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Art as Artillery: The Visual Battle Between the Reformers and the Counter-Reformation

Giselle Hasel
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Giselle Hasel

Associate Professor of Art History at the School of Visual Art and Design, Southern Adventist University


  • September 30, 2017
    2:00 PM
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There is a time for everything the Bible says and the Lord is in control of this time isn't that a powerful thing and we're on his side and there is a time prophetically for everything and Luther was at a cross crucial time and a season for every activity under heaven so time to be silent and a time to speak you will see how bold and how courageous these men were because they were against the institution and they have the power to kill now we might have the courage but we have this thing called human rights we we hide under not so back then so I'll go ahead and read it because I feel a little I hate reading things but it being recorded so I better better see everything right. So just four years after seventeen fourteen seventeen when the ninety five pieces had been completed a powerful publication which combined words and images were going to fall upon the established church like a bomb the publication. Was completed in May fifteen twenty one in its title was pastor now Christie into antique city the odds were stacked against the elder the the artist and authors milling and they also consulted with chefs figure they knew that Luther's book had been burned. In Frankfurt and his excommunication had been official a short five months earlier in January the alt authors also knew that tests all still to manage for Luther to be burned at the state and to make matters worse they did not know if Luther was alive no one knew of his whereabouts since March despite all. These uncertainties and pressures these brave souls approach this extremely controversial publication with boldness courage and conviction the time in which the pastor now Christie into anti Christie was being made would have been controversial on both sides on the reformers there was an iconic classic rock riot in Burke which accolade had by the end of that same year Karl Stott and stealing were especially instrumental in bringing into question the usage of works of religious art and called for its destruction and on the Catholic side their booklet was most decisively in the So hold on the church and on the pope. Throughout history images have been made to disseminate information the Catholic Church understood the power of art and as early as the sixth century during the reign of Pope Gregory the Great Art served as the venue for meditation indoctrination in above all legitimation of power by the early sixteenth century the accessibility to print gave more power to the common layman who is specially used art as their strongest weapon against the Catholic Church Germany was at the forefront of course this is the ninety five thesis which got published Germany was at the forefront of this battle is especially in making print because the printing press had been invented in mines just sixty five years prior to first Prost protest in printing what they called flukes reached my German is horrible it's basically flukes is like Fly Srishti is writing so now they could print and these things would fly and this is how the thesis spam was also published with Reformation. Ideologies use of use of art can be seen in a single printed pop up plant foot that dates to around fifteen hundreds so there it is this is an image that actually testified of a popular dissatisfaction with the pope since the Hot Site movement in Bohemia on its front it shows Pope Alexander the six at the stately pontiff with the inscription above stating Alexander the six Pontifex Maximus which we all know is a title by a Roman emperor they mean you would flap it. And look what you would be a hideous image revealing the Pope as the devil and then the inscription saying I am the pope. People were dissatisfied with the corruption in the church but didn't know how to articulate it archaeologically the common person did not have access to Scripture and thus the tools to pop properly engage it is no wonder that when Luther wrote his ninety five thesis inventing bird he became dear hero just two years later in fifteen twenty Cranleigh the elder created a portrait of Luther that gave the people an image of their hero which was widely distributed below the image crime after wrote in Latin that the paper in the artist would soon be forgotten but not the image of looser one year later in fifteen twenty one another prince of Luther was recently released circa January this was during the time when Luther would have been tried at worms and subsequently kidnapped the print what was made by Hans who made Luther look like a saint with a halo and the Holy Spirit descending upon him like a dog. The image was banned hunted down burned and their owners were accused of idolatry by people off already. A few prayers served by but often they have been mutilated as an example here we see a defacement of Luther including a mocking mustache making him look like a devil and a black ink on his eye that actually cancels his heavenward gaze. Anyhow German artist like our breath during chrono the elder master of the new technique of printmaking and became successful ironically chrono the young one on the right here the elder sharpened his skills making a catalogue of freedom the wise is extensive relic collection something he would later despise both artists in chrono sided with the Reformation but chronic The elder had especially become close friends with Luther the publication pastor now Christiano Auntie Christie followed the tradition of religious art and the booklet had two purposes it was actually a medieval prayer book and the other purpose of course was an anti papal propaganda. And this kind of prayer if you if if we have time we'll see how much we make it you'll see how there's a positive side which is Jesus and on the other side there's the negative side with his which is the beast and they go back and forth like that which actually is can come grew and with. The ology of the two kingdoms the kingdom of God in the kingdom of Earth. And this is actually happened in the. The Bible few If you think of the Lord's Prayer For instance give us our daily bread as well as lead us not into temptation but deliver us from evil it is characteristic of the Christian life to be positioned in a place somewhere between the now and they're not yet between evil and redemption temptation and deliverance the reader if you are using posture now as a sort of prayer book is invited to meditate on the life of Christ and warned against the corruption of the papacy moving between a meditative form of prayer and a negative form of petitioning prayer for delivery from them from the people anti-Christ So the book that was produced in the wake of an increase in sales of indulgences so that it would be specifically contrast Christ spiritual kingdom against papal ambitious ambitious for temporal. Is highlighted true discipleship and Christ's model of self emptying due to time constraints I'm only going to focus on a few illustrations on the booklet so if you you want to leave it or look at it in. The Powerpoint that's fine the first pair of images set the stage for the antithesis in tipis of sorry drawing attention to the contrast between the perfect spirit spiritual rule of Jesus Christ and the corrupt rule of the pope on earth the image depicts Christ as he retreated to the wilderness as a group of followers attempt to crown him beneath this illustration there are only Bible verses from John eighteen or Luke twenty two that my kingdom is not of this world and the greatest amongst you should be like the smallest or the lowest on the other side the only used Paypal decrease very few times that they put. Their Own Words they were actually just taking what the pope's had fed about themselves so here we see a decrease or on the council Viana on the side that claimed people power was superior to secular authorities notice on me a marriage how the pope has a stronger army behindhand than the Kings the second illustration am I to feller don't develop further the contrast between heavenly and earthly kingdoms in these pages we see the crown of thorns being placed on Jesus's head which he accepts and we know that the Bible talks about in the text below about him receiving a purple cloak as a gesture of cynical mockery and look at the dog as well there's a dog and look at the animals and how chronic depicts the eminence in these illustrations the dog in the for ground actually stands to represent the kind of people that are putting the crown of thorns on Jesus head on the opposite side of course the pope is accepting the triple tiara and all of its glory and He is enhanced there the whole ceremony you see there's people pay playing trumpets on the window outside and it's a big to do and the are nay ecclesiastical cloaks But the texts underneath refers to that purple cloak and it's from again papal the creature as it says. The Emperor Constantine has given us the imperial crown the purple cloak the scarlet tunic and other imperial regalia like this and the scepter Let's go to the next image the message of kenosis which is self empty is one of the main purposes. This book so here we have this can Gnosis happening as Jesus lowers himself to wash his disciples feet like a slave in the Roman empire like a servant another immersed in in this underneath. The image of Jesus borrowing is basically talking about Luke twenty two when the disciples are arguing amongst themselves who's going to be the greatest because they thought Jesus was going to be a temporal King and so this contracting again the kingdom of heaven on the other side. The disciples are supposed to understand this inversion of material values from spiritual ones and Jesus taught them as he demonstrated by washing his their feet the A Mish image shows them looking at each each other in dismay on the opposite image the pope. On his bald Akin that is the little classing over his head receiving kings and princes who stooped down to kiss his feet and much like a Roman emperor he has his hands raised in accepting this homage to himself notice how the pope is always placed spatially of Christ in the compositions of these two images the pope is higher throughout the booklet there is an implied line also in the heads of the disciples going down towards Jesus head while the Archbishop's on the other side are looking are up towards their Pope and there is no dismay on their side there is expressions of pride in maybe an attempt to gain that position themselves. I have included this one and I don't know which page it is on the booklet but this is interesting to me because of what ministers why. I talked about in the great controversy there was images like this in yon horses time and she talks about this in the great controversy those images are long destroyed we don't have them anymore so I think the closest thing we can get to it is this image right here because the reformers actually looked at what had been done during Hasse's period and copied that so that they are one in the same movement there's a little line that can be drawn here so here's what Mrs White describes beginning with an open attack on the pope's supremacy they were soon silence this is to preachers by the authorities but being and willing to relinquish their purpose they had resorted to other measures the art is students they were art being artist as well as preachers they proceeded to exercise their skill in a place open to the public they drew two pictures one represented the entrance of Christ into Jerusalem meek and sitting upon a donkey before in them followed by his disciples and travel worn garments and naked feet the other picture portrayed a pontifical procession the pope arrayed in his rich robes and triple crown mounted upon a horse magnificently adorned preceded by trumpets and followed by cardinals prelate into in a dazzling array so this is the closest we can get to this description that she has. Apparently me students these images made such an impression on the mind of her that led them to a closer study of the Bible and of which. Clifford writing this type of contracting had been created before by the movement and sin by a certain Nicholas of dress and now I posit here that's the preachers that dress him had been for bidden to preach and dress and so they came to Bohemian that's how we get. I'm inspired in the in the book that they read that they had at the time this Nicholas of dread and was called the old color in the new the reformers have learned from history and the past year now all this book was. Was basically chronics version of an old the older tradition by the reformers. These attacks preceded the translation of the Bible wait wait wait I need to say this I skipped a line. If we think of what the life of hust accomplished and how these images contributed to spread their message I cannot help but wonder how many more were inspired by the passion now when it was also the first time that there were biblical translations of bailable to the people these precede the vernacular Bible that that Luther translated in possibly maybe made him inspired to translate the entire book but this is my conjecture. The penultimate illustration of the pastor now is very important because here Christ is taking an active role exposing the mate merchants from the temple while on the opposite side the pope sell indulgences the story is taken of course from John two when Jesus made a scorch of small cords and drove the money changers out of the temple and what did he say. Take these away from the temple these do not belong here so it wasn't a direct assault on what the pope's were doing with money in the church this is the stronger so solid against the indulgences crown that visual commentary on this issue included humor as he insinuated again that the pope was like the dog in the illustration by paralleling the dogs posture below with the pope. On the anti-Christ side. The authors quo Paul telling us alone humans of a great apostasy at the time of the man of lawlessness also known as The Anti-Christ that would be revealed this quote was followed by Daniel leaven which identified the pope with the Anti-Christ and the Beast of Revelation I mean they were not mincing words they were not mincing illustrations It was as clear as day and as a matter of fact Luther believed in making things simple that was one of his in translating the Bible he wanted people to understand for themselves very important point for the reformers the authors then proceeded to quote papal documents on the other side and it is specifically the same action forgeries where the pope could only be judged by his own mouth he was exempt from capital punishment and to Christ derogative in the remission of sins through indulgences the desire of wages has a description of Christ expulsion of the merchants from the temple at the times Jesus Divinity flashed through his humanity and Mrs White says that he looks into the future through out generations and she's. He sees how priests and rulers worked will turn the needy from their right and for bid that the Gospel shall be preached to the poor or he sees how the love of God will be concealed from the sinners and men will make merchandise of his grave. The corruption of money from religious institutions still stand between believers and Christ today the Catholic Church is especially subject to this. Because they have no need of transparency if they have the capability of forgiving then they are trapped into a vicious cycle because they can then they can rape children they can do whatever and then just say well just say a few you know prayers and do the math and you're fine so they're trapped I feel sorry for them because they think they have this power which those not belong to them they're stuck. In their own. Vicious cycle. The reformers wanted to have sound and purer theology and return to the simple Bible truth was at the core the abuses had been around too long and they were willing to risk their lives to express the truth the final illustration all some people like ha the truth but look they have their be very bold variable is basically Jesus ascended into heaven in the pope being cast with L. not a polar quake her wrecked image we don't understand that because we're living in a different era but they were bold this is the only time in the book with that the pope as below. The inscription on the side of the anti-Christ comes from Revelation nineteen and second first alone eons to stating that the beast was captured and with him the false prophet who had enticed by performing signs on his behalf there were those taken in by the signs and who worshiped his image it proceeds to tell us that the beast will be revealed and these will be cast down and will fall by the glory of the Lord's coming the booklet contains thirteen contrasting pairs and a total of twenty six images so I can't talk about them all but let me just go back just for fun just for fun details you had with my students are the day I actually look at the image look at it because artists are telling you something you see the little baby donkey following the donkey behind geezers he's looking like he really loves his mommy and he's innocent and you know I just saw puppies before I came and I could no longer so cute so there is little in it turned with the animal there on the other side look at the pope's horses you know how horses sometimes fight with each other with their mouth but you know the artist is putting all of these details telling you the spirit the different spirit of these two groups Anyway sorry this is definitely out of my script but back to our world OK. So the book was successful they made five editions of it and they made a big edition in Latin. I think some people went back and forth a clue there was was very involved with this he was he chippy probably chose a lot of the illustrations the artist and the Lange founded the script and the art. But Luther was a mastermind behind it as well the sixth edition though because tensions had increased if there were people killed there were persecutions the sixth edition the artist decided to do a change that was a little bit more poignant a little bit stronger you don't have that in your book are not the change you do have it in goodness which pages it oh I yeah page eleven on your book he didn't bother to change that you see that here on your booklet. Jesus is tired from ministering to the people and he decides he needs to go and pray and be with the father he looks tired while of course on the other side the pope is not tired at all he's quite hefty he's cut a lot of excess on him and he is being carry Of course he never walks much less barefooted but because the tensions had increased the artist changed it to Jesus carrying the cross. And the pope being carried on the litter so other let me go on because there's more to this battle of imagery and I can't stay on this book alone cost or else we're at a time. And I'm always notoriously like over time so I don't want to get into the next lecture because I really am looking forward to it but. There were images all the time back in fourth against one another film that I won't even show you because they did get a little lewd and crass and I'm thinking you know. As Christians if we ever have to defend what we believe in we don't have to swear we don't have to wear use bad words I mean we're we feel pretty strongly about it but we don't have to because there were images where they were you know def Acadian the Pope's here or there just stuff but anyhow this is I thought was the strongest art piece here so in a print made later other contemporary works of art can attest that other artists continued to illustrate Luther as Jesus cleansing the Temple in a print made by Hans Holbein the younger he shows Luther see. Loser as Hercules and the image shows Luther defeating Aristotle Aquinas all come Nicholas of who are Peter a long hard and done go to sin he's about to dispatch on. Now for those historians that know who these people are they're all theologians and we're bringing tradition tradition tradition to the church and he's getting rid of all these guys the artist enthusiastically depicted Luther's effort to rid the church of accumulated religious tradition. Loser's role was viewed as a radical purifier returning to an altered an altered roots of the Christian faith and soulless. Torah now the cross fire I'm not touching you and your problems now the crossfire of artistic accusations in cruelly and in fifteen twenty nine artists Hans Brostrom are releasing his print that pointed to loser as being the that have seven headed dragon described by Revelation thirteen. Lose their heads are accompanied by titles Dr Saint infidel priest fanatic church advisor and branches. Not so nice Well the Protestants weren't left behind just one year later they fired bear in the form of a popular now this is not what they fired back but just pay pay attention with me so you can understand what they were communicating in a form of a Catholic devotional print this one right here which was supposed to for you as a good pious Christian you would buy this then you would go to the math and you would see a potter noster which is a prayer and you would be promised four hundred in thirty years of indulgence OK This print. Listen to the story behind the images here was an illustration of a story created to legitimize transubstantiation the church's power of transforming the host into Christ's physical body and the wine into his real blood the story originated in the eighth century. In a biography of Pope Gregory the lady who baked the bread of the host says I don't believe they're going to change the system to go Rice body because operate I bake the bread my sale where all. Value was enough fans so that you know prompted Pope Gregory then to say this very devout prayer and guess what happened upon his prayer. The finger of Christ was bleeding on the table Big actual flesh and blood of Christ was on table well anyways the story gets inflated in by the thirteenth century it was the entire Body of Christ is resurrected on the altar as the pope prays so there's no was sure ation increase in popularity is perilously because under year five hundred fifteen hundred one. One thousand five hundred. There was going to be a big Jew believe OK and there was another thing that had been just published because of the printing press there was a book that was almost just as popular as the Bible in the Middle Ages it was called the Golden Legend The Golden Legend had all of the things is illustrated many times it was illuminated man is you know writings illustrations stories of all the thing and all of this extra stuff but it had been printed so what the the Protestants do now is a direct attack on these things OK it Mark Catholic this is what the oh sorry this is the golden legend sorry I'm right behind this is what they did this is what they did to CROSSFIRE the other illustration of C. of Luther with the seven heads. So the resurrected Christ is substituted for an indulgence hanging on the cross the host usually placed on the altar is replaced by a seven headed monster with heads of clothes. Gee and the Pope's up the center wearing his triple tree R.-A the chalice where one would see the wine representing Christ blood we see a flame of fire from hell kroner speaking of this Prince continues and says the papal flags fly at both sides and on the seal of the indulgent letter stands a medic she coat of arms of Pope Clement the haven't contracted with the humble armor Creasy the Crossland sponge crown and thorns on the top. The Papacy symbol on the bottom profane their setting and with worldly pompe not some transgressive reformer but rather that church itself has defiled this altar. The battle continued on so that artists continue to attack the church even to the second generation when Didn't Berg Paul ever died in fifteen sixty nine chrono the younger who inherited his father's workshop with commission to make a memorial of his life in titled vineyard of the Lord the scene is based on the story found in Matthew twenty one through five the kingdom of heaven is like a landowner who went out early in the morning to hire men to work in His vineyard he agreed to pay them a day Marius for the day and sent them into his vineyard about the third hour he went out and saw others standing in the market place doing nothing he told them you also go and work in my vineyard and I will pay you whatever is right so they went so in the image the Protestants are viewing themselves as the latter people that Christ called to work on the Vineyard loser is at the center G.C.M. I have a small little red circle because of his work of the Reformation divided the church. Then you have Philip Philip milling son in the water mill length on as some of you know helped translate the Bible he was a humanist he knew the original language and he also was a big believer in going back to the sources so he is going to the source of water to she to feed to the neared. Then there is also Johannes Forester. Johannes Forster is representing watering the parched soil he was a Bible translator as well but he also has travelled extensively tending to the young and shoots of the Reformation who can HAGON organized it's another person he's a he has the superintendent's coat he organized to manage several Reformation movements throughout as here again pastors for the new faith the whole implements order and the ropes served to stress the role of this man who Luther once introduced as the Bishop of Britain Burke others include included represent growth mark my your Paul Krell Cosper crusader Eustace Yunus and all these other reformers I'm not going to say all their names. There's lot of room. On the other side in the middle there's a little bit of sense of humor again the people from the other side is bringing the mock into the reformer side so they're recycling things from the Catholic side. Despite their rear it's the idea depicted is that they were working the same vineyard the work being done on the other side is last less flattering the fences in disarray the vineyard looks dead in what is left that are being killed probably with the many martyrs being burned at the stake Kranach the younger depicts a bishop in the vineyard that is burning instead of tending to the vineyard Notice how this is central and close to the dividing path as those who had been killed were in the dividing line between Catholics and Protestants the artists also comments on the corruption within the church by depicting monks drinking as they work or playing cards as Jack we show you there I don't know if you can see that once drinky bears dare a card of decks falling out of that guy in the middle and then if you look down here instead of like getting water from the well they're actually stomping it with rocks Christ who is the owner of the vineyard is dressed more modestly then the pope in his curia and he comes to of course pay them and he's already paid them there is a coin in the pope's hand but it's like extended like that there you're not going to give us more. And it can have again we're first to Matthew twenty nine through sixteen which we'd So when those came who were hired first they expected to receive more but each one of them also received a denarius when they received it they began to cry to grumble against the land owner do you see how these people despite not having the Bible they knew their bible they were reading it and it's visible in the artwork in what's the writing on their knee to it so in a few years later about thirteen years later another church commissioned this thing painting to be done again by the same artist This time though if you if you pay attention the colors are darker and there's more of a contrast between both sides with the path in the middle by this time there were wars persecution of the Protestants the massacre of the Huguenots in France had already happened so that their differences had been solidified the Catholic Church in turn celebrated these victories with works of art as well the massacre of same Bartholomew had actually several things I can't even go into all the celebrations that took place but Mrs White talks about a fresh go by Georgia of a society and here it's what it looks like and thank you Getty Images for putting your brand right in the middle I can find a better picture but. This is basically they. Celebrated the victory over the Protestants they also Pope Gregory the thirteenth minted a coin of this victory in on the coin if you look one side is of him on the other side is the Knight of St Bartholomew's the most sac massacre. The Roman Church was ten nations in maintaining its position however Catholics did consider some of the Protestant accusations at the Council of Trent and I believe that I don't know Professor Pettibone that's when they started stopping charge to charge if I got the correct sources they stopped charging for the indulgences but they kept giving them. So they revised a few things but the Council of Trent also affirmed them theologically on several other issues. Nothing in art had been overlooked including Michelangelo's. Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel especially that one there was the. Be argued this Tuesday and he was the pack papal master of ceremonies he complained about it and he said this was very disgraceful thing to have made in so on a wall place all those nude figures showing their nakedness so shamelessly so they had someone go and painted over. So it's touched up it's not all Michelangelo now. But at the Trent Council Catholic counteroffer mation artistic efforts were decisive and gave birth to an entire year of art called the Baroque style and it included the expansion of Rome the baroque has been a star called the style of purse to Asian and argues to speak of their victory over Protestantism. I'm architectural Reynold ations included were unprecedented they began begun with Pope Paul the third at the counter-Reformation pope's widened paved street in we're roads of Rome to accommodate for pilgrimages now we have a primary source documents that many people wanted complained endlessly of them losing their houses over the Pope because he wanted to street in the street in your house happened to be in the middle of the street he wanted an excuse you you're going to have to get out of here and move so there were a lot of unsatisfaction but they did it they were to nation the pope founded schools of arts and commissioned some of the greatest architects like such as Michelangelo Carlo Madame know and Bernini to reserve direct Rome again as the Eternal City Michelangelo was summoned almost immediately after the Council of trying to renovate the Palazzi on the wall or a company dog which is the Civic Center for Government which the pope's wanted to control the statue of Marcus or really a switch at the time was believed to be Constantine was moved to the company doubly apart Piazza this statue was to legitimize. Papal desire to control the affairs of state Michelangelo was urged in fifteen forty seven to finish St Peter's sorry there it is and erect the central dome by the century the church declared the counter-Reformation effort. And celebrated its triumph baroque art and architecture became a global style because the Catholic missionaries especially the Jesuits went all over the world and spread the style with them the celebrity. Sorry the celebratory star oil is the natural call it in the illusion is some it crashes into your space this is accomplished through emotionally charged images extreme contrast and perspective mixing two dimensional paintings with three dimensional sculpture and soaring architectural spaces one of the culminating works of this effort planned Barbara Nini but it but executed through his protege Giovanni Battista galley is your guest to the mother church for the Jesuit order the healing evokes a mystical vision of the triumph of Christ's name which is the name of just the words as well so it's a double message the painting appropriately titled triumph of the name of Jesus achieves actual Luzhin ism that it makes most of you worst let me show you this is it confused about the borders between painting sculpture in architecture the tension of the name of Jesus as depicted in a central area of extreme light the painting consists of dramatic groupings of people some of which are saved and some are damned on the darker damp side the bodies are spilling out into our space accompanied by angels of greenish color. The entire artistic message of this church is about how the Jesuits are taking the message and ridding the Church of infidels the ideology has been made explicit through several sculptural depicting. Ignatiev the Loyola stepping on Luther or stepping on heretics but inside this church. There is the tomb by in here it is of of Ignatieff Loyola it is very elaborate and in six hundred ninety nine Pierre legal all French artist made a sculpture called right there next to it. Religion overthrowing heresy in hatred here we see a woman which is supposedly religion carrying a cross on one arm and flames of fire in her other hand which she her is towards the contorted figures falling away from her by her side there is a pretty which is a little angel ripping the pages of the Swiss reformer swing Lee His book. Hatred is depicted of Baba male. A male who is none other than looser falling away from her we know it's Luther in the church can't change that because the artist actually engraved his name on the spine of the book that is right beneath him. It is evident that almost two hundred years after Luther the church was still making counter Reformation art against her dissenter the imperialists church relentlessly hung on to their propagandistic efforts however by the time of Clement the eleventh in the early eighteenth century the papacy had become economically politically and militarily weak several architectural and artistic efforts had cost the church greatly depleting its financial resources and ultimately influence its influence so that the fate of the world was no longer decided in Rome Despite this the church Kong onto privileges monopolies Parag it is in immunities claims to the Holy See for generations so that eventually the Jesuits were expulsed from the Portuguese Empire Spain France into Cicely's and Parma Rome's to nice just as if we refused to compromise on any principle. Precipitated the conflict in which it became the loser when they were humiliated. Seven by Napoleon. So the effect of Luther's fifteen seventeen protests in the town little town of the bird rippled to such consequences that it affected every aspect of life as we know it on both sides of the religious fence. In hindsight food Luther's influence was a watershed in religion arts music literature the German language and the world wide culture. The artistic weapon used on both sides Protestant and Catholic have great effect on our world and are still with us today this only happened because reformers stirred for truth with boldness courage and conviction in unison their voices echo through the ages that Christ's Kingdom is not of this world and that truth will prevail what about truth today though is truth dead. Has art so bombarded or overstimulated our minds that we are now man to truth. Have we been shocked so many times that we have become dormant in the late stage of Laodicea will truth come out victorious during our generation. I pray that we will all stand for truth with courage boldness and conviction as so many have done for this media was brought to you by audiotapes a website dedicated to spreading God's word through free sermon audio and much more if you would like to know more about audio verse if you would like to listen to more sermon leave to visit W W W. Dot org.


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