattice structure it's not it's not actually a soil a smaller particle soil anymore. It's a different structure but they're flat in their structure and calcium flocculation those callers and what that means is if you see I have a drawing here. The right button here how I draw here. Those charges. Remember the have a charge to them on their surface there's a there's a negative charge and those charges on that calcium ion will attract to that and the way it is attaches tends to be in it. Edge to edge attachment and face to edge attachment like that magnesium and it increases poor space and I think if you look at this. Can you see how this would make more porous base over here magnesium aggregates the so-called whites and other words what it does is it its face to face it it draws them together face to face like that. And so you can see how that would tighten the soil up. It would decrease for space that way. And it's that that's why calcium needs to dominate the soil. That's why you have sixty eight percent calcium you want to in general is sick. I'll say this it's sixty to seventy percent calcium you typically and ten to twenty percent magnesium and where you get into the lower calcium percentages in the higher magnesium percentages. Is when you go into the lower C.E.C. soils where you just can't keep enough pounds there because the buckets just not big enough and so you have to make sure you can keep minimal magnesium levels there and you can actually go low enough where you have to go above and you want these two to add up to eighty percent all the time you want to always add up to eighty percent of it as at the more than that there's more there than is shown I'll give you an illustration let's say you had let's say you had seventy five percent calcium which is not bad. I mean you want sixty eight you're higher than you want to be but it's not too bad you have seventy five percent calcium and you have fifteen percent magnesium which is also not too bad you're close to where you want to be what does that add up to with seventy five and fifteen ninety. That means there's a lot more hidden Magnesium is typically magnesium this hidden and if you brought that calcium for every point remember every point one goes down the other goes up so you had fifteen percent magnesium seventy five percent calcium if I take that down the sixty eight where I want it. How many points I take off seven. I need to add that seven to the fifteen. Now what I have I have twenty two percent magnesium that's what the physical reality the physics reality in that soil is is twenty two. It's a tight soil. Even though it looks not bad if they add up to more than eighty percent. You've got more there and it's typically magnesium influencing adversely influencing but there are cases where the calcium is actually in the calcium in the other way the so it gets to lose and fluffy and gets light and fluffy in and it can blow away wash away. I would I would put sulphur on and solve and any amendments that I needed that were in sulphate forms I put it on the take have the sulfur start pulling a boat. Down here you have too much a both of them and particularly the magnesium you have way too much when you get up over twenty percent. You got it actually interferes with what I say that interferes with nitrogen utilization it takes way more nitrogen in a high magnesium soil to grow stuff because the can't get to the nitrogen is just that soil so tight. You can't get to the one thousand. Yeah actually high magnesium soils are harder and hot than high May high my knees and sandy soils are harder than high magnesium clay soils you can it turns into cement you try to put a soil probe into high magnesium So it's dried out you'll bust it just you have to reinforce it and use a weighted mallet to hammer it in there and good luck and then they usually use an auger to drill it in that's how hard it can get when it's dried out. Oh yeah the question was could you mistake. Magnesium soils for for high clay soils. Yes I think and the answer is yes you can now knees and when water won't drain through. If you want to move stuff out. You've got to get the magnesium level and open the soil up. It's just like the Bible talking about the softening of the heart or the hardening of the heart you know God fair hard and Pharaoh's heart. It was a character that he was called evading is in him self. You can go in Anaheim an easy I'm still and we're going to talk about tillage we're going to take a break here but we're going to talk about Tiller's you can go in with the Ripper through this this type of soil open it up and it rains it will just run back together like soup and will be harder than it was the last before you opened it up if you do not change the conditions in that soil. You will continue to make it worse and worse and worse. That's the whole thing when feral plow. When God plowed Pharaoh's heart. Each time he plowed it. There was no change in heart. There was no change in the character and it just got harder and harder and harder until there was a rebellion just. Yeah you can have compassion for the running of heavy equipment over it but one of the interesting things is when you get that ideal balance between calcium and magnesium It's like a sponge these bonds here we run over it. If you run over it with a heavy piece of equipment. It'll bend and it will come right back up. Now when I say I'll come right back up and they take a few days for it for a week or so for it to come back up into the position but it's going to want to go back into the bonding that it has so it acts kind of like a sponge in fact to prevent compaction in the soil and it's really hard to create a lot of compaction So it's got balance calcium and magnesium and usually when you get the compaction you have good calcium levels because you have too much too. And you're above eighty percent and you go on. You've got a lot more compaction because the calcium can't have the full effect like it would otherwise this media was brought to you by audio from a website dedicated to spreading God's word through free sermon audio and much more if you would like to know more about audio verse. If you would like to listen to more sermons. Please Visit W W dot org.

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