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Soil: The Major Cations, Tillage and Porosity Continued

Whitmar McConnell
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Whitmar McConnell

Owns and operates Golden Moment Farm in Means, KY

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  • January 25, 2017
    3:00 PM
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OK so we're going to we're going to continue on with our major cat ions here. And we're going to we're going to look at the Tassie and now you look up there you'll see that Tassie I'm is a new here you guys hear me OK from standing to the side of it like this you know again. Is a single plus charge calcium and magnesium will always push Magni potassium out of the way it a lot muscle it is twice as strong and it will it will the only way the potassium can push the others. If you just pile it on in massive amounts where you get a mass flow. It can this displace the other two but if you were to do that you would probably do more damage than it was worth and it would probably cost you quite a bit to do that. Potassium process processes that produce stock strength potassium is the first key to stock strength. If you've got stuff falling over. You need to see if you got out of the test in the other two are magnesium copper copper remember I said with involved in college information. It actually gives it allows if you have tree branches breaking off and stuff like that rather than flex and you probably don't have enough copper in tree. You could be manganese or potassium to Decimus the first factor and you have to have that and then manganese and copper for the next to the copper gives you the flexibility just like in college and it gives the flexibility of the bone from the College of formation there with the silica that's why people's bones break by the way is because they don't have any give to me flex there there's their rigid and are not supposed to be and that's why people have aneurisms things like that they don't have adequate college information in there they're vessels premature wrinkling skin. If you prematurely wrinkle redheads redheads are. Really. Susceptible to copper deficiencies and that's why they have red hair and premature wrinkling premature graying of your hair or a couple of indications that you don't have enough copper or something's interfering with the metabolism of copper in your system but we're not copying that's finished. It's a regulation of leaf transpiration and gas exchange this is really important if that if that's what's called the still model of a little openings on the leaves that allow air to change and transpiration to take place. If those are not if those are not managed adequately by sufficient supplies of potassium and you won't get the type of transpiration you need and you will get optimum growth off of the plant. It's involved in water use efficiency related to the previous one winter hardiness and it is mobile. So the deficiency symptoms will show up in the older part of the plant. First the deficiency symptoms on potassium are scorched yellow leaf margins and that would be on the lower leaves. And it's usually on the outer edges it starts on the outer edges of Aleve you'll see that that's different than nitrogen deficiency when we get to it because it starts on those leads to starts in the middle and goes in but scorch the ele margins usually on the older leaves unless it's a really bad deficiency and the excess the symptoms of excess on that is luxury consumption the high potassium levels in the soil be luxury consumed by plants and it can lead to other Callen deficiencies basically what happens is the luxury consumption of the Tassie blocks out the access to the other patterns like calcium and magnesium these are the sources for potassium all of the sources I'm giving you are putting up top. The I'm trying to only give you that the best sources here there may be some other sources available but I'm not particularly listing them here because they would be kind of last resource sources potassium sulphate or sulphate of potash cereal here you'll see it called stop and so he sulphate of potash they'll abbreviate it as soapy as opposed to MA which is myriad of potash. You see I don't have myriad of potash on there which is this is sulphate of potash is fifty to fifty two percent. OK to zero. You'd have to multiply that times point eight three to get the actual content I think it's point four. It's forty one point five percent is actual Haskin on that when it's usually seven hundred eighteen percent sulphur that comes with it. The source. I just mentioned myriad of potash MOPP they call it. Time is over sixty. You'll see this listed as over fifty or over fifty two because the third number on those the fertiliser bags is representative of the Tassie and if you see. Oh sixty I had a grower from western Colorado. Call me and he said I've recommended potassium sulphate and. He said well the dealer said that he has over sixty works just as well. And this is a new grower he's not really familiar with that stuff. He said. So do I just do fifty divided by sixty to figure out how much I need since it's a higher concentration I said no you don't do anything at all with that. That's myriad of potash it's passing chloride it's the cheapest source. It's the most commonly used source but is heavily damaging to the biology in the soil because of that it will rise in it. Now having said that God leads us from where we are and when I work with people some people say I can't afford anything else. This is what I'm going to use and I make a recommendation. Form because what happens is they're going to get further down the road the right way they're going to do some damage using that material. Sometimes people use anhydrous ammonia and they say well that's the cheapest source and that's all they can afford and that's what I'm going to put on and I recommend and I use the Monia I wouldn't I wouldn't use it myself and I recommend to them. Other choices. But if they're going to do it anyway. Then they need to intelligently and I usually try to get them to use an Aquaman you're inject water with it when you're doing it because what happens when and hydrogen ammonia has this oil. Is that it's a Ph of eleven I think. And it's not it's out of balance. That's what most of the bad chemistry is is just way out of bounds. So it's got a Ph will leaven and says it has the soil of the natural system is going to want to stabilise that and it starts cold water from the nature and everything in site pull in the water out of it and and to in order to try to stabilize that high PH The other bit which we didn't we didn't get the phosphorus yet so but the other one. There is triple superphosphate it's on the other end of the spectrum of the PH of three. And the same thing happens there. It's just it just nature is going to tie it up to stabilize it and then within a short period of time you're right back to Iraq possibly to get their original material they use they have reacted it with gypsum self York acid. And they get they get a concentration of phosphate. What was called zero twenty zero. I'll tell us the story with all her but then now the contrary they hit it with fossil fork acid because when they hit it with the sulphuric acid because remember that's calcium in it. So what you wind up getting is gypsum calcium selfie in a more concentrated phosphate. Then they hit it again with phosphor procmail and they get more concentrate they get gets rid of the jets in the calcium sulphate out of it you get a more concentrated. Phosphate for. All eyes are but it has a Ph. Three and it's in it. So it's going to get tied up rapidly because it's way out of bounds and natures of pores and balance and say oh just like it does a vacuum. It is going to try to stabilize it and you build up a reserve of prostate you so I've got guys that I know guys that switched over from using those materials and they went into a more balanced situation you know better. Using better materials balance to their mineralization our biology sort of work in an inadequate phosphate on for ten years because they built so much of that triple superphosphate they got locked up in their soil. They built so much of it up and now the biology is working. It's just breaking it back down to release and so they don't have to put any on. It's coming back out not usually because it generally just breaks it out as it's needed more so in that situation. OK then we're back to a mag again and remember it had twenty two percent. It's like eighteen point three percent K. on the cat just straight Tassie and and the at magnesium and sulfur the materials you choose to use are going to be determined by what you actually need. If you need potassium magnesium and sulphur that would be a more economical source to use than a potassium sulfate and a magnesium sulfate or something else to try to get the combination out of a lot of growers. But I want to back up the potassium sulfate a lot of growers say because it costs more money than the testing chloride or the myriad of POTUS. But they don't factor in the sulfur in almost also oils and we'll talk about it. We'll get there almost Also as of deficient in sulfur it leaches easy out of the soil and it's original you know its historical sources are pretty much dried up and most growers are in the past still and don't know if they can skew the situation. OK the next the next thing I hear is greensand which is more or less sixty nine percent potassium and this is a good source because A it's Exchange capacity. It has a high exchange capacity to it. So you can add that is a good source of increasing some kind of exchange capacity your soil. The problem with this one. Now here as I understand it that all of this mining is being shut down for environmental reasons I don't know what the environmental problem with the that they're they're talking about shutting it down. I understand that they may be shutting it down there to sell I it's all in flux right now. I don't know it's a good long term source of potassium to build reserves. It's not a rapidly breaking down. It's source if you need. If you need potassium now or fairly quickly. It's not a good source but it is a good source for building building long term reserves in this all of the ability. Another one is granite dust which is more or less four to six percent good sources got a mix of of animals in it. The problem is the cost of shipping it is pretty heavy. I never heard of there's problems. I don't know I've heard it before of the check on on board. I don't know if that's it. If it's an issue. It definitely could be evaluated. But I don't think it. I don't recall then you know the content in. I don't think it would be a problem unless it's such if it's really fine from from sawing and stuff like that if it really finds from that where you had a read of ready releases. I don't know what the boring actual bore on content is in Grand it's like OK animal indoors which range from half a percent up to three percent to zero. This can one of the things about potassium which I'll say since we're on now and if your PH is above six and a half and you're low and pass in you're not going to be able to build with from commercial sources. There's nowhere for it to go exchange rates are all still and most likely they're filled with with double plus calcium in one in one easy in and there's nowhere for it to go and so if you're in that situation. You need to put on smaller quantities more often or inject that in order to maximize the use of the material otherwise you wind up leading a lot of it and just losing it selve in a situation where you are really low in potassium and you have a hot ph a six five or higher. I would usually recommend splitting the applications in order to maximize and keep something growing there don't put it out of mouth is growing. There is one breaks down and starts raining and it will just leave it out not the case with. With organic sources. You can build potassium levels even with the higher the PH six five or higher. If you're applying organic sources like compost castings Millar's you can actually build tests in levels and you can actually even apply some commercial much commercial sources with organic sources and get a lot of that to stick with it. Otherwise the wind. Are more alkaline. Six six five or higher. So are going up towards neutral and out and it simply comes down there's nowhere for it to go. There's nowhere for the patch to end it's in task himself a form it's in a sizeable form and if water moves through that soil and it's nothing to take it up the microbes of the plant roots or something is not taking it up and water moves through that soil of a leach it out will test itself it has gotten fairly expensive and so it's not one of those things you want to put on and have a wash through the soil and this is another factor that's not you'll be told a lot of times opacity and doesn't leaks like that and put the Tassimo on and it disappears and the test comes back the next year and it's hardly changed it does it does leach out do is it you can use fully or applications you probably can apply enough if you've got a high demand has a high casting demand crop you probably can't put enough on poly or you could put it through drip irrigation or something like that you get further gated in and just put it in small quantities over a longer period of time to try to match the crop demand over time rather than putting extra on there and and trying to get it to say there right there. They're both the fifty two percent material is a finer is the finds It's just smaller pieces. So they're more soluble just because they're smaller both of them are soluble so if you're going to use it is in drip irrigation or something you probably will you can use either one. But the fifty two percent would go in the solution of faster. They're both There's a manufacturer source image in mind. Source. A lot of what's on the market is pretty much mine but there are some manufacturer sources the plant doesn't know the difference between whether it's manufactured or it's mine. There's not a lot of contam there's not a lot of content contaminants in the reaction in the manufacturing process it's pretty much straight sulphate you can add the percentages up and see if it adds up to one hundred percent in the bag. One of the things they love to do is add contaminants into mixed fertilizers So when you go into the store and you buy a ten ten ten or eighteen something something or whatever it is I would suggest that you must you'll know how to do it. What you can have to take the atomic weights in you you add them all up and see if it adds up to one hundred percent if it doesn't add up one hundred percent put something else in that bag and you might want to know what it is because it's a convenient way of getting rid of toxic waste. They figure that no less than a figure all we're just reading little bits out over a wide area. I avoid I've avoided blends fertilizer blends at all costs. Unless I can evaluate that blend in and see. And if I don't come up to one hundred percent and I'm asking what I'll see what else is in that bag. They don't they don't have to put it on the label. And they don't and they feel it's OK because they're spread a little bit south over. They never take into consideration somebody might be using a lot of small garden area every single year and is accumulating OK in other sources kelp or seaweed. It's anywhere from five to sixteen percent. It's a good source because it's got a lot of trace elements with it. It's an expensive source for any kind of quantity and it's got a lot of growth stimulants in it and so to high amounts of The Help me all might not be the greatest thing all one time so it's not really a great source for putting. You know if you need two hundred pounds of of potassium kelp is not going to be the thing you're going to want to use. Besides the fact that they're probably cost five or six thousand dollars to get that much to Tassie and you're just going to get way overloaded with with growth stimulants and everything else growth hormones stuff that are in it. Yeah greens and that's the other thing is that I mean green sand is for the price you're paying for it. You're going to spend a lot of money to get the amount of passing we need. I don't know that there's any negative or effects out of green sand. It doesn't it's not a it's not a plant based It's a mineral based material and so it doesn't have the growth hormones it's often it came from the kelp insoluble greens and or the ground sloped there or slow break down and it depends on how finely the ground. The more surface area the faster can be broken down the last the bigger the particles the less surface area the smaller the particle The larger the surface. Yeah the top to the top two sources are really the best most economical sources. What actually is. Seventy nine percent of the Tassie and my father in law Burns remember I had this old house up there his I was telling you that this we did test on the other side. But it turned out that the orchard was severely deficient in calcium even though the other part of the great side which is on the slope was severely deficient calcium and efficient because him. Well the. A big pile of wood ashes from burned wood and I just we just calculated out with the what the average of what it would probably be and he was able to put the what ashes on and there's calcium is pretty high in wood ashes to most people put it off for potassium that is actually higher in the passing with ashes in most cases if it's a conifer or a pine something like that is not as high as it is it is the I don't think you would like for the amount you're putting on I think you because a lot of the the residues would be burned up in the in the burning of the wood. I don't think you would you would I don't know I mean stuff people spray anymore you know but I would I wouldn't think it would be a problem but there's a good source if you burn wood and you need you know you need the calcium and if it is you know just kept the passive hard which is usually higher in calcium the Tassimo more or less be the same well pine would be lower in calcium. But you still get calcium with it. So if you were a situation where you had more than enough calcium or high calcium. Then you might not use with ashes. Or if you're going to put enough on it's not going to it's not going be enough extra calcium remember I said that calcium can be a little bit higher than what ideal would be as long as everything else is going to sell. So if you run it. If you push it up a couple points higher because you put the wood ashes on depending on everything else. How are thing else look would be a problem. Yeah it'll affect the ph because of the alkaline Cateye and then passing the calcium are both alkaline calling cat ions and so they're going to neutralize acidity so the other ph to go. OK So D. and now most people. What. What's sodium here for Believe it or not there are places you need to put sodium on what I was asking about who that was asking about their silk test where they recommended Chilean one three and sodium up talk about then and then. Sodium is role is required for proper growth of barley in crops and it goes for family beet spinach Swiss chard if you don't have adequate sodium in the soil you're not going to grow good beets ministers we're sorry. They have to have at least at least one percent of sodium. In order for that to for them to grow they actually use it in hydroponic growing of tomatoes and in even watermelons because it'll the saltiness of the sodium will improve the flavor. It will also help pull up it will cause it to pull out more water. So it makes a bigger. Efficiency sentence of sodium is poor growth in yield of sodium requiring crops excesses are usually the problem with sodium excesses or it'll substitute for K. for potassium potentially resulting in tissue rupture and damage. What happens is the plant will substitute sodium the sodium is higher percentage wise than potassium which it never should be the plant will substitute sodium for potassium and where it becomes a big problem is in this tomato those openings and leaves it will cause if it gets too hot belief system out of the open like it's supposed to but if it also gets too hot and humid this sodium expands pulls in water and it in a burst of cells and kills the cells. If sodium is substituted for potassium so you never want sodium higher than the Tassie and well did you have a situation where it substituted for the potassium. On that there's Was situations like that. If you're in a low humidity area where you don't get a lot of humidity or thing like that you may never see it you may have that problem but you may not see that manifested because the temperature don't get high enough to cause the cell wall cell to expand enough and burst. On water sources of sodium typically that if you need sodium little typically recommend you put sodium nitrate or Chilean nitrate on sixteen percent nitrogen twenty six percent sodium. There's nothing wrong with that if you need sodium and you need nitrogen it's highly highly soluble so you better be sure that it's going to get utilized because this is highly silo source my preferable source. I just put it on top because that's typically what's recommended he was asking the question just is so highly sayable would it be better to apply it before you sow your crop or after it would probably be better to apply it before hand unless you can you can get it on and it doesn't stay on the on the plants. I mean if you planted and plants are still small and you you apply it. That might be OK but I would it would be best to get it in the ground before and you just don't want to put it in a long time before maybe a week before a few days before you're going to plant. Incorporate it. Well yeah you can that you could incorporate it right before planting. Sometimes I'll use this in a band it to people who band stuff I don't. Everything I recommend is broadcast over the whole acre you want the whole area to be healthy and got like fruit growers treat fruit tree growers they want to just they want to just fertilize the the tree row with what they call a drip line because they. We're told that the roots don't go past the drip line anyway. Well the truth is that the roots will go this far past the drip line is they have access to fertility. And in addition to that the trees actually establish my career as a relationship with the with the fungi and the fungi covers the entire area is going after nutrients for the trees you want that balance fertility everywhere. Times they don't want to do it because of the cost and sometimes they don't want to do it because then the grass in the in between the trees grows faster better and you've got to go in a moment more often. I thought well that's just produces more Gammick matter and the more microbes in there. We think is good it's better for you but some people don't want to hassle so they don't do it but if you want the whole entire area. I discourage banding in. And those type of things I understand why people do it because of the economics and trying to focus and target your fertility to getting a crop. Remember we're feeding the soil here and it's so is going to feed the crop we're not feeding the crop so broadcasting it across this. If you're putting Chilean nitrate on. Well you really you wouldn't you wouldn't want to use to chili nitrate to supply all your nitrogen you just want to put enough on to get your sodium up to the percentage you need it. So you know if you need it. If you needed twenty five pounds of sodium then you put one hundred lb The sodium nitrate on. Well if you need if it's short and again it's one of those situations where if you're above sixty five sodium can get on the callable slightly I believe it or not better than potassium can. So it's not as it's not as big an issue. But if you have a Ph above six and a half. You're not going to get as much of it there because it is highly Cybil it's highly tibble So you want for somewhere somewhere for it to go. Otherwise you will wind up especially attached to nitrogen. It can leave the soil in a hurry. But when I say that and relatively speaking. You may take a month or a to leave if you get ten inches of rain. It might take a week. Really a lot of growth quit nitrogen on they get this massive these trench will rains and it washes How healthy are the nights when you put the holly Cybil nitrogen is on there and it washes it all out in a go bag put it on again and then kelp has sodium in this. Well it's variable is variable again. It would take a significant quantity of kelp usually for the needy you have what I usually use to see minerals and they come in several different sources for the best sources actually see crop out of Washington from a Ambrosia technologies. It's expensive but it. I'm sorry technologies but if you just look at Sea crop you'll get you'll get there. Website. It's a liquid the way they process it. The biology in the water stays alive. It's highly effective material but it's expensive and more economical source would be something like C ninety C minerals which is a more economical source the other one I think is superior to it but if you need a sodium. That's a good source you're getting trace and rare earth elements with it when you put the sea minerals on and. Just the the sodium and but believe it or not some of those TRACON tracing errors in the lab have doubled and tripled lifespans parts per billion. We don't know everything when I'm sharing with you here. There's a lot of. With these trace and rare earth elements they did they have done research on some of this and I guess that some of these rare earth elements and parts per billion will double and triple lifespan of of laboratory animals. There are others and parts per billion that will lower energy consumption dramatically making energy consumption more efficient just making it more efficient in parts per billion. There is that there's a place we go to up and Pigeon Forge there and they have a wheel there with him with a billion he feeds in it with one. They're all they have I mean it's a billion but then they have some different colors in the other represent a hundred thousand in different like that but then they have one purple be in a billion the in that thing in you're supposed to sit there and try to find it. Haven't found it yet. But you see ninety. There are some others. It's about how they they harvest the seed seawater how they dry it and some of them they they scrape off some of the soda because sodium will cross on the top first and still take the sodium off and reduce the sodium content in the water and that's probably a preferable thing unless you needed a lot of sodium. Ambrosia doesn't. They have a way of reducing the sodium that it doesn't. When they solar dry and it has an impact on it. The I don't know that. I understand the use and some crabs in there with which by the way is would be the same as bone meal or fish bone meal you're going to get the phosphate and you get the calcium. Social structure. I didn't do the drawings on this. Well and the explanation is sufficient the testing on the tests in size tends to allow it to seal off the edges it plugs up the edges of the plates the clay plates. And when it does that it lowers the C.E.C. and it plugs up the. Or space. The Tassimo sodium don't do anything real good for soul structure. And. Sodium disperses clay plates and other words they just fall apart. Cause in the fall apart and just plugs up it plugs up all the pores. That's why high sodium soils are so poorly drain. It just turns into suit if you ever seen a high sodium soil when it gets wet. It turns the soup and it's just everything just gets plugged up. So in essence both of these two go in two different ways one sealed off the as the clay plates and plugs of course space that way and the other when dispersed as the clay place with a till they fall apart. There's no structure to them at all and it is playing every thing out. OK You know what time. What time do we start on remember three so we get quite a ways quite a ways to go on this. We're all done with that I'm trying to think there was something else I was going to tell you about on this. Let me know one of the things with potassium. Potassium can tie a bore. If you give a but if you get above seven and a half percent saturation of potassium it will be able to buy a Boron out of the Mallee we have thirteen percent potassium. The other thing it'll do at that level is you will have seed germination coming out your ears. And you'll go out in your cold OK. And you go out the next morning and it looks like you didn't do a thing that is rooted back and like they were List laughing that it is really back in and so are you growing in well this is how you eliminate some of the problems you have if you get the Tassie and in balance with the other cattle hands and the soil is properly structured you're not stimulating all that seed germination. To get adequate stimulation to see germination be you. Nice to me and just perpetually just what happens is the plant usually plants will put out suppressants when they germinate they'll start putting out exudate out there is to suppress germination they don't want competition so they're suppressing anything else. Germany around them but if you have high potassium as a light high potassium levels like that. It just like totally neutralizes that that effect. And so you just get tremendous weed pressure in there. There's a about a million weed seeds per square foot of soil every square foot or so about a million and that's not a battle you'll win by changing the conditions in the soil. You'll change what's expressed there in the oh OK it anywhere from well the bare minimum is two percent and that's kind of like the bare minimum you really want to be anywhere from five to seven and a half percent said anything over seven and a half percent. You start you start boron in housing a problem if you if you could you're OK around the five percent. If you're growing nine what he crops are nonbinding cross but if you're growing what he crops any kind of bush bush is like small fruits mining crops like tomatoes or Q. Cumbers fruit trees anything this Woody. You really want to be up close to the seven seven in the after set growing grapes you want the best grapes seven seven there percent and saturation on. No you don't want to go over seven and a half and then I remembered the other thing I was going to tell you. You never want you never want to Tassie I'm an magnesium aren't I'm sorry Tassie and sodium to equal more than ten percent between. Well you got to be sure that whatever level you bring the testing to your sodium if you've got a lot of sodium in system you want to make sure you keep them below ten percent compain if they go above ten percent. They'll block out manganese so you're stuck in the manganese you need. Sodium sodium. Disperses those clay plates remember the drawing I had to show on the calcium and potassium are where you and yeah what what sodium does is just they fall apart. They're not attached at all made the cause of the clay place of the Spurs are just fall apart separate from each other and then those clay plates now my drawing shows this big looking plate here but you're talking about microscopic size plates. And so if you get all those plates falling apart dispersing in water. They just fill in all of course spaces and plug them all up and then the soil will drain to restart again three. OK. When you keep changing these fifteen minute things and moving around like you say what was going on. They may have any questions as far as we've gone here so far we're going to be wrapping up on that I have to do a quick adjustment to my next presentation that. Chilean nitrate is sodium nitrate. Sodium nitrate they call it Chilean nitrate because it's mined in Chile in the dry there comes out it's hilly country so they call it Chilean injury. One more we're going to we're going to jump to the end where we're going to challenge each other to get through it. I need to make an adjustment to that before we can do it so. Well remember sulfur is highly lethal the question the question was he was wanting me to elaborate a little bit more on if you get too much salt in the system and then we'll talk about all of them more than we do they. And I and that it's OK I don't mind get time. So for is highly lethal and it doesn't leave the soil by itself at least with some other cattle. So it's going to it's going to take with a calcium magnesium potassium or so the and most likely and it's going to go after the one it's in the most excess. Now what it what what does it go after it for you don't have any excesses. It goes after whatever grabs. Whatever can pull off the easiest is going to is going to go after and take it out so you don't you don't want surplus sulfur in the system and most people don't have anywhere near enough sulfur leeches out. I take it so you take soil test from year to year unless you've got a compaction issue or something worse not moving. So far you'll put out you'll put one hundred pounds of sulphur on and come back the next year and there's only ten pounds there twenty pounds again. It's been used up by the crop and it's been the doubt. So in that you took you to take something with that. Instead and some to the question is if you fully are fed this all for and some form that had the sulfur if you fully or apply that to the plant would it get stay on in the plant or would it go to the ground some cases the plant would just dump it out the roots. If it's surplus in some cases it. Can't. Sulfur sulfur is immobile. And so if you put it on folly or most likely it's going to get stuck. It's going to get somewhere and maybe it may be too much you have to be careful. Well it's the same reason that copper sprays they use for copper or fungicides is the same reason it works it's the actual depending on the form like when they use copper they use in a copper hydroxide and it's a it's a fight a toxic reaction it kills them but it's also the fact that the plants deficient in copper and had somebody else that guy was in a presentation in and talking about copper and how much all the sprays or how they do and he just asked a question. Well is how about you ever think to check the ground and see if there's any copper in the ground. If the plant can just get in take up as it needs it and everything but most people don't think about that but you can get too much of anything. And you've got John. There in the name Uncle mats. Uncle matts sisters certified it can exist in Florida and they have we don't get the copper yet but you know I generally don't want more in ten parts per million of copper and they have forty to fifty and it's all as a result of copper fungicides that have been sprayed in the past on there and they're certifier that they're certifier they they actually. You can actually get to where you have levels like that where they become antagonistic and so you actually have to spray. Cop on do you get sufficient that they're sort of fired will allow them to do it and they actually want to decertify it because they're copper but all of the citrus down in Florida is that way in a lot of a lot of fruit orchards where they use heavy copper fungicide applications and stuff. The copper levels are really high. The potassium should always be more than sodium. So the engine show so the engine never be higher than potassium because then substitution can take place in the plant little substituted in the sodium in the cell wall will substitute sodium for capacity and then your plant will if the hot is there's a higher concentration of sodium and potassium it will just substitute We'll put that in there and if you get hot humid conditions those cell walls are going to birth and and plan will die will happen one day everything looks beautiful and then you get hot humid weather like that and. And it swells the swells and cell walls because of the sodium in there instead of the Tassie in the first the cell walls and the next thing are things die and and then people confuse that for nematode problems and all kinds of things because they're not paying attention to their chemistry. So things those things. The best time to apply most materials is actually in the fall. Depends on again it depends on whether if there's someplace for it to go. Depends on the All these factors of where the PH is and in all of that if you've got a Ph above six and a half you need to pass and I wouldn't put it on until you're ready to grow pretty close to when you're ready to grow just to get it starting to break down. If you put it all in the fall and you're going to plant the spring and you get a lot of rain in the fall and winter. You're probably going to you're probably if you went back you took a salt test the following spring most it would probably be gone and so that would just be a waste of money. So it depends on the different variables you know what your ph is in but in general if you're putting trace elements on or or any of the cattle you want to put them in on in the fall so that they have time to start breaking down and integrating into the system the assumption is that there's a place from the Gulf is longer the place for them to go than they're. And start integrating onto those oil sites and become available for the crop and you have a much better condition is just given in time by putting it on the fall on charge sites on those colloidal exchange sites. You know if your bucket is not always full. Then you need to apply something and while there's space there's places for it to go and to attach. If you're buckets full It's six and a half your bucket is full enough that Tassie is not going to find there's so few exchange sites or they could kick hydrogen off. Which it could do but there are so few exchange sites that it's not likely to find enough of them in a lot of it all if it's not taken up by the by the crop plant roots or sometimes microbes will take some of it. Whatever it doesn't get taken up in and with enough water moving through that soil it's going to it's going to go with it as it's soluble ises So if you need it and you're getting ready to plant best to just put it on not to wait and wait till the next fall. You need. If you need a material Go ahead. But it's always best if you can get it on the fall before you give it some time to integrate in and be available to you or your crop if there's nothing wrong if there's nothing wrong. So if you had like a cover crop or something growing there you could go ahead and put it on but if you don't have a cover crop you're not going to tell out of his just ground. Nothing wrong there. I would wait to fairly close a couple weeks or something before. I made him a may have been made it confusing it's not C. crop itself it's some of the rich tracing rare earth elements you get out of the ocean that they've used they tested in the lab and it's double and triple lifespan. They don't know. Something something into the metabolic processes of the of the organism having it there. There again it's not used up a lot of the in the minerals are not used up in these days when they catalyze reactions to the construction of numbers like a hammer. If you might it's not a nail. It's a hammer and so you use a hammer over and over to put nails in. And so it's not used up in the process of building you use the lumber up you use the nails up the screws whatever but the hammer in the saw and in those tools they don't get used up in the construction process and so it doesn't take but a tiny bit of two to achieve whatever the reaction is that music music that they don't know they don't know on that's what I said is that a lot of this research is done they know this happens but they don't know why it happens. And nobody's really pursuing that kind of research anymore. So when I say this is an ideal model to the extent that we understand it and the way I just deal with all of these traces in Rare Earth. We'll talk about some of the ones that are not commonly not commonly measured one nickel now is becoming more and more measured silicon. So it can is the most abundant element on the planet and so people would say why would we need to why would we need to test for silicon why would we need to apply silicon well through all the chemicals that are being used to pesticides and herbicides and all the other sides that are being applied you're killing off the biology in the biology was what was breaking out the silica out of the courts in the courts grains that it was in was releasing and made into available form when you wipe out a lot of the biology. You can have a bunch of it there. Of course form but it's not available to the plant. I mean you could have ten thousand pounds of phosphate in rock form but if the whole point is you wanting it insoluble but available you need to have a certain amount of the Tiriel available. You might have thousands of pounds of it in the soil but it's just not available. And so the biology. That slightest city in the biology or what actually break that stuff down and release it make it available. How many of you guys like watermelons. Burrell see their breeder out in Colorado. I get their catalog and in a catalog where they sell watermelon seed they have whether you know they they give you instructions like that you know growing instructions stuff like that and in their catalog they say you should plant watermelons in a different area each year because there's something in the soil. That's not readily replaced that gets used up and then the next year. You don't have as good a watermelons. So that's something that gets used up as silicon all the Q. curve it's if you want if you want healthy curve it's their silicon accumulators. And if you use like a you can use a potassium silicate or something like that you can spray it on a plant you've actually look at under a microscope. It actually looks like little glass shards all over the all over the plant but you won't have the fungal disease like powdery mildew and downy mildew if you have adequate silica available that you curve is whether it's cucumbers or squash or watermelons here. And I actually apply potassium silicate to the soil and work it in to as part of my potassium application is there I don't think there's a certified source for protests of silicate somebody told me that there were they found one but then they said well I don't think it was. It's a purify product I mean it's mine but it's expensive and again it would be more more commonly used it is just expensive sell fifty pound bag my cautious. One hundred forty dollars hundred fifty dollars if you just do it as a folly or it doesn't take very much. I applied some of the soil. You can also used item a sensor which is amorphous silicon not a lot of primaries prime I think it's ninety percent silicon. So it's not it well it's finally ground so there's quite a bit of it. That is available but not all of it. Long term storage. I don't think it hurt so you got parasites it might be a pretty good thing to do. Well you have to be really careful because of it you don't get it in your lungs. Because members will flash cards that you would see under the microscope. They can do a real number on your your lungs so that's to have a mask on and use a dust or something and don't do it when on highly windy day or something like that. Yeah you can make a slurry out of it too. They had some way to spray it it'll tear up squares that sane because of that sharpness. It'll it'll wear a spray around her. Well silicon alone will help on that potassium levels have to be all that you curb its use a lot of calcium and they use a lot of potassium and you better be sure you have all you know amount of that there. What prevents a lot of this your first love. We're going to talk about this when we look at insect past four minutes. OK we need to stop here. But when we talk about insects cousin diseases we're going to look at the different levels of function you have to have before you overcome those problems but once you achieve those functions. You know the problem will pretty much go away and one of the things added when the cell wall when you have adequate silicon calcium potassium and adequate photosynthesis where you can. Build enough fat into the cell wall and the cell wall insect to come along like that. Not you want to try to through it and aware there mandibles off at a literally where it's like it's like you trying to chew on something where your teeth off. They've taken photographs of it where they show and grasshoppers and other creatures where they're mandibles totally gone. It has worn off. I'm trying to there's a there's a different level of function because beetles have a more sophisticated digestive system and so you have to achieve complexity. First the first level is full of you know full photosynthesis and then the next level conversion of nitrogen in proteins complete nitrogen solver and goes a long way to help with that problem to this media was brought to you by audio first a website dedicated to spreading God's word through free sermon audio and much more if you would like to know more about audio verse. If you would like to listen to more sermons lead to visit W W W dot org.

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