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4. Art as Artillery: The Papal Counter-Reformation

Giselle Hasel


Giselle Hasel

Associate Professor of Art History at the School of Visual Art and Design, Southern Adventist University



  • December 28, 2017
    4:00 PM
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This message was presented at the G. Y.C. twenty seventeen conference arise in Phoenix Arizona for other resources like this visit us online at W W W dot. Org. All right let's ask the Lord's presence. DEAR FATHER think you so much that we are part of a golden thread of truth that has been handed down towards through the generations and looking towards your second coming Lord we want to be as faithful as the reformers were we want to be bold courageous and have the conviction that they have but Jesus we can't do this on our own there's nothing we can do were small and feeble and and weak we really really need your power we really need your word we need to memorize it we need to know it so that this conviction will penetrate every cell of our body we know this is what we want to live and die for and that we are willing to do this because we are going to see you and your face soon to be coming to make things right. Please be with us this afternoon for one more lecture help us to stay awake. And give us the mental stability and energy and help me to have the presence of mind use my lips your words through me Lord what we asked in Jesus name Amen. Ard as artillery the papal counter-Reformation I say this with a little bit of a clause because really the counter Reformation effort in our started after the Council of Trent so I'm going to start a little earlier than that so we'll just lump it together but it's not really all counter-Reformation. I want to first just because I believe in the power of art and I want to share that power with you I know it's a lot to learn there's a lot you have to learn to really use our and to understand art sometimes but really it's not rocket science OK so I'm going to get just a few tips and guess what a Seventh Day Adventists we actually know a lot about art and I'll tell you I. But God is the ultimate artists God is an amazing artist he is the ultimate artist where we get all of our ideas from because all of art comes from nature we get these things from God and we remakes it into our own experience and we express our ideas and it's an amazing thing that we can take part in this thing called creativity Ray we do it some of you will like writing poetry some of you like writing music and some of you like the visual arts but God is an amazing visual artist and if you look at the heavens what does the Bible say the heavens declare. Yeah the glory of God. And it also says in John one in the beginning was the Word and the Word was WITH God and the Word was God he was in the beginning with God all things were made through Him and without him nothing was made that was made so God has an amazing power because his word. Can make things happen and in that sense I wish I could be much easier for me as an artist man I have an idea just speak it blue but we have to create it work at it. But what I want to get to is that nature reveals God as an artist Christ as an artist and Christ does this because he's showing us his love for us his art by default shows us his mind shows us about his character there's actual in art the Fibonacci rule I don't know if you yeah there is actually something that keeps repeating itself in nature and you see this repetition throughout and you know that whoever designed this is the same person it keeps repeating itself and when God placed us here he didn't just places hap hazard in a place he made it into a garden he made it into a beautiful place so aesthetics is important to God beauty actually there is a discipline called neurosis that it's not I'm not a doctor and I'm not a psychologist so this is like a little bit stepping out of my comfort zone but it's from the University of Emory where I went to there's a lot of research in those saying that beauty heals the mind but you can sense that when you're walking in nature you get energized you get it just in any way you feel at peace there's a beauty of nature is very healthy and God is the artist. And God has his signature and in the seventh day of creation and I don't know if you've ever seen an artist working but if you seen an artist working they're working and they're working whatever they're doing sculpture painting and then they step back and they're looking at it a little bit they look at it and then they're like No it needs something it's not finished I'm going to work at it a little bit more than they step back and they're looking at my dad that's good that's it that's good it's done at which point which actually is a very tricky thing because sometimes if you work over work your art you ruin it you did too much you're supposed to stop there's a perfect balance is perfect time to stop enough you know. But once you do that yesterday actually I was walking towards my hotel and there was a man who was a poet and he gave me a poetry wife bought it from him for ten dollars and then he sensible let me sign it right what do you look for a new original an original piece of work you look for the signature if you have the signature of an artist oh it's just it's a person no it's meaningful it's the actual artist's hand saying I declared it finished this is finished when God finished his seven day creation he signed it he signed it with the seventh day sabbath and he said he put his signature on the Sabbath and he has asked us to engage in being his create Sion again and again every Sabbath in gauging this act of love between us and our maker between creature and creator and the Garden of Eden is still around I mean if you think about it now I'll just side note again I went to Florence love art love love love art so I'm standing in front of Michelangelo's David and I knew about Michelangelo a struggle she was going through he actually was influenced by the Protestant Reformation and I and I are does this you just become overwhelmed and you almost want to cry in the presence of something like that in a painting sometimes it just moves you. And after that we went to the Dolomite mountains in Italy and all of a sudden were hiking and I'm thinking you know what no matter what no matter who the best are in the entire world will never ever come even close to these mountains to the powerful imagery that God surrounds us with it's just amazing it's so exciting so where does our come from right we've established that comes from God but through nature so basically what artists do is they study nature art is the language about the truth about nature which is basically you're studying God through His creation now Mrs White says at one point that sometimes in nature you can see the evidence of sin and so in that case you need to interpret that the great controversy in the of the battles real but most of the time we get all of our inspiration from from nature it communicates on a gut level so that's why when you do go to a movie you come out sometimes with tears in your eyes it mixes intellectual emotional and that's what we are we're holistic we're not just sent to lecture or intellectual emotional physical all of these things so our music that's more of an emotional side of the human nature but it's instinctive and we artists usually are more in touch with this instinct of nature and touch with ourselves and also sometimes our talks about our current status in society but if you look at for instance the picture that I have fair what do you feel when you see a rainy day. If you feel like going out now you feel like going in how many if you feel like reading a book. You know they're feeling a book the color blue usually there's there's studies that say that people that don't see sunshine for a long time get depressed there's a little bit of there's this blue you know it's cold These are things that basically are color theory OK we study these things and then we incorporate them into the art so that they can communicate. With with people on that this real level. How do we peel back our history is peeling back so I want to give you these skills so you can go to kind of go to a museum maybe and have fun trying them out. You peel it back and guess what this concept is actually in the Bible but here there is a method that I use with my students it's called the feldman method it's older but it still works it's basically saying the R. criticism from it has in common a more or less linear step by step approach in which steps build upon each other undoubtedly Feldman's method consisting of describe what you're seeing go to go to a museum and describe it if you want to never take a pen to museum they don't like pens they like pencils take a pencil a piece of paper and describe it because by putting words in really looking at it all of a sudden it's coming together you're describing it then after you describe it for those of you that are not artists maybe you won't know how to analyze it but most of you do probably know this like you know why did he use pink Why do they use blue why does this big shape is on the right but then there's a dark shape over here obviously they're trying to bring balance repetition rhythm all of these things come from nature so you think about it when you're analyzing it and then you do an interpretation I really think that this art is about once I did it with a kid he was like I think five and he's like this house it was a house and it had neon colors and they're like why neon colors you start thinking Neon is very it's not a natural color it's a plastic fake color and the house seems a little bit off kilter guess what the artist had grown up in a family that had drug addicts her parents were drug addicts This was a reflection of her life so you see how that makes sense so then you interpret this course sometimes knowing a little bit more about it later and then you judge is that a good piece is it working well for me and how this method is the most prominent and thoroughly examined our criticism out method format and our education this what we have in the Bible. Danielle what did Daniel do when he saw the king great god given the image he gave in the image then Daniel described it. He advised it by telling him the different materials that were there and we'd tell this day are doing interpretation about this image right because it's it's one thing that encapsulates this complex idea all in one image you will never forget it it's the easiest way to learn it's the best way to learn for teachers this is amazing arts and we know till this day for instance that interpretation of the life of iron Rome was very harsh they killed with the crucifixion and so we have these materials we interpret the kingdoms they come from so guess what Seventh Day Adventists are good art historians so I have a whole following great. We can see throughout time that art helps us with Forth telling or telling the past so this is where we can use it for prophetic interpretation we can say during this period what was important here what do you see a huge church right people would come far and wide for pilgrimages to these churches they would come and bring all of their money because at the time solve ation was at stake and they would give everything to build these expensive monuments for God And when you're doing something for God You can't just put a puny thing together you're looking at something high something that makes you feel small in the grand mists of God right all of these things tell us a value system in this time period on the other hand here is Huns Hofmann he was German he came to the United States became a prominent modern artists here we're talking a completely different style this is talking about fragmentation this is modern secular no longer religious There is no divine. You know or an image of a story there is no story telling partly because these artists of modern period have lost their faith there was nothing above and beyond paint on canvas and all we're doing here is sensuality of the eye and the images of the colors and the push and pull of how these colors act next to each other he was inspired by jazz music and jazz is very. Spontaneous an artist jazz musician sits down and he just knows the chords and he's just using So he's he's doing the same thing he's just using his colors and he's creating push and pull kind of feelings because blues reseed one colors scum to the foreground who's just playing with that this is all reflective of the different time periods and it tells us value systems of the past so it's telling you and there's so much to it I mean you can talk about the styles OK so here you have painterly style it's the Romanticists painting and the romanticist believes that they needed to express their feelings of strong desire you know sublime kind of situations where you have lines attacking in this very exotic place and you the brushstrokes are thinking because the artists it's important expressing themselves as important and they're showing the brushstrokes wow in the medieval age it was an important so you see a very linear kind of delineated artwork because it's telling you a story you're illiterate you're coming to church and it's telling you very clearly the story of Jesus or of the story of Mary so it was dead back to its very attempt to teach people so the styles go along with the intention of every age so in that sense art can be used to understand the past. So let's look at us some that might be important to us as Seventh Day Adventists to try to understand how the Catholic Church really hasn't changed in a sense the same things that they're depicting here in this fresco is still important to them today this fresco was painted by. This is in the horns that's why it's on the day of it the foot in sea and it was in thirteen sixty six and this actually is called The way to salvation now if you don't know anything about the Roman Catholic Church they do believe that if for you to obtain salvation you have to become part of the mother church you have to fall under their umbrella salvation still comes through the church it's very small but I'm going to have bigger pictures here on the bottom you see the clergy the pope sitting in front of the church in the center you will see the Dominican priests because this was a Dominican chapel the Dominican priest allowing people to confess to them and then pointing the way to heaven and then all of the saved Saints because of them go into the gate and St Peter's at the gate and you enter heaven through the church so this is a very telling. Fresh go of the theology of the Catholic Church the church wanted to of course at this time when they painted this they wanted to reunite the powers of the time under their control this was at the center let me show you who's here we have Pope Urban The fifth at the center the Holy Roman Emperor Charles the fourth of Bohemia this is actually right before yon Haas few years before and then several years before actually and then the king of Cyprus Peter the first and Cardinal Jill. Was from Spain so again uniting the forces of the then known world and the emperors and the Kings to come together they were especially concerned about the Turks and the infidels in this in this. Fresco and if you will look very carefully there are sheep here do you see that little sheep that's of course the Saints the good people and then these dogs with white and black spots are basically represent to represent in the Dominican priests who are supposed to save people you see their uniform also was white and black like the dogs and look at what the dogs are doing the dogs are attacking wolves. There's even a certain Peter martyr who was supposedly. Asked by the church to be and persecute heretics and to kill them. Unfortunately they. Actually killed him on one of his journeys and then he became a saint. So here if you look there's three levels of salvation with the priests in the middle. The dogs are attacking the wolves or the heretics who are at the time people like the wall then since they all been genius who were not they were more there they weren't Protestant but the the wall Denton's probably were depicted here as walls. So you see clearly that they are the way to salvation so there was always this theology and as far as we know the sea ology has not changed if you see also here at the gate you see St Peter with the keys you receive the keys of heaven it was through him that you would obtain salvation. He was counted as the first bishop of Rome or Pope and he holds the keys to the gates of of heaven. So after that fresco had been painted in Florence actually the the Fresco has a church the church in Florence had not been built yet but this was the idea that they had of what they wanted to do with the church you know that these Italian states competed with one another they always wanted to outdo one another and make a bigger church and impress their the people visiting. But there right after this fresco there was a huge schism it's called the Western schism my husband talked about the East and the West schism this morning but this was a schism within the Western church so it was terrible because at one point there were several pope's at the same time. The Italians for many years Rome had been kind of in the middle ages I've read books where Rome was just really bad it was the sewer system wasn't working there was no water running into that city people there was one book that I read that they didn't even bury their dead very well they were out in the streets I mean it was bad so the Pope's the French pope's didn't want to go back to Rome but the intaglio and one of the pope's back in Rome this is after all where Peter was buried and died so there was a time when there were several popes and that the situation got so bad that the Church clergy and you see the different people didn't know which pope to be aligned with so certain countries kind of align themselves with different popes. Eventually they yell elected a third pope and wanted to depose of the other popes but nobody stepped down there was a time when the church had three pope's this is precisely the time when Wycliffe decided this is ridiculous and he started reading the Bible and started writing his books for going back to the Word of God and you have also then Haas who read his writings and became influenced by that so this line keeps coming. Towards the Protestant Reformation. A few years later the pope's finally decided to just speak they decided at the Council of Constance actually when Haas was burned at the stake they decided which pope was going to be the one and only pope and they decided to go back to Rome. The pope was urban The six he actually. Persecuted the what he mandated of general persecution he wanted to clean out the heretics and coming back to Rome they wanted to of course build it back up they needed to build it back up to be worthy of the Eternal City. And again Art comes as a heavy artillery Now this is before the Reformation so but they were making a case for building a new St Peter's they were making a case for rebuilding Rome so this fresco by the way is in the Sistine Chapel so I know most people go to the Sistine Chapel to see Michelangelo ceiling but have you noticed there's several beautiful paintings on the side as well this is one of them and the entire program because these artists in pope's took forever to plan these churches out it's a sermon preached all over it's not just coincidence everything is chosen very carefully the entire program of the Sistine Chapel is to legitimize the papal authority and to the Judum eyes there there is especially even selling of indulgences So if you look here Jesus is giving the keys to Peter who was the first Pope. And this is Pope during the time of Pope six to the fourth and on top of both arch determine which is French it's are each of triumph these were very typical of monuments that the Roman emperors would build after a victory and on top of it it's written that it's the Roman arches identify Six's so forth as a Roman political and religious ruler these structures were memorials to victory built by Roman emperors but now they're aligning themselves with the Roman emperors and the octagon the church at the center is a reference to Solomon's temple and of course I don't know if you know the hardest Sophia in Turkey but when. Justinian built it in five hundred he said Solomon I have surpassed the so you can see how the pope's have always tried to keep this line between the Roman emperors and the Solomonic power of the of Israel at its height. The image served as propaganda campaign campaigning to build St Peter's and in fifteen zero two just fifteen years after this fresco St Peters started they started the project now St Peters This is before it was built they are already had ideas of how they wanted it these prints were made by artists St Peter's used to look like this this is the old St Peter's and it was basically very Eakin imagine have you guys ever been in a building church project it's very controversial it's very difficult but you can imagine how difficult this would have been because the St Peter's that you see here the old St Peter's had been donated to the church by Constantine himself Constantine was revered later on as the first pope the Roman emperor and so this must have been extremely controversial Nevertheless they tore tore it down St Peter's was built there because this is traditionally where Peter was martyred and so it had to be in that location and they had a new plan for this gorgeous how many of you have been St Peter's. It's so large you almost have vertigo and they're like are you serious that person is that small next to that pillar why how I can't it's weird it's so big in ostentatious It's crazy so they needed a lot of money and that's why they started selling indulgences and that's why it broke the camel's back with Luther and he could no longer stay quiet. So here you have this fresco threatened also those who did not agree if you look to the room here on both sides there are images of the tribute money referring to Christ saying to the disciples you know we're paying taxes so they're basically saying Christ agreed to the all stories and paid taxes why can't you pay indulgences this is what we're telling you to do and on the other side they were referring to another story when on the right there is the stoning of Christ or for into the story found in John eight which tells of unbelieving Jews who did not accept Christ as the I Am and then how he who belongs to God hears what God says Who are they thinking is God Of course Jesus and Peter in the pope's so we needed to pay our taxes we needed not to be like the Jews that didn't pay and then give the money and didn't believe in Christ so don't be like them please give us the money to build St Peter's very important message all through the Sistine Chapel right across from the system from this fresco across the way on the other side of the hall you will see this fresco by somebody who paints a very famous early Renaissance artist he painted the Birth of Venus he painted this the punishment of Korra day thing and. Basically this image is also threatening those people who didn't believe in Aaron as the priest remember that story in the Bible where the ground opened and everybody fell through because they wanted to be equal to the priests and God said No I've elected special people and Aaron is here with the papal tiara. Moses is is of course bringing down upon them strange fire from heaven. And the this is definitely a comparison to the pope with Aaron and what happened at in the years when the Israelites did not follow procedure. So these are all over the Sistine Chapel this was expects fully why Luther did we did the past and now because of the sale of indulgences to build these expensive works of art the Sistine Chapel is that I think they get sixty a huge amount of visitors every year they're trying to actually control the crowds because it is just too many so Art was very well used in the Catholic Church Well let's go back to the reformers now a few years later at the Council of Trent they had to bring this council at Trent which is the city in Italy precisely to deal with the Protestant Reformation and at the Council of Trent there were several things that they discussed but one of it that was very important was art and the use of of art they had been upset with some artists that painted Germans as sitting on the table of Jesus and they were going to excommunicate these artists they even were upset with Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel there is the last judgment at the front but they were originally all naked and one of the cardinal said how can we do this this is like a brothel we need to cover those parts up so and then you know another artist's went ahead and went back and put a little bit of law and cloth over the body parts so they tried they did you know try to improve things but they also made a very clear resolution that they were going to use art in architecture to propagate this image that we came out on top that world hey that we're strong that the Catholic Church has been victorious in this basically gives birth to the baroque type of art which is very celebrate Torrie they the Renaissance popes and let me. Clear in and regulation for art were created at the Council of Trent to justify the church's put. In the usage of art the efforts coming from the council gave birth to the baroque style and the baroque expansion of Rome architectural renovation renovations were unprecedented during the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries beginning with Pope Paul the third the counter-Reformation pope's widened paved and straighten the roads of Rome to accommodate for pilgrimages moving statues an obvious and I know this is a little small but do you see these huge I see all the lists here and there they moved these obvious or huge they had been brought to Rome from way back and they were in an appropriate places in these these pope's of the counter-Reformation view themselves as Roman emperors and they didn't make any bones about it and they needed to reconfigure the road so that when you come to the piazza there pople which is the main entrance of Rome it would have be a straight road to the Vatican and if there was a curve there would be. One of these markers so you could know the old that's a P.X. of this is a place of an important church so that they would know where to go to some of the pope's would make prints of all of the city planning and changing that in all of the artwork that they did there are complaints actual letters of people that lived in the city because they would basically bold those your house down if it was in the row that they wanted to expand and they didn't care so even the Italian population was getting a little bit fed up with some of these various and tases Popes who wanted to make of course Rome as this divine Eternal City these pope at the pope's founded schools of art and commissioned some of the greatest architects like Michelangelo cardinal Carlo Madera no Bernini to resurrect Rome again as the Eternal City Michelangelo was summoned almost immediately after the Council of Trent to renovate the Palazzi or company dog you and he put the statue of Marcus or really as it was believed right to be Constantine right at the center because the company W is where the pope's wanted to take over the governing of the city as well. He also Michelangelo did the central dome of St Peter's That is still there today. They reclaimed Imperial heritage of control and distribution of water the Roman emperors gave their citizens public theaters and public baths but above all they gave abundant water as a way to show both their generosity and their power the tragedy found famous trivia found was the first public fountain of Rome since antiquity to wark again it reminds us of the Roman triumphal arch and stands for a miracle both a theatrical tour de force and a serious and subtle restaging of Moses is striking the rock in the desert and it sets the emotional stage for the papal palace a short distance away. They took this dial all over the world as jets with came to the New America to conquer it and to establish the church this is a baroque style by the way this is mean as it is' This is where I was born and this is very very rich with gold and all of the gold went back to Portugal which then went to the Roman Church to in embellish their churches which are STILL is still there today so the Baroque style has been called the style of person to person to Asian or the style of counter-Reformation. You see this this beautiful later the Bernini designed this amazing colony and if you notice this is of course a marker and above the marker which is pagan you know Egyptian Aba lisc they would stick a statue of a saint kind of like to say. Papal Rome has won over the pagan world and these arms are basically the arms of the church in bracing the world that's the symbolism and here you have all of the saints lined up as they believe the Saints through the merits of the saints you're going to obtain salvation and you pray to the Saints because of that so the art is filled filled with messages of what the Catholics believed but it was not until the seventeenth century the church declare the counter-Reformation effort a success and celebrated its triumph but they wanted to expand and go all over the world the church has never been small in its thinking they think on a global scale. So by the seventeen and eighteen and eighteenth centuries Roman used multiple tactics and fronts in their effort they wanted to keep up with science and read new ing the calendar and also keeping a coin to do with maps. Because the Jesuits were aggressively obtaining new lands and they were fascinated with maps and maps before this period had been more three dimensional So the artists would sit at a corner of the city and kind of make two dimensional and then make little roads and try to make maps make sense but it wasn't until the United eventually actually that he and they found some maps from the Roman period that they started realizing you can make it can a graphic maps or maps that are completely flat just did you know delineating the roads and they really loved maps they wanted accurate maps this is the science age the age of of precise you know objectivity no longer was it subjective you have even have paintings by Johannes for mere here and you're full notice carefully this is. The art of painting it's the title of the painting you'll notice in the back there's a map if you were cultured British gentleman you would go to Rome and there you would acquire maps and then you would hang them near your house and you would discuss the places you would go you had traveled. At this time everybody wanted accurate maps that's why some people still survey collect these old maps they're quite interesting. One of the maps the first map that was completely accurate in their right had access to the Internet I would show you that something this map is made by Nollie Giovani Battista Milli is his full name he was so precise he measured everything he measured the interior of churches exterior and he used this triangulation method to get persistent and this was the first precise map of Rome it was a watershed in map making and if you if you have the Internet you could overly Google Maps right over this it's precise it's perfect and it was done in seventeen forty eight. They didn't he didn't he just measured it all out perfectly Yeah and I will show you how he's so proud of himself he actually shows him his instruments and how he did this on the bottom of the map which is very interesting and that's what we're going to talk about now he was a surveyor amazing. But we're going to focus instead of the map we're going to focus on the illustrations underneath you have to understand where maps came from this is a map from the Middle Ages they were ideological maps obviously you have Jerusalem at the center of the world then you had Africa Asia and you're Opa of course this you can get very far with this map it was ideological but now we were in a scientific age and persistent was important so here is the bottom of this ancient map or this old map. The rise of modernism and its concern of objectivity and precision the least work became possible yet remained inextricably woven with the ideology of the religious establishment so we're going to look at this ideology here you know folks sometimes we look at these prophetic visions of women and all the stuff in the Bible and then you read it you understand the art and you don't you realize that this is so well illustrated by the Catholic Church than felt and this is what I'm going to give you. There are religious and political undertones in the images here let me show you what I'm talking about if you look here in context of our prophetic interpretation here is the goddess room OK reflected on the other side of this scientific map is the can you see which is the word for church as a woman and I'll look closer here so they're looking at polling one side of a map with the other and this continuation of this woman the Roma with the Ecclesia being two sides of the same coin gender sentencing. I mean so you at the bottom here you have what they had discovered recently at the time it was a base for a column from the Roman period this Antonia in base how many minutes to hear. Yes Michael wants to make sure I mentioned pagan and Papal Rome same lady two different time periods. At this column base had been found archaeologically they gave credit to the pope that was currently in in his reign and they put this here because this column was going to go in front of a very famous building. Because they continually saw the continuation between pagan and Papal Rome and else show you what was going to be here you also see the instruments that Nollie had to do this work and for the first time a map was actually direction the direction followed to north so he's one of the first map makers to to do true north. Here is again the Tony and calm base and the original idea here like I said they would put the church victorious over Pagan Rome the original idea was never executed but Peter Mazzy a very famous artists of the time was going to put this culture or over the base this culture has the church holding the crass sitting on the world and she has the cup of of you know of Christ and then you have justice the church has always wanted to dominate not just the Vatican but the world because you have to understand that their theology includes establishing the kingdom of God on earth through their through their Pope's and their. Magisterium and this is the column base was going to go into the piazza them all to sit Taddeo which is where they would do justice and the elements of dispensing justice to the to the city on the bottom beginning from the left we see the temple of Castor and Pollux. Perhaps the most ancient recognizable and central feature of the Roman form this temple was an icon of the ancient Rome and was at the center of the current archaeological speculations of the time the temple of Koster and Paul X. was built commemorate in commemoration of the Roman victory over the legendary Tarquinius a purpose in it commemorated the temple became woman one of the earliest locations where the Senate would convene at. Political and religious matters were closely bound during the early Roman Empire while the artist frames the bottom left side with the dilapidated and idea of the can sorry there are the artists framed the bottom left with the dilapidated pillars of this Roman temple the right side echoes the ideas of continuity of the birth to Basilica of St John that the Lateran now the St John Lateran if you ever go to Rome you have the Vatican on one side St John Lateran is on the other side of the Roman city of Rome the latter in church had been where pope's resided for many years before they moved to St Peter's and they remodeled it so it's very important and this is where the church was basically administering power and so this idea of of the Romans having religious and political power executed in this building is the same idea echoed going on here and now look at the details of what's going on between these two ladies Roma when she's sitting down now this comes into a little bit of studying in our history so even if you looked at it you probably wouldn't know this Roma when she's sitting which represents the city of Rome the goddess Roma when she's sitting down it's because she has been victorious if she's standing she's going to war but if she's sitting she has been victorious and to make things a kind of a funny course a sense of humor again sorry. They put here next to her on both side you have the River Tiber representative as this man he has an oar that has been broken and a cornucopia with with lavish fruits that because the river provided water that provided plants to grow and all of that but he is sitting next to her and right next to the other side of her there is there she will with Remus and Romulus all do laugh attainted the babies you know that Rome is famous for believing that they were the original fathers of Rome. You have her actually with the crown that she kind I yanked out of the head of Tiger here so there's a little sense of humor but basically. Again here the Ecclesia I'll talk to you more about the Ecclesia at the Lateran and the Ecclesia has in the Lateran at the time when it was renovated has the MAME of Pope Clement the seventh or the twelfth sorry pontifical smocks the most Again this Roman title given to them all over Rome the facade was renovated during his time. Let's look here why she's separated by this statue. If you look carefully and know in the ancient in the literature at the time every time Roma was sitting do you see she's sitting there and all these enemies on both side on her feet Here's another we're all my with enemies on both sides she has conquered these people. She had basically in this image conquered conquered Rome OK She had been the ruler of nature itself and then here you see her again and this is at the company dog Leo where Michelangelo the renovated the Pope's the rare reference Renaissance pope's would actually imitate Roman emperors they would get on white horses and they would process throughout Rome and actually go under these arch of triumph and the ending point of this procession would be the company dog Leo where they wanted to get temporal or earthly power mixed with religion and at the very stopping of this procession you had Roma with her enemies conquered she's sitting there was a statue of that there so this was very not they knew what they were doing when they did that imagery in the map. This statue was later stolen or taken by Napoleon and today it's at the Louvre the museum it's been restored during the renaissance that's why the babies are rejoined in the OR is rebuilt but this is the River Tiber the god type are represented at the bottom you see how the crown has been taken away and she's holding the crown and the babies were separated from him kind of like ancient Rome is dead but there's a continuation with between the Roman woman from one side with the church on the other it's very interesting. There they are united to Tiber in the back you see the arch of triumph of Constantine referencing the first Roman Emperor again the victory of Constantine and she's looking now longingly to this amazing image of the Ecclesia I'm going overtime maybe not have ten minutes here's the Ecclesia this is very important so here she is being crowned Now remember what I told you about the tiara the papal tiara the triple take tiara is basically her receiving now imperial power there was a time in the church that they wanted so much power over the world they were absolute HIS they wanted absolute power they still kind of do I think that's the the idea of the Kingdom of God that they have and if you notice this was actually again a theme that was very prevalent at the time by other artists here is Romano with all of the angels around her old ancient Rome and New Rome Here's the Ecclesia and all the angels around her there's this connection between old Rome and New Rome and the woman. Here you see several symbols that are important to recognize you have the child which is the victory flag or symbol in which Constantine conquered mak sentience this is again the first Roman emperor that legalized Christianity very important to the Catholic Church so they have his flag there. You will also see the crown being given to her the crown of the world the Imperial Rome and she has the keys you see that she's holding the keys of St Peter and the world is being handed to her by an angel. Then if you notice in the shadows lurking in the shadows you will see what another kind of crown that they sometimes put on there is more religious It's called the minor miter that the might or the miter is more went there there Shepherd role not so much there reigning regal role that's been taken away from her and her crown is being put so there's an exchange of crowns and then next to that miter you will see again this is the company dog will this is where they wanted to rule the world from that Michelangelo had renovated after the Council of Trent So all of these things are very very intentionally put together that's the one I talked about and then on this here connecting If you notice that there is there's a composition that goes from the Miter to the shepherd's rod and then the world and the new crown so it's almost like they were going to do both but this was slightly set aside and now the main idea was to rule the world. There Austin tastelessness was so much that it annoyed the other emperors that also wanted to rule the world right during imperialist time of history so the papal efforts to rebuild Rome this is. Sorry cut it or he's a good historian people are first to rebuild Rome during the counter-Reformation of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries focused on reestablishing Rome as a religious center of the world but the major architectural and artistic renovations had cost the church greatly depleting its financial resources are ready by the seventeenth century Rome was losing its position as the world's religious authority and political center. Absolutism governments in France and Portugal started to kick out the. The Jesuits from their country they didn't want the pope having control of their of their empire as well and we know that this antagonistic feeling finally culminated in the French Revolution where they became anti-Christian they killed thousands of priests they did not want anything to do with the church anymore unfortunately they threw the baby out with the water as well but understandably so and this is when we know that Bertie A went and put the pope in prison this was when they had power this was the Daniel seven they get head she was were given into his hands until the time and times and the dividing of times and the little horn grew but we know that when Napoleon sent Bertie to imprison the pope this is amazing these guys were so awesome tases they thought they were going to rule the world all of a sudden this lash comes at their side and they're wounded they're really won't it he put them in prison humiliated him even apparently them the Italians weren't too sad because of all of the things that they had done to annoy everybody with their with their desire for power in this was an amazing turn of events but they had it kind of coming and the Lord had prophesied it years in advance and you can see this awesome Taishan as snus in the art you can see it in the architecture it's all over. What has happened from this to this. Magazines are celebrating a comeback of the Roman Empire there is nothing that does not agree with prophecy and we can be certain of that this despite having a good friendly face humble demeanor the position he holds as still as a. MEDIATOR the church position is that you can obtain salvation only through the sacraments the tradition of the saints is still there the Roman Catholic Church very reason for being to establish the Kingdom of God on earth through them their aim was not changed for all of these centuries indulgences are still dispensed today Sunday is still the day of worship and remember what I said at the beginning of the lecture that is the signature of Jesus in our hearts the signature of his creation and Recreation is the Sabbath and not the Sunday we must choose who to follow we must choose clearly what world we're going to live in this world or the next what keen them are we going to be loyal to this one or the next I pray that God will give you the power the Kurds in the boldness to be like the reformers to stand up against the world's greatest power and to be faithful to. This message was recorded at the G Y C twenty seven team conference arrives in Phoenix Arizona. She wants to support the ministry of the Seventh Day Adventist Church seeks to inspire young people to be bible based Christ centered and soul winning Christians to download or purchase other resources like this visit us online at W.W.W. dot she Y.C. Web dot org.


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