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Soil: Major Anions

Whitmar McConnell
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Whitmar McConnell

Owns and operates Golden Moment Farm in Means, KY

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  • January 25, 2017
    4:15 PM
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OK so now this in this last session today we're going to we're going to be wrapping up the major nutritional elements that you have to address to have balance fertility in the soil. So we're going to now we're going to switch over to that we've covered the four major cat ions we're going to chop we're going to cover more cabins but they're in the to the miring and the trace elements the metals that in trace cells will still be covering those but the major challenge we've covered now. We're going to look at the Major and I and remember the and ions are the negatively charged. Elements. And they don't attach to the coal oil. They're actually stored in a different way. They're either leaked out or they react with the elements in the soil or they're stored in organic matter in humans in the soil that's why so that's part of the complex that provides the fertility. To soil and. Organic matter and compost are again. Ik matter. And carbon fertility is a key to actually starting to store up and reserves some of these and I and so that you have in the reserve to provide your crop in the future because like I said we'll see as we go through this. We're covering all the animals to person and trace element and ions to Boron in the lip of them that you lose and pretty easy. And so. You you want to get them built into to life somewhere so that it gets stored up. OK. The three we're going to look at is not our nitrogen phosphorus and sulphur the first one. We're going to look at is nitrogen it's in two forms actually one is in an ion and one is a cattle and the ammonium form which is N H four is a single plus charge and it can actually attach to the Kohli's just like the alkaline calends can. When you put it on this forum you don't have to worry as much about it leeching out of the soil. Because it can't touch terror so it's not a sible and it doesn't leeches easy the other form is in the nitrate form the N O three with a single minus charge and three is highly Cybil and highly simple in that form nitrogen is involved in vegetative growth protein and enzyme formation. Chlorophyll production and it is mobile So in other words your deficiency sentence are going to show up on the bottom plan again. I've got a little chart I'm going to try to try to put on a slide that we can put out there were and maybe get a copy of it. It's a flow chart that helps you to determine what the deficiency is based on this is showing up in the young part of the plant as shown up in the old part of the plant and these very factors in a way that you can take this chart just narrowed down OK that this is most likely what the deficiency is what you're seeing and based on where you're seeing it. I put this slide in here it's that it's a slide of that nitrogen cycling. In the environment and it kind of shows you all of the factors that go into nitrogen cycling. I'm not going to go through every every aspect of this the reason I put it in here is because there's tons and tons of nitrogen. It's one of the aerial there's tons and tons of nitrogen above every acre of land. And when you get completely ballast fertility when you get it when you get a healthy growing system there is no reason you can't acquire all your nitrogen from the air. This is especially important for Danica growers because nitrogen is a big challenge for Ghana growers and they tend over apply certain materials in order to try to get in and the nitrogen. And we'll look at it we look at how you do that but that's the reason I put it in there. This is the show the difference. The way the night she comes into being and then how it goes back out again. But it's cycle irregularly cycles and so the problem is we've disrupted. Well let me just ask you this you drive down the road and everything you see all this green grass and fields and green trees and everything like where do you think they get their nitrogen or not been is not being applied but they seem to be they seem to always have. They seem to always be green in the name when they seem to have the nitrogen when they need it. Well it has to do with the this natural cycling system and microbes so biology in a slow they can actually provide a light year for you. But they require conditions and you have to meet those conditions in order for that to happen now in a natural and not disturb system it happens like I just said. But if you're growing vegetables fruits and vegetables and you're taking high loads of fruits and vegetables off of that ground the requires a lot more nitrogen. We actually we actually go through and some of our tomato crops with the yields we get we can go through five to six hundred pounds of nitrogen one shot. That's over a several month period. The natural the natural light in cycling system is not up to that unless you've got optimum conditions in the soil to achieve that the sources for nitrogen. Both in the ammonium form in the nitrate form are ammonium sulphate. Twenty one percent nitrogen twenty four percent sulphur it's a great source for particularly because so many people need sulfur this is a really good source of nitrogen in it because it's in the ammonium form. It's not going to leach out on you very very easy. The only thing you have to be a careful with it is that ammonium sulfate in its size can actually plug up the edges of those clay plates like the potassium. So you have to be careful you know you don't want to overuse it you only only use it to the extent that you need it. There are some other commercial sources here before I go into those or some other commercial sources I don't have on here. I don't have your area on here which is a forty six percent nitrogen. It's not a bad source. You may want one of the ones as stabilize it hits the ground and they touch each other. You're going to lose your nitrogen your money and they're going to react you're going to lose your nitrogen into the air. And so you've got to get it incorporated right away they have ones that are coated now so that I can. What they call it that they put a coating on it and so it doesn't do that reaction so that there's also ammonium nitrate. Ammonium nitrate since we had seen a fertilizer plants blow up is not readily available anymore since it's so highly reactive. They don't make it very available in the fertilizer place up in Kentucky where we are can't they can't get it anymore. They used to carry it. They can get it. So there are some other commercial sources on the list the ones that I think are the most the most efficient at building valves fertility. You know as protein meals with the content is variable what I mean by protein meals would be things like. Fish meal blood meal feather mail so easy meal. The meal. And the one I'm is in here. Alfalfa meal. So a protein meal and they vary and how much material you have in it. The nice thing about protein meals is that they break down more slowly. So if you're growing like leafy greens like lettuce and stuff like that they actually like that slow release in one thousand. In the system so and they break down over time so you can put a large amount of it on and then. Have a breakdown over time. Rather you know it's usually takes. Anywhere from three to nine months it depends on the temperatures and the biological activity and everything. On that the other source and other sources compost them indoors and again the content is variable on those. Depending on the source and it can depend on the feed there the animals are being fed to these do you know what that content is there are a good source of Curse Of course because you're getting more than just nitrogen in and you could you want to be sure that you need whatever you're getting in and like for example if you're already high and costly then you're not most likely to be using those even on the protein meals and a look at when get the phosphorus you when you get high and and phosphorus you can't. It's not easily gotten rid of everything else can be leached out or removed but it's not case with that cell. You need to pick and choose those and menorahs like for example you can have like a chicken manure. You can have both broiler manure and you can have layer manure in the in the broiler manure is not going to be high in calcium. But the Lehrman there is going to be really high in calcium so you have to be sure. Be careful you know knowing what you need and then making sure that you pick sources that will provide those needs and not aggravate something with your they already have a problem. And so magically digested fish typically has two or three percent nitrogen. It's a pretty good source because it's a study break down source as well and because it is well they have some domesticated sources now where they raise the fish just like you know X. but they they raise the fish now. And then for food and it remains they they grind up and they and semantically digest it. It's a lot. It's the. It's a magic digest as opposed to an emotion is it preserves the amino acids in everything. Whereas an emotion can damage do a lot of damage. And emotions whether you Steen to remove the flesh for using chlorinated water you can have really high levels of chlorine in those emotions if you know you have to the ends magically digested fish is more stable it preserves preserves a lot of a meal asses a lot better and everything in the malls to them. Also as you always see a higher nitrogen content on the U.C.B. up about five. That means it. That means that they've seen that in a concentrated they cooked and concentrated down. Naturally you'll never see more than two to three percent nitrogen content from fish. So if you see anything higher than that on the you know it's been cooked and concentrated in. And the last one which I like the most actually after I've had some experience with it is the symbiotic and the free living nitrogen fixers a lot of you grow lithiums like if you've grown beans or something like that you. You know about the rise over the bacteria the nitrogen the the symbiotic nitrogen fixers that you inoculate with when you're when you're planting those crops that most people don't know about or the free living nitrogen fixers they don't have a symbiotic relationship with with the lagoons and they they grow their free living and there's leaf dwelling ones and there's their soil dwelling ones as though to back to bacteria. Just last. But there's several of them. Now some of the catches in the in order for these to work you have to have good balance fertility for these there were you can't be applying a lot of the nitrogen because they'll get lazy. They'll get lazy just like any of us have becomes easy. And why work. Why work to get it so. If you're using too much valuable nitrogen they're not going to do their job. And so you need to make this transition where you can see you can slowly wean the soil system off of the the nitrogen fix and get it so that it's actually functioning and working. OK The question is what would be sources for those there's a whole bunch of sources out there Bob. Jorgensen used to have one and I don't know if they still have it on their website or not of from blooming blossoms naturals. There was a file plan which is in the zone of actor I think there was a soil. So oil applied one and then there were neutral Fawley or. I think which was a leak or Foley or applied nitrogen fixer. That's the I know about them because I knew he had it and was working with that there are several other companies and I don't know what all they are if you look for if you look for biological inoculations. Not biological stimulus you if you want to look for biological inoculates or actually are inoculating with a. An organism you look for nitrogen fixing biological inoculates I'm sure you'll probably pull up a dozen companies that do that. The other thing you can do which was brought up earlier is to make compost tea and there's going to be free living nitrogen fixers and even if you're going to inoculate with that within a biological adding that biological into your compost tea will increase it and make it more effective because you're pretty prodding of a food source for it at the same time. So that's that'll help work a whole lot better but obviously you can get you can get either the symbiotic ones. If you're growing the humans but you can also get the free living ones. The thing is that you don't want to spend a lot of money on these inoculations you want them to become endemic in other words you want them to become just native to. Or soil but they're not going to become native to your soil unless the conditions are there for them to do that. So the question was as far as compost what ingredients would you use in there. It depends on what what you're trying to emphasize if you're trying to if you're trying to emphasize fungal domination which you're trying to increase your fungal populations. You're going to use harder to digest things so you might use some oil in the fish oil and there. I think I understand it works really well they like baby food oatmeal little flavor works really well if you want to if you want more bacterial dominated I always try to do a balance while tell you what I do in second year. You want to go to more easily digested things so you put you put sugars in there for those types of things is energy source you might put molasses or or I use if I use a circular uses who cannot which is a whole cane juices in order organic whole Kane's you so they just squeeze the juice out of the circuit cane and then they be hydrated. So it's got all the minerals and all the other nutrients in with it. It's just the whole cane sugar. Without all that will feed the bacteria and they'll multiply on now and. Putting some a little bit the nitrogen in there's sometimes. One of the one of the places that does a really good job with that. And again if you look at if you look at compost and pull a good zillion. How are You Tube videos and sources for compost tea makers and sources. And so most of them have pretty good compost hundred acres now and there's tons of them avail you get a five gallon bucket and out a palm and areas are and everything and you just and they have pretty good instructions about doing that stuff. Now what I did when I was out in Colorado. I was bringing humans down from Alaska. It was I could get a fairly inexpensively shipping wise it was a waste product up there because they had to dig it out. They had to dig it all out they couldn't build on it and they had a building boom going up and on up in Alaska and so they had to dig it all out to get down to stable ground to build on it so they get mounds of this stuff will replace in some of the the world record. John Evans who holds most of the world record for vegetable size. That's what he grew up on that he wrote on this Alaskan humus making compost tea from that Alaskan humus and the results were twenty four pound celery. I mean the thing with you is like this big and he had a summer squash that I don't know it was like this and he was home. You know hold the thing up. I would bring it down by the yard by the yard load by whole semi loads and I was putting it in my putting in my greenhouse. But then it started getting popular and this started getting more expensive as though I switched over distilling compost to you with it. The reason I use the Alaskan humus it's a native humus it's clean and it has so many species in it. They don't even know what they all are yet just tens of thousands of species of fungi and and. And bacteria in our cars and things like that and it's a it's a native. And so you can take that you can make a compost tea from it and you know sometimes with the materials you get to make the compost you want to be really sure that you're getting good material to do that. It's not got to much contaminants in this go and that's up here. That's up your finished product because you didn't know it was in there when you're trying to make a compost see but that's why I prefer to use and so you can just buy a forty pound bag of that you can make tons of compost tea from because you're multiplying as those organisms out of the ADD of the the humans. And you can get that piece well these harm supply has about California organic bounty. B.-O. you and T.E.M.A.. Website is bounty B O U and T E N Like and compost tea. It's not not tea why it's T.J.. They have compos team makers they have ingredients to add twenty what kind of cause you gonna make trying to make and have the Alaskan humus you get in there or you might talk to Larry at the you bring a couple of. Six thousand pounds. But I just like I said I just make compost he out of it and compost tea. What we'll talk about it more there become post T. I know that Uncle mass down in Florida they spray compost tea every thirty days they have no disease pressure at all on their trees where everybody around them is having all kinds of problems and I've heard out of growers in California and other places they use a compost tea they're getting they're getting protection from the microbes coming out of compost to you. They're spraying on to the leaves and and then the SO but yeah we'll talk a little bit more about the carbon stuff when we get to the carbon fertility class Peaceful Valley harm supply they get from organic bounty from bounty they bring it down form isn't that right. They they they bring in the form and I know Rowland Evans who started her gang value was a down and down and now they just go like daddy. His brother John Abbott he's the one holds most of the world records you would be surprised what you can actually grow. How many you know what the world record for potato production is on offer one plant and he guesses. How much. Three thousand pounds of a one plant lawyer and this is their world record is the average commercial yield is about two pounds. For plan about two pounds per plant. The guy holds the world record producer one hundred pounds per plant and maybe think of it because you start talking about the finally quit because nobody was bored of it. Nobody nobody was given him any competition so he wasn't motivated that what he did what he simply did was he took a seat vacated and before he put them in the stores he soak them in twenty five percent tell solution. He took them out. Let them dry out on the back in the stores every thirty days he brought them back out so them in a twenty five percent Cal solution but in fact dry them out but I'm back in the stores and he did that all week or the store season and then in the spring when he was ready to plant them he would bring them out again and soak them in a twenty five percent kelp solution. Cut them Greenham you know what greening is or cheating they call Oh you cut the pieces and then you start sprouting and the sprouts are lots shorter and and stronger in everything you do that any go out needs run as furrows put the potatoes in scram with fish Intel Planum and any continuous grain with fish in Cup for the year and you got one hundred pounds per plant. I'd be happy with five you get five pounds per plate you know how much how much money you can make off a potato off an acre. If you could just get it up from two to four five pounds. You could you could produce a lot more potatoes on a lot lot less space and that potential John come from advanced eco I.V. The young Amish guy really sharp guy. He contends and I agree with him that the genetic potential is not even close to being in achieved. He said if a if a plant puts on a camel I remember calling my camel obese that cantaloupe but I dasn't the blossoms of blossoms. What if they could actually set all of Africa produces he said and it's all about it. We're not giving him the resources the means of actually being able to fulfill that that genetic potential and so that's the whole lot that's the whole goal here is to create the conditions so that you have that that potential fulfilled to the extent that you can I think we could be a whole lot more productive than we are in. A lot more profitable as a result and on top of that you had the benefit of much better help and well yeah. And then. That's the other thing is your seed stock as you save seed from that and the bigger goes up on your seed I don't know about any of the rest of you that I've been having more and more issues with seed that are the quality of the seed is going downhill you get really poor germination and everything because there's the reason for that there's just not enough the seed is being deprived of the nutrient package that it should have to get itself going. It has to depend on the soil. You know it when you throw that seed in the soil it has enough to get it going. But then it has to connect in with that soil and begin taking that nourishment from the soil and so time after time after time is not providing adequate nourishment your seed vigor goes down down hill and and next thing you know it's just really not being very productive member the potatoes there's a responder still rust creating there alive and one was it was keeping it fully mineralized there's growth hormones in the in the kelp solution. And so I think that that was quite as playing a role in it. I actually I didn't do the whole thing most people just they owe you forget the do it in whatever because you tend to take it out with thirty days and do it but if you that if you only have to do that to one hundred pounds. You got out of that you've got ten thousand pounds of potatoes. You know it's a lot easier to do but I actually did it when I started doing the spraying. I sprayed them when I put them down planted them and everything and man it just came out of the ground and they were just taken off and gone crazy and then I got distracted with a child graduated from college and you have to you can't you can't lean on that if you have that really good fertility in the ground. Then. How many pounds I get I've got up to four. Yeah I'd be happy. A five. I'd be really happy at ten and I think I think it's doable if you get the right ride he and you can. What you have to do is you have to start saving that seed stock and start increasing the bigger and the potential in it higher and higher and higher and you know I haven't been able to do that yet but I think that that's the next step up where you start getting because I've seen in some other instances where growers have have done that where they started saving their seed stock and and he started ratcheting those fields. You can use biology We'll talk about it when we get there but you can use biology to do all kinds of things they they'd discovered a bacteria that if they if they an ocular with it. They were growing these little carrots they were like the size of your fingers and it can describe a good parent. So they discovered this bacteria that if they an ocular into the soil with it. They could grow carrots the size your arm problem is the next year. You went back to. Graduate care if you want to you want to put up a completely balanced system in there and just continue to to raise it up and increase it and improve it and get it so that you're actually getting that on a consistent basis on every year. Like I said I think we can do a whole lot better than we are but you have to have the right model and that's what we've been missing. We're missing in and a lot of ways in a lot of things. If you've got the right model and you apply that right model and then things go a whole lot better than most people used to. OK phosphorous. So we don't run out of time here phosphorous is a negative three negative. Three minus charges. That's why it's so highly reactive. And it locks up it locks up in the soil in a hurry. What you wanted to do is react with something that will readily give it a back up and that's where you get your phosphorus levels at levels that are optimum but it's roles are in reproductive. Growth part of genetic material energy storage and transfer early root growth aging blooming in fruiting speech maturity and it is mobile. So you would find yours deficiency symptoms in the older part of the plant first. In most cases deficiency symptoms are stunted growth because a lack of energy. You can see reading or purpling of leaves every see that you know sometimes I could be magnesium tube in most cases when it's on the underside of the leaf it's perfectly. Is a good chance you're not getting enough Ozzy poor or no flower in your fruiting So if you get plants that grow when they said they put flowers on but they never set true or they abort fall off as a good chance you don't have enough phosphorus it could also be Boron but in a lot of cases sometimes as you don't even get the flowers. So there's nothing to step through them. OK excess excess is phosphorous is the heavy hitter on the and I aside calcium is the heavy hitter on the one side you know how they come together in nature the calcium in the hostage to gather that phosphorus is the heavy hitter on the and Ironside in the excesses tie up other nutrients. And in the danger with this one is like I said nobody knows how to get rid of excessive phosphate except throwing it out. And I can tell you from everybody that I've talked to that people are trying to grow it out are still trying to grow it out and some of the been doing it for twenty years. Well not something you want to get out of whack. If you can at all. Avoid it. The best you can do if you get a situation like that you have excess amount so it is raise everything else up to the highest levels you can raise them up there antagonistic to it because that's the only way you're going to get enough of those so all the other and ions are going to be antagonistic so you'd raise. Sulphur levels as high as you could you got a razor bore on levels as high as you can you probably have to use more nitrogen. To offset the suppressive effects the tieup effects of the excess of phosphate. And you also get poor growth was excessive phosphate and as a consequence of the other nutrients being tied up. You just get for growth because your other nutrients are not sufficiently available to the plants doesn't grow very well OK phosphorous sources. First when I was hard rock phosphate That's the material appetite rock that's the material they make the commercial sources of of phosphorous from it's hard to find you not get not going to very easily find it most of the companies that own the Corys for hard rock. They don't sell it that way and won't let you buy that way they they want to produce it into a commercial source liability. There's a lot a lot of reasons they don't want to have anything to do with it. They're set up to produce triple superphosphate and that's what they're going to do. It's twenty four to thirty percent. And sup with thirty percent calcium these two always come together in all the natural sources and it's a long term source. If you ground it up into a fire counter it might become a little bit more readily available and in general it's a long term source. I wish it was available still because you can use it. One of my goals isn't you eat if you were in any of Bob Gregory's classes. It's one of his one of his priorities is how do we build up reserves in the soil that can be tapped in the future and so I wish that this was still available because then you could take it in a little bit coarser grind and put it on the soil and with time in the balance. Well the microbes in the SO would release it and give it. Calcium and. And phosphorus. Over a long span of time. OK The other sources colloidal and reactive phosphate they're basically the same thing just a little bit a little bit different way they were formed but they more or less have the same content more or less twenty percent. Pito five. I didn't put P two o five in there. If you want the actual content in actual phosphorus you have to multiply that by point four four you have less than half away so it would be somewhere in eight percent actual phosphorus range there. So when you look at it that way there's a lot more calcium in it than and but P two o five fourth of the way that plant takes it up so the next one is mapped with a call map Manoa monium phosphate. This is a manufacturer source. It is a clean source and it is a very is demonstrated itself to be extremely beneficial to the soil biology. If phosphate is needed because it's already in the ph the stable. It's not in one of those extreme peaches and so it goes into the soil and it's it will disassociate and become available but it won't do to be doing a lot of damage in the process. It's eleven percent nitrogen fifty two percent P two o five on that there's another one called Map Adap D.A.P. daya monium phosphate it's eighteen percent nitrogen and forty six percent P two o five. It's OK I don't prefer that because of the high ammonia content higher PH not preferable but again if that's the only source people have available to and they need the phosphate then I wouldn't I wouldn't resist recommending it. Die. So it's dives to the motto. And as you know basically twice as much not quite twice as much. Ammonium in it. I have to ship in Model money and phosphate if I wanted everything that's around me is Di money and prostate and if they don't need it like it there. Put it on alfalfa field or something for the fosters because alfalfa Liggins use a lot of posse and use a lot of calcium they use a lot of phosphate and if they put it on I asked the guy. What do they. Why they put all the nitrate I said well this is a cheaper source so we just get it they just let it off gas into the air and and just because they just want to phosphate part of it they said well why don't you just get Model money in phosphate and because then you get more phosphate and adolescent nitrogen. It's cost more money bone meal bone meal is what hard rock Aussie is just fossilized basically. That is so again it's twenty one to thirty percent P two zero zero five one to four percent nitrogen because it's younger in the nitrogen has a volatilized twenty to thirty percent calcium. So you have a you have animal bone meal you have fish bone meal like from from sea fish where they separate the bones out to make a meal out of it I would be more inclined to use the fish bone meal if I was going to use one of the other. But it's all bone meal and then compost and am on newer animal manures point five to three percent generally of P two o five in those Of course I'm not listen all the stuff that comes with compost in animal manures like the nitrogen in the in the past the and this is the spot. This is the place that organic growers get themselves into the most trouble with compost an animal in the ores because the phosphate potassium a lot of costs are going to use in a lot of a Tassie more it can leach out Remember you can you solve for to leach it out. Phosphate not going anywhere. And so they'll put these heavy loads of composter animal manure is on the tag. It will be used up or leached out that the phosphate doesn't get used up and start building and building and building until you've got excessive phosphate levels and your crops your vegetative crops start tasting bitter and you start getting tie up of other nutrients. And there I seventy five percent of the growers that I know are Gammick that I work with have that problem already and they would have to be told stop some of them. You know like the die singers for example they're just on that reactive FOS the Tennessee Brown phosphate ore body. They have it there. Naturally. But we had it. They had to they had to largely stop applying any organic materials on their have to switch over to compost tea because Klein is organic materials on there just stimulates the biology to break even more of that phosphate out and and and adding the material with the organic because you're adding phosphate with it too. So it was hurting them. So knowing that that this is where it's important to know what your parent material is. You even need to know what the disposition of your soil is what is it wanting to express like in their case. It wants to express phosphate and calcium and the impacts that those two things have on growth. You know where I was the last time out in Colorado. We were on acid sandstone formation. Most people think that all of Colorado is high ph. So but we were on acid sandstone formation. And we had virtually nothing. And so we had to supply everything ph of our water was five point six really acidic we had to run it overwrote we had to run it over a bed of of find the ground marble palace high purity calcium carbonate we'd run it over a bed of that and it dissolved calcium and then raised the Ph. Up there we could run it over magnesium oxide too and it would raise it up even more the problem with the magnesium oxides to keep dissolve being so if your water was sitting. In a tank it take a Ph. All weigh it in till you use it the next time you take the PH up ph all the way up to eleven any run the water out here heat up the let it run out a little better and get the pretty potent. But the parent material is going to it is going to express itself when we were added in Valley was Granite Bay soils and calcium and left out of it easier and so we have high potassium magnesium soils. So it's important you know what your pear material is because you don't know what it what it's wanting to do. It's going to want to express itself. You've got to impart the right character to that and you've got to keep imparting that character. That's why you die daily by the way. And you've got to you've got to recognise the disposition of that soil and you've got to impart the right character to it and subdue that desire to express itself. And if you ever stop if you do it for a long period of time we'll build more and more depth into that imparted character but if you ever stop. Guess what that soul is going to do. It's going to go right back to what it wanted to express in the past because that's what it is. What it actually takes it up into P two forms. Yeah the phosphate form and it takes it up in that form not in then and not in the ionic Petri I just represented that way to show the charge that it actually has. And when it reacts. Especially if you put it in you put it in a form like a triple superphosphate of finish the story now that we're on sulfur with the triple with the prostate here in just a second. But it wants to when you put in that they've brought the PH down to three. On triple super Fauci. And so on the soils going to mediately nature's going to mediately try to move that. Able form up near seven. Just a slightly acidic form tied up in this one hands it is tied up react. What happens is goes back to react because it could go to iron phosphate it could react with iron and I actually have a problem on my ground up in Kentucky with phosphate we put the equivalent of about five hundred pounds of phosphate on. And we've only had an increase of about one hundred pounds. But we have really high iron levels and I think what's happening is our iron Because told me is that there are some so they just swallow it out and until they're satisfied. You're not going to see a build on it and I think we have higher levels where they were probably getting. Iron high enough is iron phosphate. Because we should have a five hundred Counting crease and we haven't seen the eighty twenty percent show up so I suspect that's what's happening. Some cells they just they have a need for it until they're satisfied till. Hunger the soil satisfied for where the needs to be to stabilize it balances out then sometimes that happens in the. Sometimes is that that the form you're putting on you can do as prostate retention test and test different forms. There was a giant banana growers down in Coasta Rica. There was deficient phosphate make up put on put it on a camera which form they were using I think they were use in the commercial for a model monium or die a million FOS day or maybe triple superphosphate and it wasn't building either they did a phosphate retention and show that rock phosphate soft rock they would build so they brought a whole shipload is a huge operation. Unlike in the whole shipload of a quite a phosphate down there so that they could build their levels and that form would build it whereas the other forms wouldn't build it and. Some of these things now would we really don't have a good handle on why those things happen they just go that way and nobody's invested the time and energy to figure out why I was putting both Tennessee Brown high. State and money all money possible. And I'm not hoping this year I'm going to see a difference that it's got it's satisfied and my concern is I don't want it ALL son expressed itself the next thing you know I'm shooting over the top and and he got way too much. OK. We need to keep moving here because we're about the time. All right. Sulphur so for is a double negative charge you would think with a double negative charge it would make it stick. And so that sulfur is highly tickle. It leaves the soil easy and one of the reasons it does because it reacts with other nutrients that soluble eyes cause decidable eyes the other cat ions major cat ions they react with them easily and it. That leaves it in a more ionic form both of them in the more forms that makes it and makes it legal easier at least it will its its role there in the production of sulfur containing proteins. That roll right there will make a huge difference in how sweet your your produce is if you get the sulfur containing proteins in the functions that they do you will get melons that are sweet you will get I don't care what it is broccoli tomatoes. The sugar levels will go up in it. Sulphur and copper sulphur and copper make a huge difference in the sugar levels in your crops. Chlorophyll production nodule ation of lithiums if you're if you don't have adequate sulfur and you're trying to you're trying to use bacteria and they're not going to do much. You really want to and actually solve for is the one element that will rapidly increase your human's formation because most humans formation actually comes from microbe generations it doesn't come from plant residues. And it's through carbon induction which we'll talk about we do carbon her till the that you're going to. If you really want to build your humus levels you better keep yourself or let. At optimum level of OK deficiency symptoms. They're similar to nitrogen deficiency. Except they're kind of an overall pale green color of the leaves and it tends to work with top down. The pale green color to the to the plant. Excess excess sulfur the symptoms of other and iron deficiency is due to suppression. When you get excessive amounts of sulfur in there. It's going to suppress the phosphorous it's going to suppress the nitrogen suppress the boron election crossover and suppress suppress potassium and some of the other cattle and. So you just get the symptoms of other and iron deficiencies because they're suppressed and you're not getting enough of them in the plant. You have excesses. So for sources elemental sulfur which is ninety to ninety two percent sulphur. When you put elemental sulphur on the way the way I choose what materials I'm going to put on is like with the overall picture is in what you're trying to do and water qualities be is a big deal too I just got done doing some advanced training on water quality in how to how to manage water when you have all kinds of stuff in it that you don't really want there. So this is not. Wreaking havoc I would much rather deal with so fertility than then contaminated water when I mean contaminated just has mineral it mineral in it by carbon it. You know high levels some of these things in a disrupt your chemistry that you're trying to establish in the soil. But if you have a lot of bicarbonate coming in on your water. You might want to choose the elemental software version because when it breaks down into sulphate it goes through the salt here it acid form it actually does damage to the biology in the soil. But once it transforms into the sulfate form the biology comes back at a much higher level than it was prior to that. So in a process there's that this off your gas which is a really strong acid. But it all. Also So if your castle neutralized by carbon in the soil and so. Might be one of the reasons you need to use that depending on what other needs you have what other materials are going to need ammonium sulphate again if you need nitrogen and sulphur. Gypsum which is calcium sulfate again is twenty to twenty to twenty four percent housing in the seven hundred eighty percent sulphur again you've got to be sure you have adequate calcium there before you're using gypsum. So came AG again which is a source that we've seen with Tassie I'm in magnesium magnesium sulfate Epsom salts again with the more or less ten percent magnesium fourteen percent sulphur in the sulfate forms these are all salt in the sulfate forms Tasneem sulfate fifty percent K two zero in the eighteen percent sulphur. Now let me tell you about that. What happened with sulphur everybody thinks that there's plenty of sell for now I'll qualify this by the average age they may know what the average age of the farmers are in this country it's pushing the upper half of the fifty's. So these guys are thinking from. Quite a few years ago. And they can't find a way to take their place. But here there was a they did it they did a test. That is a research to see if sulphur would increase the yields on wheat in the week growing states. So it was Kansas which is a big win Oklahoma Nebraska Colorado. They did this research. To see if it's all for a way to increase yields in an all of the state's history seals except in Kansas Kansas said it would increase the yields here. So they went out to look and see why why didn't increase the yield and can the Kansas would get higher yields anyway already because of the have all of theirs or their souls of deteriorate quite a bit. Too. So they went out and the guy visited with the farm manager there walking across the research farm and the farm manager leans over and elbows them and says hey I'm going to tell you a secret. He said when everybody else is using that trickle superphosphate. I use superphosphate. Now you remember what I told you about superphosphate earlier it's got gypsum in it. Calcium sulfate. So he was putting the sulphur on all along from the sulfate in the in the superphosphate. Gypsum that was in there so he was putting the solver on that's why that he had been put on the whole time. So that's why they were getting better yields and everybody else anyway on it for their want to. Well he just crossed the border and because you're in Kansas sulphur doesn't matter. But here is the issue software is highly tibble and it used to come from a lot of incidental sources they used to come for fertilizers which I just mentioned used to come superphosphate used to be much more heavily used and it is now in fact you have a hard time finding any more. Because they refined it down into the more concentrated. Form of triple superphosphate they took this gypsum out and they're doing that because they can sell it as a separate material you and or sell it to another industry or whatever. So it's gone. They used to come from the exhaust and cars. And so it would come out of the exhaust from the cars burning gasoline they've taken it out of the gasoline. They used to come from coal stacks from the burning of coal. They've taken it out of the coal. Now all of these farmers were used to. Incidentally getting sold her from all of these sources. Get up into the air and fall with the rain and you know people and the like in NE would have real problems with itself Europe as it was coming down with this coming down with the rainy assiduity coming down with the rain all that's gone and now what you see when you look at so to us is to fish. As far as the eye can see with sulfur because it's so highly lethal. There's still think in twenty or thirty years ago and the conditions have changed. And they're just making an assumption that is true. Now I want to give you a practical and implication of that conditions. And I'll use weed for that because they're not there. They finally figured it out in some places and they're doing it again if you are if you take a whole wheat. So you go out you buy whole wheat grain you think you're going to do something healthy for your family or you're going to grind that grain into flour and you going to make it into bread and you get a bacon in your of it and you're going to serve it to your family. If that if that grain was grown on sulfur deficient soil. When it goes over one hundred sixty degrees and out of and it's going to start careers in the carcinogens are krill in mud. That's what happens when you don't have the sulfur in their grain and here you think you're doing something. It's beneficial to your family when it could be potentially hazardous to your family. This is another reason why you want to grow your own stuff and you want to be sure that you're addressing all of the nutritional elements that are essential for for healthy growth. This happens and a lot of different ways on the lot of different foods because the lack of certain nutrients and sulphur is one of the biggest ones that you don't get the protein arrested you don't get those sulphur based amino acids in the proteins that are that are built as a result of that because you don't have the sulfur and sulfur remember also said like they'll say well I needed. Ninety pounds of Hosty. And I only needed twenty pounds or thirty pounds of sulfur remember I said they're measuring apples to oranges rather than apples to apples. If you take a prostate you reduce it. You multiply by point four and you reduce it down to elemental phosphorus and compared to elemental solver. It's equal amounts and if you. Or you can take it up the other way. Take the elemental sulfur and raise it up sulfate form and measure the weight compare and it's pretty much the same and one is considered a major element and doesn't leak and the other one is considered a secondary element and leeches easily. And so it's not me it's not being supplied. And so this is one of the biggest biggest impacts on fertility is making sure that you have adequate sulphur. You know if you're going to they're saying that the phosphate is required as a major element because certain amount of his name be used and the software is a secondary element but they're measuring one is a compound they're measuring the other is an element. If you just make them so they're apples to apples either which way you measure is elemental an elemental or you measure is compound a compound. Pound for pound they're going to be equivalent. And one highly leaches the sulphur is highly reachable the phosphates not going anywhere. And so sulphur is actually a major element is more critical to be watched in the phosphate because of that and we're maintaining sulphur levels and so while you're maintains over those you have this media was brought to you by audio a website dedicated to spreading God's word through free sermon audio and much more if you would like to know more about audio verse. If you would like to listen to more sermons visit W.W.W. or.

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