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Food Grows where Water Flows

Darren Greenfield

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Darren Greenfield

Weimar Farm Manager

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Conference

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  • November 30, 2017
    11:45 AM
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All right well I'm going to share a couple of things here just initially before we get into looking at water sources and irrigation and so forth and have a look at what God says about. His his way of irrigating and I know if you get into nice rain through here I don't know if that's normal all the time but. Yeah it's neat New Zealand beautiful in green and we get lots of rain although I have noticed in the last decade of each time I go back to New Zealand I've had some dry droughts and for the 1st time a lot of seem brown dry paddocks you know it's never seen before so I Things are changing but notice what it says here and Jeter on me 11 live in 317 Of course this is talking about the promised land that the Israelites were going to it says but the land which you cross over to possess is a land of hills and valleys which drinks water from the rain of heaven a land for which the LORD your God care is the eyes of the Lord your God are always on it from the beginning of the year to the very end of the and it shall be that if you are going to see obey my commands which I command you today to love the Lord your God and serving with all your heart and with all your soul then I will give you the rain for your land in its season the early rain in the letter rain that you may gather in your grain your new wine and your oil. Pretty amazing to think about what it was like It's not like that today is it and I've seen much about Israel actually over there in Israel they're some of the world's leading experts in utilizing water efficiently because they have such a scarcity of it and they have to use it very very wisely because they're not the conditions are not like we just read and I think around the world we're seeing conditions water is becoming scarcer and especially with where I'm in California you know the aquifers a getting lower we've had droughts for for decades the drought has broken in California now that. Just water is becoming quite a valuable commodity the price for water is increasing. And. Actually driving through. The Valley of California from northern to southern it's interesting that when they were starting to restrict water use. You see these firearms and all these orchards and trees just drying up and dying United because they didn't have water it was too expensive or there was something. That was preventing them get the getting the water and so it's really really important I love this promise in the Bible here it talks about goddesses you visit the earth and water it you greatly enrich it the River of God is full of water you provide the grain for so you have prepared it you water it's riches abundantly you see let's far as you make it soft with shallows you bless its growth you crown the year with goodness and you'll pass strip with abundance what would be amazing if that's the way it was. You know I have to think about why are the conditions not like that anymore and you know during the time of Alija Israel was experiencing a drought right and. And of God's people who are faithful the 7000 that didn't bow the knee to battle that they suffered because of the drought or did God just come over their little property and just rain on their properties in the ones who were unfaithful didn't get what about Alija what happened to him that he have to he went to the book the brook could drown and he was drinking but what happened to that broke it dried up right water was scarce the whole nation the faithful and the unfaithful suffered under the same conditions and so I think in the conditions that we are in this world now you know the more wicked man becomes God's natural resources are becoming more and more scarce and God's people suffer along with everybody else's. His resources not so available. I love this promise see that Jesus Satan makes you 54546 he says but I say to you love your enemies place those who are curious you do good to those who hate you and pray for those who spitefully use you and persecute you that you may be sons of your Father in heaven for he makes his sun rise on the evil and on the good and seems rain on the just and on the unjust so even though we are in the conditions of the world. The wicked willed now God still seems right and doesn't he he didn't dry it up completely he still seems writing to us and he's good to those who don't appreciate it and those who do he sees not possible. So I come from New Zealand this is the area where I. Used to live and it's beautiful and green and we really don't have to worry about water too much. Can have a God and you can plant you your veggies and things out and they'll survive without having to have any sprinkler or anything you know just because the writing the clouds come over and you know the night of name for New Zealand as a rower which means land of the Long White Cloud and so you know rain is very frequent and common and in the country stays pretty green most of the time and so if you're a geisha it was not something that that I have a thought much about and a lot of people there just you know plot out the trees in the orchard and they have a water them because God waters them but then I move to California and we have 5 months of no rain through the Sama and so the conditions a very very dry that the ground gets dry down deep you know and. We have to. We have to have an alternative form of watering and most of the watering in California are in the San Joaquin Valley and you know it's a huge agricultural area that supplies I've heard a figure of something like Tampa St of the Wilts food it's huge and but they rely on the snow melt from up in the mountains is a mountain range that goes along you know age of California right up to northern California and they have these big aquifers that the snow melt gets you know channel down and then distributed right through the valley to the fountains and. So we're very dependent on that snow melt and during the drought is the thing you know we used to having 5 months of not a rain so that's not a drought the winter droughts with the ones that really affect us because it wasn't the snow build up in the in the mountains to melt and then supply the the water. So. Rod asked me to can cover kind of if you thinking about moving the country and you choosing a property 1 of those things that you need to be thinking about when it comes to the supply so here are some of the things that I would suggest making a list when you look at properties or if you have a property I guess that it does it's not relevant but is there a water source like is there a creek river you know do they have a well on the property What what sort of water source is the error if there is nothing then you have to consider is it possible to dig a well and get water and so on and if there is water what is the quality of the water because when you growing food if the PH of the water is too high on these issues with. With the water that can drastically affect your god and it can mess up the chemistry in this in the soil so having a taste and seeing what the PH is what the sodium levels and if you have issues here with sodium levels in water in some places but in the states definitely in some of the dry states like New Mexico Arizona and and so on they have issues with sodium levels being high in the water and in the ground and so. It's worthwhile to have the water tested now. What volume of water do you need if you're going to put a Whelan how much water what volume should that well be able to produce. What is the cost to secure the water supply including storage if necessary so it's not just the you know the price of a property they think about it's the price of what does it cost to get the water supply that can be very expensive there's not a supply already there and then 1 thing that can be very helpful is to check around with neighbors and find out what their experience is what they do for their water and and you know mine the knowledge that they have that would be very very helpful so what amount of water do you need to be to survive so here's a list it's an gallons sorry about that just basically time that by 4 and you'll be pretty close if you want leaders. But if each person in the household is probably going to use somewhere between 20 and 40 gallons or you could say 80 to over there be 320 liters a day. Taking a bath shower and so on these all the the amounts and then if you've got animals if you go to Cal. Or more than 1 cow if you've got horses or chickens or sheep for the garden you know uses a lot so if you know do the sum and figure out how much water you really need so that you can evaluate either the supply that's the air when you buy a property or you can when you put in your own well or another source that you will have what you need because if you don't have water food grows where water flows you don't have water you're not going to be to grow your food successfully you might not have more than what you need for yourself. Here is a suggested conditional purchase agreement so if you look at a prop in your really like it and it doesn't have a water supply and you know that well needs to be put in this is a suggested water agree I mean an agreement that you can have in your contract that may be a way of. Kind of like an insurance if you pay all this money for the property and then you have a well driller come in and they think they're going to find water but they drill drill drill it's not there and you're paying for every meter of drilling that they do and then they have to move to another spot it can get really really expensive so the suggestion here is to have this. In the contract the Salamanca diligent effort to locate and develop a year around adequate water supply for the buys needs on the property if necessary the seller showed drill a well to maximum depth solve whatever specifications the water supply must have a year round output of at least and that would be based on what your calculations are what your needs will be permanent. If the seller cannot locate and develop an adequate water supply then this agreement shall be terminated immediately and all funds deposited and paid by the boss should be retained immediately in the by I shall suffer no further liability under this agreement so this is just a little safe God If you don't have water available on a property that you really like and you want to buy it. The other thing is this seldom I say well that's going to cost me a lot of money but you could say well I'll give you X. amount you know for whatever your budget is I'll give you X. amount extra as long as you take care of it and if they think it's doable in 1 take the risk that if it doesn't work out they actually pay it and you don't pay it. It's just a just a way of safeguarding your resources especially if they limited so here's an article that I found online that's really it was really summed up a lot of these items really well it's called Country water systems what you need to know before buying property it's an old article from 1909 from the Mother Earth News July or August issue but it really covers all the different things you should be thinking about and it goes into more detail than I'm able to in the time that we have said Rick I mean reading that. So water sources what water sources would you. Be looking for so surface waters which include rivers streams creeks Palm Springs and systems and a system is just a take on if you use it to my here he's an American will. And then water. Is trapped underground in 2 types of areas in aquifers loose water bearing material such as gravel seign in clay or in Consolidated Water bearing rocks notably limestone basalt and St Stein in many cases surface water sources are excellent for irrigation livestock firefighting ponds and other uses that cannot be utilized for drinking therefore a well is often and necessity regardless of the presence of surface water to just the fact that you've got a creek or a river or something that may not supply your own the war you need for personal use. Let's go back to that water witching do they do that over here take the stick or whatever the Vining. I was actually my wife and I were looking at property in New Zealand and we. Look at a lot of properties went to this 1 place and the the real estate agent. As we were leaving the property he said we were talking about a well and so on about water supply and he said to me you know when we were driving on to the property he said I could feel the lay lines now you know I don't I. How credible that is but he said you know when we were driving into the property I could feel the lay lines and I said really he said yeah. How do you how do you know he said well it's probably like an underground river or a creek or something and it creates energy field and and he said look I'll stop and I'll show you so we stopped and he got out of the back of his thing he had these 2 broads that. I think they were Capa from the wrong or they were. Bras I can remember and then they had to sleep so they were about maybe a 100 millimeters or so and then bent at right angles and came out probably. 400 millimeters or something like that and with the 2 Capa sleeves on on the end he had them out like that and he walked and he walked along the road where he thought it was and then all of a sudden these 2 things which are parallel to each other and point he see we see that it's where the energy that's where the the flow of this I don't know if there's anything to that a law said let me have a try that you gave it to me and I walked and it did exactly the same thing so I don't know but I found that the U.S. Geological Survey has concluded that not 1 scientifically conducted experiment using water which is to locate optimal sought for water well location has a yielded conclusive reproducible support for water which is claims so. Take it for what it is I think it's maybe some hocus pocus involved with some of them but there's probably some legitimate. Physiological things going on that may be credible. Freo to futz you know what that is Steve. I just learned about it when I was researching for this so free of to fight is a type of tree that. You know feeds off the surface water all deep or puts roots down deep and finds like the aquifers in and it might be in a dry area with these and I water but you can see the trees surviving and so I'll just read this description over here it's free it to fight is a deep what's rooted plaint a plant that obtains a significant portion of the water that it needs from the free attic design design of saturation or the cupola or e fringe above the free and examined free of the fights of plants that are supplied with syphilis water and often have their roots constantly in touch with moisture free to fight is 1 that absorbs its water from a constant source on the ground they can usually be found alone streams where there is a steady flow of surface or ground water in areas where the water table is near the surface now I don't know what kind of trees you have here. I know in the States they have willows that grow they would be 1 of these types of trees. Sometimes they grow with these no stream and it's because they have gone to the underground aquifers So when you look at property you might if you know what trees to look for you might actually know all these probably a water source there. OK yeah. Yeah. Yeah. So that that's cool because that's an indication of where you might find a good source of water. When you're considering we don't buy I found this about a strategist. I tried to find out what kind of free it fights would be over here and I found this here it said for free at the fights occur in the sub tropical eucalyptus forests on the eastern coast of Australia so they will be right here they serve isn't as indicators of the depth of depth and salinity of the groundwater for example the lacrosse do you know you guys from the lacrosse Cherry You know. Is an indicator freshwater at depths of $5.00 to $10.00 metres and. That I had to pronounce it hello use to kiss cast big. Indicate so it would. At depths of $5.00 to $15.00 meet is typical for you to follow its include medias that insanely does it plants for example camel fall tamarisk and Eric Nephilim so I don't know that's that's just some information I found online that I thought might be relevant to you since it was about a strata but maybe becoming familiar with those trees will be helpful if you're looking for property so we want to talk about the different systems the water systems the cheapest type of system is a gravity flow system that means that you would have to have a water source up on the elevated portion of land that you can tap into and it can gravity feed down to we you need it. So the only materials needed to set up a gravity flow water system are a holding tank which might be a spring box lake pond or dammed up portion of a creek the necessary pipe will host storage tanks and various valves forces and other. This system is the cheapest and easiest to maintain because no pump is nice to Siri So really the only moving parts of water and water you need is continues to fly. If you're not in a in an area where you have that then you might have a lower. Source of water that you need to move to a higher. Location and there is what's called Ram pumps and these pumps and then bam foot apparently isn't a strain brained. So they're really available to buy if you have a source of water and you and it's flowing water that you can tap into these RAM pumps basically the water gets forced into a chamber that compresses area a valve shots and then that that compressed in forces it through another valve that opens and pushes it up so it can actually even though it's coming from a short distance it can push it uphill by many times greater than the distance that it's the sources with the source is located. So there with checking out. Here you can see kind of a descriptive picture where the is a stream that obviously has a pull there and they've tapped into that and then with that RAM pump it in pushes it up to a storage tank to the area where there they have their orchard. Gotten set up so that gives you an idea of how it can push it to a higher elevation it could be that you just want to push it up onto a tank stain where your tank is up in the area where you can gravity feed from that as well. Cistern or a water tank systems are large circular or rectangular storage tanks either completely open at the top to collect rainwater or open only enough to allow a pipe to aim term bring in water from roofs or fields they are made of cement wood plastic old metal seems like nowadays plastics probably the most common type of storage tank. There's another type of tank it's called a bladder tank that you guys have them over here they're usually used in emergency type of situations where you need a quick water source it's not recommended to use they only have a 6 to 8 the life span. But if you need a quick source they are something that you can install and use very quickly. Here's a picture of some plastic tanks and usually they're close to where the water source is in that could be a well and you have a pump that will pump into it or you could pump into it in the in you have a pump that can pump out of it or if it's up on a stand you can see there's a windmill live that pumps the water into the tank and then from there gravity would feed it out so there's different ways you can use tanks to store the water and then give you the supply you need these are different types of pumps these centrifugal centrifugal pump and then a piston type of pump the piston pump is gives you a very constant it's a positive displacement where you don't have fluctuations in pressure where is this in. Cane be able to painting on the flow of water coming in if it varies. So. But probably the most common pumps of these 2 inch are center fuel pumps and they're fairly expensive fairly pricey Of course you would use 1 of these copper pumps for a. For a well. I believe the piston type you can use in some shallow wells I'm not sure the specs on that so you'd have to check with the suppliers but these are 2 kinds of pumps that are commonly used and here's a little bit of a diagram of a sit up if you've got a pump I know the age of that picture is kind of cut off but we don't really need to see that so you've got your supply your tank and then it comes through a pipe. And you have a pump that dire in with the little triangle inside you have a chick with what a chick Valve does is it prevents the water from back flowing so it keeps it you might be pumping it up you know distance and if you don't have that chick valve when the motive was off or a pal failed at all just up gravity feeding back down so the chick felt prevents that from happening there is a precious switch which that takes the pressure which can tell the pump to turn on when the pressure is low and turn off when it gets to the threshold that you stated it and then there's a gauge that you can read what that is and that helps you set the pressure switch there's a drain if you need to drain it. And then an on off valve and this pressure tank is just a chamber that basically takes the shock out of the if you ever seen a water system you turn on the tap on these all the vibrating and. It will help eliminate the vibrations and also the pressure tank helps maintain more even pressure and flow because it compresses the air inside of it and said it compressed air keeps it flowing even when it turns off for a period of time usually. It's commonly used with a pump sit up. So now we're going to talk a little bit about the types of things that you will need for God and set up and even for your own drinking water if you if you have a well or you have some other source you going to need a filter and. I found that the disk type of filter is the most efficient type of filter in that. You can you don't have to clean it so frequently these. This is a disk filter and there are ones that you can get the cold screen filters and is another diagram I'll show you after this 1 that shows a. Kind of expanded view of the disk so you can see how they work but screen filter is just basically a Chub with a screen around it and they block up fairly quickly because they have a very small surface area whereas these disk filters have a much larger surface area for filtration and there are other type of. Filters like sand filters in larger agricultural applications all use the same filters in the water go through the sand and they are even more efficient. But for a home sit up or a small operation these types of food is what you want. So here's the expanded. View of these this so you can see that they have these little groups all the way around the circumference going to the. Succumb fronts and when they compress together they just have the right opening but these just so many of them that they prevent the particles from getting through and some of the systems that are a little bit more expensive like this 1 actually have a system where the they can. Open up in the jet of water can from the inside actually will clean them so the self cleaning they probably are quite a bit more expensive a set up. But cleaning filters if you've got a lot of debris coming through you probably want to system like this because it's a lot of work to do and usually when they block up at the most inconvenient time you've got so many other things it that. The money or time so self cleaning filters the next thing you need is a pressure regulator if you have a pump if you have even depends on you gravity system how much pressure but if you using drip type which I'm going to show you next it has a maximum. Pressure of about probably 1 or 15 P.S.-I before it ruptures you can get thicker ones that will handle more but I think you go the more expensive they are and so typically at least in the States the center ones a used more commonly So pressure regulators they come in this is the 1 that's probably about a it's a 2 inch which is about 50 millimeters in diameter and it has 4 little valves that regulate the pressure you can get ones that a small little just screw straight on to a tap and so typically what would you pressure be on a tap a $1.00 or something like that what's I don't know what you bring in the pressure is but. So it will reduce it down to what it needs to be. This is a picture on our farm and we are and you can see the drip type laid out above the sweet potato and the drip goes along and you can get a drip is a different spacing but typically about 150 millimeters is what we commonly use and it the maximum length we've had 3. 150 meters depending on the flow rate of the drip is and the spacing the lower the flow and the greater distance you can you can irrigate with and the. The greater the distance between the drip is also so we usually can go up to about 350 feet which is a little over a 100 meters with with the drip type and it will give an even supply all the way along without a reduction being at the other end and it's really cool because. You just give water to the root zone of the plants that you want to be cultivating in between the water's not there because you know you don't want to see the whole ground and make sure weeding so much easier because the weeds need water too and they will only grow in the war design. Along the row of the plants and so it makes it easier to. Keep the weeds down hey you can see the plants growing me about I just want to point out here this this pipe along here so you're pressure regulator is connected to this pipe and this pipe is called a manifold and it. You can get them in different sizes down to May be. Somewhere around 20 millimeters up to they make I think the largest ones I've seen in being about $100.00 millimeters in diameter and they're thin walled plastic they are red designed to be low pressure so your pressure regulator takes your pressure down so if it gets too high it will just rupture a little bit of head those things burst and they go off like a cannon so you have the supply and then you have fittings that actually connect into you have to have a tool that just cuts a little hole in it and usually you do that when these pressure in the pipe make the hole put the connector and then the drip type you know is laid out. We usually. Like when we plan the sweet potato we want to get water to them like straight away because they're going to dry do it so we'll have the manifold there already with water and in the soon as we've planted a row we can make the drip type and immediately they get a drink and it makes them survive really well. So. This is a little video and you can kind of see we've got sweet potato different varieties the and on the other side of the ditch. And then different melons and. More different melons and tomatoes in think on the other side there's more sweet potato that you can see in the top right hand corner and that's the only form of irrigation we use because in California Water is really really scarce we have to use them in the most efficient way possible. And so drip as far as I am aware it's the most efficient use of water. You can get sprinklers and some farmers will use these they called while blues and they have a sprinkler that kind of wobbles and they have a fairly good throw but I don't use them because. It does use more water and I don't want to keep my weeding down to a minimum. This is differently the most. Efficient use so this statement here from is for prophecy I think it's book education 101 in the cultivation of the soil the thoughtful work will find that trade is little dreamed of our opening up before him no 1 can succeed in agricultural gardening without attention to the laws involved to special needs of every variety of plant must be studied different varieties require different soil and cultivation and compliance with the laws governing each is the condition of success the attention required and transplanting that not even a root 5 shall be crowded almost place the care of the young plants the pruning and watering the shooting from frost at night and sun by day keeping out we disease and in sick pass the training in arranging not only teach important lessons concerning the development of character but the work itself is a means of development so all the different needs need to be studied carefully and work out what the most effective way of managing your crops these sweet potato this picture and you can see on the right these are 2 different kinds but on the right you can see a nice fat 1 on the left you can see a thin 1 water makes a big difference and if you get insufficient water they can be small and they are not being small the other thing is they can end up being roots small and long because they are root and in looking for water and often when you go to dig them out of the ground of them give them enough water you dig down and you stamp them off because they've gone down into or the hard pane down below to get their water needs met. So give learning the the right amount to make them the difference between a nice big yield nice size or small sizes. The other issue with watering is when you grow your tomatoes cracking is a very common issue with tomatoes and species growing the heirloom types that are very thin skinned. And it's it's really a watering issue it's. That needs to be dealt with the other common problem with tomatoes is loss mean drought do you guys see that around here. And that is a watering issue as well and what the cause of it is a lot of people say well just the lime deficient and therefore you go put more lime on the ground it's actually it could be but in most cases it's that it's not a plant when it's flowering and sitting fruit at that stage the plant is going to look happy and healthy it doesn't look like it's water deficient or anything but actually it doesn't have enough water to pull up the amount of calcium that it needs at that stage of growth and the flowers will actually be sitting fruit will be damaged like that and then as the fruit grows in the bottom you know that last mean rot grows with the fruit and then if you growing for a living you can't sell it and it's. A loss to you if you got it wrong and you can cut it off and still use it so if you get your watering right you know with nice even beautiful it's not as it doesn't have cracks and doesn't have the last mean drop so I'm going to share with you now as a little bit about a tool that is available I don't know if it's available here in Australia but now with the world market you can buy anything from overseas and get it here if it's not available locally this instrument is called a teensy Omega. It's made by a company called Eromanga and it's really available in America and this has really changed the way I find because it gives me a very accurate reading. On what the water is on the ground you permanently when I say permanently for the for the duration of the crop that you're growing you install it in the ground and then for the whole time it stays there you can pull it out at the end of the growing season but it the way it works is that the same here you've got a it's a ceramic tip on it which is posh leaf porous and then a Chub that goes up it has a vacuum gauge and then it has a chamber with a basically. A valve make an ism on the top and that is filled that Chub is filled with a water with a food dye in it that gives that color so you can see it because it's just straight water you might know better see it and. And so what happens is when it dries down at the depth where the ceramic tip is. The plants sucking up all the moisture there it actually creates a tension in the soil and starts pulling the moisture out of that Chub and then it pulls a vacuum on the on the gauge and you can read it and you you know exactly where you know where you need to turn the water on and and how much tension you should allow before you turn that water on. So there's 1 that's installed at the base of some tomato plants. It's not very clear but this is the description the tensiometer is the only direct measurement system available which means that it actually reads the physical forces at work in the soil to see all of us act like a dummy root allowing the soil moisture to interact with the instrument through the ceramic tip so what attention outside of the instrument tries to remove the water from it which creates a measurable tension inside the column this tension is read with either a mechanical gauge or a train's duce do so which is an electrical device for reading it attached to the instrument and so here you can see a picture of the gauge now the painting on the top of soil that you've got. Where you would set your your maximum threshold before you would turn on your irrigation so you know when it's between 0 and teen that means there's heaps of water available between 10 and 20 it's still got plenty of water but if you've got same the soil you're probably not going to want to go any more than 30 before you turn your water on because it will be pretty Dr Atomic it's past the you've got a silty soil and up to 50 you've got clay you can go as far as 60. We have a clay soil and I don't allow it to go more than 50 so when it gets up to 50 water goes on now what is recommended to use is 2 of them so you have 1 for measuring the surface water and 1 for the deep water now with plants like tomatoes their roots can go down 8 feet which is about what nearly 3 meters deep if if the if is not a hard pain that they can't get past so a lot of times when you get the blossom and rot in the cracking problems you think I've got plenty of water I can feel it you know you put your hands in the soil down a few. As far as you can go and it's nice and moist and you think there's no issue with water but actually it's the deep watering that they are not getting so by having 1 that goes down probably 500 half a metre deep and reading that that's what really changed. Changed things for us because I was getting the blossom in rot and cracking and that really becomes discouraging soon as I put that 1 down at that deep level and could see what was needed down there the top 1 tells you when to turn it on so when when you see the top 1 guy you turn it on the bottom 1 will still have a reading of maybe 20 or 30 of at the top 1 gets up to 50 you turn it on and you don't turn it off until the bottom 1 gets down to 0 so the bottom 1 kind of gives you the indication of when to turn it off and once we started doing that and then learned the that the frequency before I was watering like every day we have hot days like 40 degrees in the summertime and and so the plants are transpiring a lot using a lot of water and I thought I've got to give them water every day or they're going to be starving for water and we're going to have problems so when I put installed these with the Clay Clay is very. Holds the moisture well and I actually learned I didn't need to turn it on every day I needed to turn it on about every 3 and a half days as it worked out and give it a deep watering and so instead of giving it an hour every day. Of water with the drip take I was turning it on every 3 and a half days for 4 to 5 hours and it would get the water down deep and then the last man wrote the problem went away the cracking problems went away and it really made a big difference so these are this is a very valuable tool if you want to have good results and good watermelon management so there's a diagram you can see the shallow 1 and the deep 1. You can use it in an orchard you can use it. Use them anything you're growing you can use them for. When you buy it. You need to get a kit with it and it's called a service kit so when you when you fill them with water this little pump looking thing here is actually for pulling a vacuum in there and it sucks all the bubbles because the bubbles are going to be in the air and if you don't do that the gauge is not going to work so you have to pull a vacuum and it comes with a little bottle of food dye as well there is an electronic version that costs a lot more money now I'll tell you what the cost is in the US I have no idea what it would be over here but the previous model. These kind of mechanical ones. They range from probably 70 or $80.00 up to a little over $100.00 depending on the length of them. And she wished all of us now this 1 here sorry the. Electric 1 electronic 1. Costs. $200.00 some dollars in the these little ceramic. Probes that you install at different depths. They cost $13.00 the or $35.00 each and so once you buy the original you know the reading unit it's quite an expensive it's cheap by multiple mechanical ones but you just gotta be willing to make an investment in the. In the media so with these ones you install them you have the wires coming out and with the media they've got little alligator clips on the end and you can just put them on to the wires and then you get a reading and that'll tell you. When to turn it on and when to turn it off so these work really well is there another. Joyce and then on the mechanical ones you can actually get a meter there with an electronic signal that can work to turn your valves on you can preset them to 2 where you want to turn on automatically So if you've got so little valves you can sit up here you have to go and look at it all just turn on when it's needed so here's a picture of what's all the noise valves look like if you haven't seen them before they just have a little magnetized solemnly that that opens. A valve usually diaphragm type of valves and they're readily available fairly inexpensive but probably if you're sitting up an automated system it'll cost you a few bit of money to get all the different components because you're not just going to need 1 of these you'll need multiple of of them and. So on. I don't know what happened here my original I had a picture of the if you go to this website there it's in a California government Web site they actually have soil moisture guidelines so if you can't afford to buy these things and you just want to do it the old fashioned way you can actually get the soil and get it and then squash into a ball in your hand like this and then and then throw it away and look at your hand and based on the staining that the soil leaves on your hand you can basically figure out how much more stirs the ideal moisture so that the doc of the stain its got more water the less staying the less water so you do want to have a little bit of a stain but that's a way of kind of gauging it if you want to do it without So they have a nice chart that has the different soil types and the sort of indicators that that you are looking for. Because it's my last slide here we started using 2 years ago using plastic mulch with all of our crops except for our greenhouse crops and. Implement on the back of the tractor that lays it out and rolls it out and scoops the soil on the ages of it to keep it in place and it actually creates a little bit like a raised bed about 100 millimeters high and it lays the drip type underneath and by putting this this plastic mulch on it is the plants love it because what happens with it when you normally have the drip type on the surface that water typically wants to go down and a lot of it develop writes off the surface but with the plastic most the it actually allows the water to wick out to the edges of the plastic so you get a nice wide zone of topsoil that stays moist because it's not evaporate ng off and the plant roots can grow out into that and they just flowers they do really really well in the plastic mulch It's also nice for starting early in the season this particular black mulch the black attracts the heat in so you starting early and it's still a bit cold it helps warm soil up and so. Some of the heat loving plans you can start and quite a bit earlier with that there is another type of plastic mopes that you can get you can get them in different colors. I experimented with 1 this year that was Silva and what it does is it reflects light so as your crops growing over the plastic the light comes through hits the plastic and reflects up underneath the leaves and while I didn't see any difference in the growth of the plants for a food's in Paris they don't like to be in the light they want to hide under the shadow of the of the leaves Well the light coming under the I had to plantings right you know close to each other and the ones that were planted. Silver plastic didn't have any A fits all Paris where is the ones with the Black had a food's in you know and had the problem so it's not good for early plantings because the silver color actually by reflecting the light means the soil is color so in the summertime if you want to grow crops that are like cool weather crops kale and you know these sorts of things you could plant them in the saw over and it keeps the soil call the and they will like it and you'll have less you know Pierce pressure with them so plastic mulch really works if you do it in a home garden scale there is probably different types of plastic This comes on a roll that's like 4000 feet long you know so it's a lot more than you want for a home garden but I'm sure there are things like Lane skate fabric and different types of materials that you can use in a home sitting in is laid out and put some soil on the edges and order in place and. It would work nicely so these are a few tips that I put together that would be helpful as far is effectively using water in so on I don't know how much time we have a good time is just about up to does anyone have any questions from from this the. I can't say that I'm an expert in this I'm just sharing with what what we do and what works for us and we're in a very dry very dry climate but I know people in a climate summit of this that use plastic mulch and have really good results in fact my friends in New Zealand who. Quite a big here of market garden they actually use the place the most famous they have no drip tray because there is enough brown water there the plants just go down and you know the moisture up and so it just is a weed control thing for them and they have really good results growing melons and. To do the Christians are. In. Right. Enough. Right. So how does the Lord provided without it costing you a nominal leave when you don't have the money right. Yeah you know I've heard different isthmus actually it out conferences that we have in the States we have a testimony time on 7 to noon and so people come and they share their testimony you know you know hello does lead them in what you know how he's placed them and I've heard some of them talk about how the Lord lead them to to get a piece of property for a site cheap you know and just through prayer just asking and waiting on him and and looking 1st providences So prayers probably the big key you know and just wait on him sometimes we're in such a hurry that we want to have it now and you know enough pain for it's. Waiting on God this is really key. So more than that I can't really say. His father. Is. Well. Yeah. Yeah ever Cardoza sensitive to too much water to have your top throw so that would be really handy to keep it right. Here very really change the way we really did and it made their income much much higher because of that you know not losing or was. You know. There. Yes and you learn from experience and. So just give you couple of examples we grow most weekdays or there's a. Used. Another language. So we grow a lot of it and what I've been discovering over the years is they like a lot of water and and I'll have them on the same system as like the tomatoes and it seems like they actually like more than some of the mothers like so. But most clients don't like too much so it's been a matter of just gauging how much you have to experiment a little bit and violence of ation and when you've got an instrument like the console the you you can gauge it exactly. Yeah exactly and then they would take a you know another similar kind of get into the detail of the how to figure that out but. Yeah you have to gauge what size pipes to supply the volume you can calculate it out of you using drip tape and you can you know the exact links the number of the number of them and how much each emitter flows you can you can you know compile it together and have the total and know that's the flow rate that you need and then find out what size so these calculations and you go to an irrigation supply place they probably would help you get out. On the money. They use you have. Any other questions or comments OK well this is praying we are. Close to Father in heaven thank you that you are so interested in helping us to succeed in and thank you that you have supplied water. In just such an amazing way when we see the water systems of evaporation how water flows into the ocean of their profits and gets dropped back on the hills and how their underground streams and you've just given us supplies of water to meet our needs and we just want to praise you and thank you for that and give each of us the wisdom we need to tap into this resource that you have given to us and may we always keep raising and be grateful for these places and Jesus. This media was brought to you by audio person a website dedicated to spreading God's word through free sermon audio and much more if you would like to know more about audio verse or if you would like to listen to more sermon leader Visit W W W audio or.

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