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The Original Garden “Tool”: Seeds - Their Significance, GMO/Hybrid/Heirloom/Open Pollinated?

Edwin Dysinger


Edwin Dysinger

Work on development for Bountiful Blessings Farm




  • November 30, 2017
    4:15 PM
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G.M.O. seeds and plants. Are not not allowed in organic. Or inorganic certification. Because because organics is is wanting things to be done in a natural way this is a good on natural. Human intervention. I personally. Don't like the idea of G.M.O. foods because. It's it's not following you know God established a way and process for things to come in this world and it's not following that process and. I just I think it's time right the other day. We were at his place and talking about rabbits in Australia. Rabbits were a real issue here somebody somebody thought they would be a good source of meat and you know. All the I guess they were too good so. You know we we we've discovered over time that that introducing foreign things into new environments can often backfired and cause a lot of trouble you know it wasn't just rabbits you know it's been a lot of different things all around the world. Pardon. Me sir and it was. OK yeah. Yeah. You know we have we have a number of weeds that have been introduced at home that you know forage for something else that they just go crazy and. There are all problems so. My Anyways my idea of my thought is that if you know if we've had these experiences and situations on a on a macro roast scale you know like with these different things. Doesn't anyone think that there could be a possibility of having those same kind of situations on a micro scale you know this is foreign gene material that's in the wrong place and causing who knows what. Problems you know. The longer they've been out there the more concern they're raising you know that we're starting to see more and more concern and I'm not totally There's a lot there's a lot of allergy. Asthma and gut issues that people are starting to point towards G.M.O. is just as the the causes of those things oh I'm not totally sure whether whether the issue is actually that G.M. home or or whether it's the you know most of these G.M.O. those are bred so that they can. So that they can survive ground up. You know that's 1 of the good genes that they have bred into them and so that they can survive around them and. The round up itself might you know that the consumption of round up since we've introduced Jim Wallace has just gone like this and so I know they did a test on people in the U.S. send 90 percent of the population that the that they did the test on it was a urine test they had they had found in there in. The urine you know so I mean it's in everything but and and not only that you know so they're not only spraying it just on G.M.O. crops but there. I just discovered this within the last year or so but they're also doing it using that for a lot of other crops as a desiccant. You know to dry the crop out so that they can harvest it all at once like a lot of your grain we need to and other grains because when you have very large fields of hundreds or thousands of acres it won't all be you know coming ready for harvest at the same time there will be some variation and so just to make it all ready at the same time the spirit. And then they harvest it and they sell it to US Mint it after it's been sprayed. So. Yes I've heard that and in America they do it with peanuts and they do it with sunflowers on a lot of different things it's become very common practice so. You know if you want to eat the same diet you've got to grow it yourself basically. Or for you to organic you know that does that gets prices so. That's that's why we're growing. So. Anyways. Gian knows I have I have a lot of concerns about. Don't want to support them and I. Also really concerned about. You know that the businesses that are that are producing them and selling them it seems that they're very. Power hungry you know they're trying to get a corner on the C. market and that's very concerning as well. And. I know that they are introducing you're trying to introduce legislation into into countries that. Make it illegal for people to save their own C I just I just threw that that something like that has been introduced in Tanzania and I. I feel like that's wrong and that is just wrong because seeds are a gift that God gave to us and you know you know to me it's it's almost it's on a moral level there you know. We have done a little bit of that but. Not a lot you know when when you're when you're growing for market it's that's a whole nother level to add on to it but for for growing for yourself I think it's a really good thing to look at. That the next I'll talk more about. That next time I did see that you'll find out there is this is called hybrid seed Do you know what that is. OK. OK oh that person oh. Yeah that's that oh. It's then there is some truth to that but that's not the full story it's not totally accurate on. What it what a hybrid is is you take. You. 2 plants of the same species. So for example oh oh. In. Brassica all Erica is the scientific name for cabbage for kale for color it's for Brussels sprouts and Cole Robbie I mean a whole bunch of things it's it's the same species of plant but it but there are all these different varieties of it and so anyways you you take 2 different you take 2 plants you know maybe maybe you have tomatoes and you know this this variety has a really good taste and this Brady has a really good disease resistance and you're wanting something that has both. The disease resistance and the taste so. You crossed. This. That's crossed it's called. Generation you know. By in. Genetics so that. When you buy a hybrid seed that's what that is it's the F 1 in fact in a lot of seed catalogs the way you don't know that the seed is a hybrid C. they don't know it's a hybrid but will say F 1. And then you know that you're getting 100 seeds now. Can I see reproduced Yeah it can reproduce because it's I mean that's a good scene it's just this is something that happens in nature all the time there crosses you know if you. Know if you've done the site we've had squash come up on our compost pile we didn't know what it was an inward looking at it and. Figuring out that it's a cross between 2 squashes that we had you know for somebody crossed the sea got a compass. So that's the F 1 generation and it's good seed and it can reproduce but. The thing has is that it has all the genetics of this parent out of this. And so its offspring. Will have a wide range of characteristics. OK They won't you you might have a few that have these characteristics that you want to. OK but but you'll have a lot of other ones that have you know things this way or that way or other funny mixes so you'll have up a wide variety of offspring from that so that's why people say the hybrids are not good to say for seed because you don't know exactly what you're going to get but. There are people who who have taken a hybrid tomato variety for example that they really light and they and they say you know I want. I want an open pollinated tomato you know I want to see that I can save for this Brady Bill Bill Bill take that F. 1 down and plant the seeds from it and then look for the few that have the characteristics that they want. Save that seed and and then plant that. That will have a few generations. OK And and by the time you go through 7 or 8 generations you're used generally got something fairly troops and so you can you can work from a hybrid to an open pollinated. It's just going to take you time if you have the patience and interest to do. So. And America a lot of people have questions about whether hybrid seeds are safety use you know they can use the G M O's and. There's a lot of questions out there. Hybrid hybrid seeds are are accepted in organic standards and we do use hybrid seats on our farm. Hybrid seats often have are more vigorous they will produce a more standard crop and they often are bred to certain disease resistance isn't and other things that that make them desirable to us especially. You know growing for market level. If you are if you're growing for home consumption. I would tend to go towards the open pole and he did once more just because you know when you can save your seat. So that is that the next. Open Paul and good. Seeds. Are seeds that you can save the seat from and there's a war. Type of name applied to seeds that you'll you'll hear a lot and that's heirloom seeds. Heirloom seeds and open pollinated seeds are essentially the same thing the the only difference is that heirloom seeds are or varieties that have been handed down for generations so they're home your grandparents great grandparents you know whoever they kept that variety and. You know so it's an area. So oh big open pollinated seeds people are breeding new varieties of open pollinated seed all the time so not every boat in pollinated is everyone but every every parent is an open pollinated that makes sense. So. Yes Oh. Yes. That's how they got open pollinated see just by going through that process. Yeah it's usually by the time you give. Or take. You know so each each time your genetic diversity in the Seeds is going to be less and less each time each generation to do it and so by the time you get to here you have a fairly standard. You know see that's true to type and so you can be fairly sure that probably 90 percent of your seed at least is going to be what you want you'll still get string and you know every once in a while even in the seed that we buy we get a straight thing to it's different than then everything else. Sort of will be or. It takes a long time to get those all those genes we don't know. Any other questions on. OK. I want to. Just talk it might make some spiritual connections for a minute here. In Genesis $129.30 God said to out of many. Behold I have given you every plant yielding seed that is on the face of all the earth and every tree with seed in its fruit you shall have them for food and every beast of the earth and every bird of the happens and everything that creeps on the Earth everything that has the breath of life I have given every green plant for food and it was so do you see any distinction between what God gave man and what God gave the other creatures. Yeah. Yeah you notice there it's as I have given he says the man I have given you every plant burying seed and every tree with seed and its fruit and for the animals he just says every green plant. So. You know if you think you know I've growing up in school I heard a number of attempts to distinguish between people and other creatures you know what can we say is the difference well I think this is 1 difference. Only man out manages seems you know there are creatures that will that will take C. and. You know maybe plant you know in. North America we have squirrels they'll they'll take a corn scenes and dig a little hole to bury it you know as a food store for winter but then they don't always remember where the variability is acorns So it turns into a tree so he planted a tree that you know that he's not managing seeds you know man. Plant seeds harvest stores them. We breed them there's no creature that does all those things with seeds. So. Seeds are. I believe that you know when when God gave out of an eating there their place in the garden it's like he said you know this your job is to help dominion over this earth and particularly this garden and I'm giving you a resource to work with you know this is this is your resource this is your tool it's it's so that's the fundamental resource that God has given us to work with in this world. And part of that's you know that understanding also is part of the reason why I feel that this whole G.M.O. ideas are wrong. Because this is this is a this is God's gift to mankind. Yet. So. Seeds The seeds have to use just. 1 is for eating and the other is for some. You know as in Isaiah 55 1st 10 it says for as will rain in the snow come down from heaven and do not return there not water the earth making it bring forth and sprout giving seed to the SO or and bread to the eater so seeds have 2 roles for us but that even though its 2 roles is for 1 purpose it's for to give us life. And. In Genesis 128. It says that. God bless them that's out an even God said to them Be fruitful and multiply. Again I really feel like this is you know God God said that he wanted us to have to Mannion over the earth but the the troll or the end of the Dominion that God gave us is that we be fruitful. And multiply. I see that it is that. It's God's name for the whole creation that it be fruitful. So you know that when it was a blessing that God placed on them but God's blessings are also like commands you know it's. It's what what he asked us to do. And so you know we. We bear fruit and numerous ways. You know that probably the 1st 1 we think of is like having children. But we also bear fruit when we have a fruitful garden right. And. I believe that fruit is representative of anything that we labor to undertake and if we get a result from it you know that the result of our labor is fruit. And. So. It could be. Fruit of the spirit or. Souls for the kingdom that's all fruit and in 2nd Corinthians $910.00. It says He who supply seed of the sower and bread for food will supply and multiply your seed for sowing and increase the harvest of your righteousness so you know that's what God wants for us he wants he wants to equip us to sow seeds and increase the harvest of our righteousness and Galatians $522.23 but the fruit of the Spirit is love joy peace kindness goodness faithfulness gentleness and self-control. And inefficiencies 58 to 11 walk as children of light for the fruit of light is found in all that is good and true take no part in the unfruitful deeds of darkness so God's intention is that we bear fruit not just any kind of fruit but good fruit you know life giving fruit. Good seed or fruit is always the result of 2 things. 1 is labor its always the result of labor and 2nd of intimate relationships. It is the result of thoughtful intimacy and relationships of knowing you know that's a relationship between the gardener and the plants between male and female between God and man. And. Enjoying $158.00 Jesus said by this is my father glorified that you bear much fruit and so prove to be my disciples. Is going to it is God's desire and his intention that we'd be fruitful that we bear fruit. What time do we finish in which. Case. It's OK and I want to talk just briefly about direct seeding and transplanting. We've already talked about a little bit. I've told you several times that we like to transplant can you. Give me any any reasons why transplanted might be more preferable than direct seeding in most cases. It's. OK so you're starting to have a hothouse. So you have your germinating on a protected environment. Pardon. Yeah. Yeah absolutely so usually when you're starting transplants they're in a place where you can keep an eye over them and you know yes. Good that's. OK good. Yeah I'll say your transplants when they when you put them in the soil they're ahead of everything else. This is a really big thing. You know I've said that we always direct seed are carrots and. That the challenge with carrots is that they they tend to be on the slow side adroitly meeting you know they take a little longer than a lot of things to germinate. So that means that. Your weeds. Are often ahead of the carrots or at least you know even without. In the worst case they're even with them but you know usually. And so. That's a real issue you know trying to keep ahead of the weeds. You know and so many times we've been down on our on our hands and knees picking you know the weeds out of the carrots as a company. So you know if you could if you can get a head start by putting them into a plant in the ground the ground is freshly worked well and so it'll probably start germinating see weeds but you know you can. You can easily take your cultivating tools and work or you know cultivate around your transplants in a way that you can't do if you're weeds and you're your plants are the same size. OK Any other reasons for transplanting. Oh. Another another reason when we like to do it is that. When you eat when you direct see for example we've. We often with beets which will direct seed and will transplant but when we direct see it we get. A real spotty and rough germination you know you'll have a bunch of beads coming up together here and then an empty space and then and then some more and you know and it's it's just kind of rough. When when you transplant you're only transplanting those those transplants that did well. And so you get up a real mind standard of whatever you put put in. And so that's that's. You know you're you can be fairly sure that you're going to get a harvest from literally transplant. You know and it needs to be some kind of serious major player that's going to prevent that from happening like a. Train routes and the governor says. Another Another thing is efficiency. Efficiency of space car space. On the fly by using transplants you can you can how you can produce more per square foot of garden space than if you direct seed that makes sense because you're having your plants in the ground for a short time. So you can you can take out wrong. 1 crop and put in transplants. Whereas if you put in the seeds you're going to be. 2 to 3 weeks longer 3 to really 3 or 4 weeks longer. Occupying that piece of ground 0. And I think those are. The main the main reasons that we like to transplant. Yes. It's. OK that. You know this would be the place here. First dog. If you can see if you can plant with soil on the roots in a plug or a soil block that's going to be a lot less stress on the planet if you're if you're doing a bare root planting that is very stressful on plants and we don't ever do that. Where we're. What we'd like to use is something called the soil block and I'm not sure that we have soil blockers available here that is. Part of. Its. Own you need it you need to get a good potting mix you know and you know. We make our own a lot we buy we buy Party mixes occasionally too but. You. You can make up potting mix by. By using. Pete Moss or coconut corn. I don't know if you have that. Beat moss and it and. Compost. And then you need you need to add some nutrients to it and nitrogen source. Potassium source and. Phosphorus source for your for your seeds in Germany more so that that's kind of the minimum and we also put enough on. We also put in some perlite and it and instead of perlite you can use bleach for Mickey light you know 1 or the other so that both of those things. Tend to hold water and so the big they help to prevent the soil from drying out discusses it with. So. We will generally use. Something I mean there are so many recipes out there but this is just 1. All about. Green. I think we're we're using has to be on a budget. And here you can just make it proportional whatever size you're. Piedmont. And that could be token of course Either you want on. To. 5 heads of compost. And 1 bit of her life. Or like this if you use a book you're like. Oh. Yes you know. Those are all buckets and then oh. For. For a good. Nutrient mix. We. Would generally made up a mix. While our original recipe was. 1 part. 1. For them 1 or. Soft rock. 1 are. Greens. And I think you get did you have on the ground up seaweed dried seaweed available as a product. I think you probably don't. So it's it's just in small pieces and I think you could use that because I'm not sure if you have green sand and know that some product might be moved. But if you if you don't have a green suit you could be nice I think you could use kelp equal. Salt we would mix we mix these you know and that's proportion and then we we use a an 8 ounce jar you know about 1 cup. Of this to this mix. For that. We carry. That's potassium. You know both the greensand it and that and the calculated would not only supply potassium but a number of other micronutrients and. 1 thing to keep in mind is that when you work when you are doing this for your transplants in Europe and you're planting the transplants with with the soil on them you're also investing in your soil that makes sense so it's you know you're not you're not losing anything it's all good. But by doing. So I do want to talk just a little bit about direct seating. Yeah. All right that's good thank you. The Another thing that that we always do when we transplant we. We like to do it the ideal time to do it is in that evening. Because they don't know that they have the right to kind of adjust to their new situation so that's that's really important is really important water there. Watering them and does does a couple things 1 is it course gives the oyster which they need and the 2nd thing is that it'll help settle the soil so that there will hopefully have better contact with the soil. We have we have tried. You know on our farm there's there's been a kind of a minor controversy between those who say that you need to press the plants in as you transplant them and to see say you just put them in and through the doing because it's I mean you know when you're trying to do it on a scale you're trying to get them as fast as you can you know you've got hundreds if you're putting them at a time and. We To be honest we can't see a significant difference between those 2 things so. It's kind of up to you I think you feel about it. Trying to think anything else you know if you're if you're in a very hot environment 01 thing that's really important is if you are growing your transplants under plastic or are or under a shade cloth. They do they need to have some time to get adjusted to full sun and so what we will do for that is. We will. We will bring them out from under that and we have up 1 way we view this as is we have a. Hoop else that is oriented east and west OK so. So that means the $2.00 and $1.00 in this facing east and when it is facing west and so will will bring them out and set them on a table outside on the the end facing east so veldt they'll catch the morning sun and then they'll be in the shade through the afternoon. And so you know that that just that if they if they can get some full sun you know in a moderated way for a day or 2 it's actually 2 or 3 days would be best then they'll be ready to go out to the full sun but if you take them straight out from under the plastic or under a shade cloth they're too turnt or you know they won't be able to make it so that's. Why we call it hard enough and if you're in a place where were you wanted to do this in early spring another reason is is the temperatures because they're not adjusted to down so. People will actually take them out and let them experience some cold and then bring them back you. Heard of some 1 guy who did all his transplants on a trailer and then he would just pull the trigger out and then back it back again. But that was pretty smart so anyways it you know hardening them off as it's an extra step and it's quite a bit of effort movie things around but but it can it does pay off so it's worthwhile otherwise it where if you put the plant straight out they'll get these these yellow blotches from sunburn on the leaves and it just sets them back again probably again depends on how hot you know. Direct your son is that it's probably not going to kill them unless you let your situation's pretty severe but. Something that. I say. Oh we don't get a lot of lamb but wind is an issue and. Wind can almost be more destructive to to plants to in the cold yeah so for example inside our palace. Our plants can survive much colder temperatures inside than outside and it's it's largely because of the air. So that wind can can desiccate them so. You know this this isn't just for transplants but it's for anything in the garden if you have proven winds from a certain direction if you can erect some sort of a barrier there you know. A living very you with shrubbery or trees which is is ideal I think that you can also see fences or other things. Erect a very you know that can really help a lot. Sooner. Than the other question from. Let me just cover a couple of things on the direct scene. So I've I've kind of given you the props that we do like to direct see are the you know the deeper rooted ones like carrots and. Possibly turnips although we've transplanted turnips and then them and then high density crops were trying to grow a lot in the bit for mainly for baby trees. And then fast growing crops like radishes. We will also tend to direct C B You know anything in the Wood family. They don't seem to transplant well and there. It's just not feasible to you know you've got a high density of them in a row and all of those transplants. In some. Would gently. Direct sit down. 1 thing to keep in mind is that it's your germination for direct seating is always going to be less. Than is what's written on the package you know that the germination written on the package is under ideal conditions your direct seeing you're not you don't know by Deal conditions. It's not just that. Some C's want to really big. Preachers are going to get some of them and you know there's a lot of different things. So generally just as a rule of thumb. Give yourself a fridge factor of 50 to 100 percent so you know how to. Plant half again or twice as much as as what you. What you want to come up in the stand you understand. So. And then and then the other thing is just a rule of thumb on how deep to plant your seeds. To see should be $3.00 to $4.00 times the thickness of the seat. So if your seat is a peak. That's you know maybe. A quarter of an inch. Around so you know you don't want to. Maybe put it down or at least an inch. In the ground OK so you're very small seeds are planted more show. 1 other interesting thing is that there are there are a few seed kinds of seeds that actually grow better. That they germinate better with the white rather than in the dark. And that the main 1 that I'm aware of right now is lettuce. It will actually germinate better if it's not covered up completely you know so that just maybe just a thin cover to help it keep morning Steve. You know just a little light covering do to keep it from drying out that. You know when we when we're when we're doing our starts we don't even cover them at all we just you know because we like I said we start our starts in soil blocks and so we make the blocks and we just put the seeds right on top there's a little end for the seed to go and we just sit them down in that indent and. Just keep them more sed you know you want to keep make sure the blocks it's going to points but otherwise in the growth. That's most most seeds are the other way around but those are. Oh. Yeah well that's another reason for that's another reason for doing transplants who can protect them and watch them better. Yeah 1 you know we have look for us 1 with 1 serious problem we have is like with maze you know what will we'll see maze in the field. And. 2 or 3 days later. Crows will come on and they'll just start picking out all those many secrets they're just regular I lost up pretty much a whole crop a couple summers ago to the crows. So I think I'm talking about sweet corn but I mean either 1 there would be a 2nd. Term. I. Want tell me what man is it because I'm here we call it corn bread I. Know. It's field. You know so well what do you what do you call that you call it sweet corn no sauce assembly it's from. You know in Africa they always call everything minis so I thought you did too because I thought that was the British and. You know so. Anyways $11.00 farmer said that what he did for it to solve that that problem of the crows eat as his corn was that he would he would just buy some maize you know that it's cheap you know and he put it in a little piles around his field. Trying to think of all you another thing you could do is if you. If you have there's a there's a material called floating row cover Are you acquainted with what that is. We use it to frost protect and it's a it's a spun bonded fabric and you can buy it in different weights so from heavier to lighter and of course the heavier the weight the less light. Coat goes through it but the more frost protection and more temperature protection you have so but if people also use it to to keep. Insects off of crops so you're by the lightest. Weight of. Floating row cover and you can cover your crops and keep the insects at all that works until the crop is starting to flower if it you know that's a flooring crop then you have to open it up but it would also work for for the birds and on forward for for carrots as a direct seeded crop you you want to keep the the soil for more iced and so we actually set sprinklers on and run them 2 or 3 times a day to make sure that that bed States more it's but another thing you could do to help keep your bed more East is to put floating row cover over it it will help to hold the points tree so it will hold the moisture and protect it from. From birds or other things. It's. Yeah I actually I think I have it set for the last day but we're not going to I was going to talk about trellis seen also. Something else I think 3 things. So I'm not going to have a lot of time. Tonight it's. Got. A whole else you know. I'm I'm not really I wasn't looking at the irrigation and I'm not sure because we use a number of different kinds what resistant. OK. Yeah black. Berry. Yes Yellow Brown of black. Well plastic poly pipe that is a float will run it from the water source is 1 that's well it will usually use something that's between an engine house for 2 inches. And and then will the system that we have we we we put our. We punch a hole and put her drip lines direct into the pipe. And so on drip lines down this has. No No So the bet is good as right here and so well over on a drip line down the center of the board. Probably what we do more often his wall will have to do 2 lines going down that it depends what work we're growing and if we're growing. Usually if we're growing 3 rows of something in the bed like let us well you usually have 3 rows and then we'll have to drop blinds you know so that there is a drip line. When you have 3 rows you've got you know to use. Spaces between them so we're going to drop lines down there. If it's a single row then we'll generally just have 1 drip line going. Straight. And yes that's drip tape. Of. I'll just say for for watering there are there are certain situations in which drip taper and drip lines are. Are really good and there are other situations in which overhead watering is good. So. You know it's nice to be set up for both some crops do better with overhead some do better with with the drip some. She said. It's. OK. On. Earth. But are you talking about like growing certain kinds of plants together yeah. So we liked it and I didn't have this on the notes but I was thinking about talking about this we like to rotate our crops. Are you familiar with that idea. There are several reasons for rotating crops 1 is that every crop takes you know each each kind of plant takes unique things from the soil so some plants take more of this and less of that you know or a certain kind of like beets has it has a different set of nutrients that it's taking out of the ground than tomatoes for example so and it and plants also sometimes exude things into the ground. And so. To grow the same crop over and over again of the same plates can unbalance your soil over time. Another And so that's that's 1 reason that we like to rotate so we'll grow everything here this year and next year we're growing that crop here and in the next year we're going to do over here. Another reason for rotating crops is disease and insects because there are a lot of soil borne diseases and also pests insect pests that live in the soil and they become associated with a certain crop you know like that crop and see if you keep growing that crop in the same place over time you'll build up that disease pressure for example we have something called the coral Colorado potato Beetle the that likes to eat potato leaves and. I remember 1 time we had grown potatoes in a certain place and this was when we were trying to we were adding new fields and our rotations were kind of messed up and. The next year came around and we just could not figure out where to grow our potatoes except in that place where we'd grown them the previous year so we said OK we don't that's not what we like to do but just the situation the way it worked out it just seems like we need to do it again this year we had a really heavy infestation of potato beetles on that crop that next year much more than the previous year so you know that's that's 1 reason for that's another reason for rotating crops those are the 2 primary reasons so. To to make a crop rotation well especially if you're growing a wide variety of vegetables. Can be really cumbersome if you're trying to do every single variety rotate it in keep it separate so we do it by families OK So I mentioned that the brassica family you know all these graphs a couple Erika's you know your cabbage Brussels sprouts here kill all of those plants. Grow them together in $11.00 area and then and then we. Traded grower it's a little harder with the solution is that the solar nations are your tomatoes your capsicums your home. Your potatoes. Ed and eggplants Yeah that's right so good Those are the primary ones so it's nice to keep them together and then you're like you're a lot of cynicism and those kinds of things kind of keep them together and so you know well we have our are rotating plan worked out by these these groupings and so we moved the whole group from this area this plot to this plot the next year and this 1 and there's a. There's a whole science to it that you know there are some like I said some crops actually seem to leave things in the soil that are that are either going to officials or harmful for the following crop. So trying to think like. Well you know lagoons The They're beneficial for the falling crop because they usually are fixing nitrogen in the soil another thing that rock that seems to be beneficial for falling crops is onions and it's not nitrogen I guess it's whatever they do exude but it it seems that following crops often do really well following onions. Trying to think of ones that there are crops that are that are harder on falling crops. Not. I don't have anything coming to mind right off that you know that. The crops well some. We tend to feel that the crops like these and spinach you know there are 1 family and your. Silver beet and Swiss chard that's all 1 family so. We feel that they that those are heavy feeders I've been reading to another author who I highly respect and he says no not at the theater so I don't I don't know you know what he bases that on that they seem to be heavy feeders to us and so that means they they tend to extract a lot of nutrition out of the ground and so you know the following crop. That well you need to make sure that there are you've got a lot of good nutrition in the saw when you're growing those crops but you might need it to do something extra. To prepare that for the following crop or maybe you'll want to grow a green manure you know for the fall crop and. That's something else that we can talk about actually I guess that would be good to talk about here. The whole idea of a green manure use is the idea of growing a crop specifically for the purpose of turning it into the soil and. We when we're when we're we we grow on 2 scales on our farm 1 is 1 of the small scale using these. 30 inch beds and then we we've done growing on a larger scale for us that's half acre. Plots and we're using the tractors and well we'll usually grow. On those larger ones will will follow a crop from the market with agreement or a crop. So we're so we're always going back and forth with the market crop agreement or a crop a market crop agreement or a crop on the same piece of land that's part of teaching. There but yes. It's a crop that you grow specifically for the purpose of. Cutting out and turning it into the ground so and. There are 2 things to reasons for that 1 is to. Add nutrition to the ground. Particularly nitrogen in the case of like rooms if you're growing the lagoon but the other the other purpose is to add organic matter to you around. OK And and we found that it seems that the ideal green manure is at least. Is a mixture it's not a single crop it's it's a mixture of a green and a little. And the reason is and it could be a number of greens in a number of like rooms. But the the reason for mixing the grain of the agreement is that the village room is going to fix nitrogen and nitrogen into your field but the grain is going to give you you know it has a stock that's heavier and wittier and so it's going to give you a longer lasting organic matter the through the lagoon is going to decompose quickly. Though the way we do it is we we keep them in the ground until until they're flower and tell it flowered when when they flower you don't want them to set seed because what happens if they set seed all the nitrogen in the plant goes into the seed. And you know you want the nitrogen in the plant because you want that nitrogen in the soil. So another thing about mixing the the the leg room and the grain is that if your ground is is deficient nitrogen your look human is going to really flourish and the grain won't do as well and so then you get more nitrogen to put into the ground because of doubt and if your ground has an excess of nitrogen your brain is going to flourish in your lagoon isn't going to do as well and so it helps that it helps to keep your soil balanced nutrient wise as well. And I've seen that actually happen 1 time we had 2 different plots that we had grown different things on and then and then we united them and planted both with it with a mix cover crop like this and 1 of them that obviously needed 900 that is the the grain didn't do very well on the lagoon flourish and the other 1. The the gray and it well and they are going to do quite as well as. I. Can be you know what will generally use Ryan or Oates as a or wheat as a as a winter green cover crop and we'll use Harry Vetch or Austrian winter peas. Or Crimson and Clover as it as a winter lagoon. And then for the summer well we'll use well use. Sorghum or will it. For the. For the grain and will is. Some kind of cow or something like that for. This media was brought to you by audio 1st a website dedicated to spreading God's word through free sermon audio and much more if you would like to know more about audio verse if you would like to listen to more servant leader Visit W W W audio verse or.


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