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The Basics of Soil Science

Whitmar McConnell


Whitmar McConnell

Owns and operates Golden Moment Farm in Means, KY



  • January 17, 2019
    9:30 AM


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Back in 1912 in 1900 somewhere. Time magazine published an article by Carl Sagan is a by from a with who Carl Sagan was. An astronomer and atheist and he asserted that there were there were 2 essential parameters for life to exist we had to have the right sized R. and that the planet had to be the right distance from that star today there are more than 200 parameters that are recognized and acknowledged as essential for life to exist not just exist but to function and that number keeps climbing and it's fan is going to such an extent that even the atheist scientists who've argued against creation are beginning to have 2nd thoughts about their their position we're going to look at one of those parameters today it's that same layer of soil between the atmosphere and the mantle or the crust of the earth that is essential for life to exist but not just to exist to function and to fully function and so I think it would be important for us to know something about that don't you so this is a basic class when I teach so fertility It usually takes me anywhere from $10.00 to $12.00 hours to 3 days to teach this subject so we are going to just look at it in a basic basic way what I'm hoping to do is to give you a platform or a frame of reference to use to evaluate the choices that you make in pursuit of of working with your soil and improving it you'll see that there's a lot of ideas out there and we're going to get into that in just a minute how do you evaluate any of those how do you know what to do. There are a lot of visual cues that we go by that we assume indicate that a soil is good or a soul is not good you know if it's dark and it's you know kind of crumbly and a lot of different factors like that we we assume that that means that this is a really good soil and it could be that there are things about that so that are really good but I've I worked all over the world I've seen thousands of soil tests I've seen thousands of different soils and I can tell you that I've I've seen so it's like this that are awful and I've seen so that looked awful they were fantastic and he said that I'll tell you that there are none righteous. Not one. I have never seen a sloth as that was good and it was perfect it was ideal or optimal they all have their flaws they all have their weaknesses and they have their strengths and the key is to be able to know OK what should they be what should they be how do you decide is it the fertilizer dealer that's going to tell you what they should you know what they should be about the compost maker or they the chemical salesman who's going to tell you is it going to be the conventional farmers are going to be the organic farmers are going to be the biodynamic farmer or the biological farmer the perma culturist. Which will happen so we're going to we're going to go into this we're going to look at some Like I said we're going to we're going to give you some framework I can't give you all the detail that I would like to give you but I want to give you some framework of some foundation because if you have no if you have no point of reference if you have no standards or or means of measuring something how do you know whether you've got a you don't and unfortunately a lot of people go through life. Just doing with somebody else that we're guessing at it. I spent more time with growers helping them straighten messes out that they spent money to make it's pitiful and so you know I don't I don't know about you but I don't have a whole lot of money just floating around and I don't know what to do with and I could just throw whatever and so we need to use the means that we have to get the grades benefit out of it so let's start here they may seem as pie chart before that's considered the ideal soil that's considered a model soil and there's a universal acceptance of that assertion is universally doesn't matter what school of thought you come from and that ideal soil is what is represented there the volume is made up. Of about 45 percent mineral about 5 percent organic matter and then the other half is porous base. Airspace and of that half about half of that space is filled with water and half of it's filled with air when you look at that do you is there does it invoke any questions that go to that to this go back to the 2nd chapter of Genesis and what did God say when he created man. Before man from the dust of the earth and breathed into his mouth into his nostrils the breath of life now I look at that and I try to imagine in my mind God just saying OK just describe a little bit of this and grab a little bit of that in and throw it together and read on and I think that's what God did you can read through the Bible and there's never a there's never an instance when God just randomly does anything there is a pattern a very specific pattern everything because it's what we represent represented the image of God And so there's a there's a very definite make up but that still should have. So there is this there is a certain amount and if we had the time to go in and look at each one of these nutrients I could illustrate you know and point out to you why it's important to have this certain amount of you do and we're going to look at a couple of them because they affect the science of this we're going to look at a lot of chemistry physics and science today but it might not sound like chemistry physics or science to you because that's what that is. So there are very specific amounts of these neutrino elements that should be in the soil now what's the dilemma with that OK that's the ideal soil if I don't have that how do I get it I assure you nobody has it well I take that back there are a handful of people throughout the world who have who brought the condition of their soul to pretty tight on to that condition OK So a test how do you know they're still tested get you there just to know that. There is a there was a mainstream it's actually the the modeling that I use mainstream. Model they used to be mainstream model it's been marginalized now because of higher priorities. And labs just just illustrate that having a SO analysis done that's enough for me mean you're going to hit that target because different labs run different analytical process and they come out with different numbers can you believe that they can take the same soil and they can come up with different numbers well it has to do with the type of extract and so using the amount of extract into the soil and the amount of shaking time in a few other parameters they will determine what those numbers are the real key is do they have a model that they can measure that have a demonstrated model or demonstrate a model numbers that they can measure those analytics by to determine whether or not it's achieving this objective and then I'm fortunate reality is that most of them don't. They're trying to use a model that does not match the analytics and or they've just totally abandon it and they just concern themselves with with the. Fertilizer McCraw are not really addressing this so and what I'm talking about here is feeding the soil and letting the soil feed the crop and that means addressing the character if you want to put it a different way of dressing the character and then letting that character bear the fruit we wanted most in most cases people are just concerned about growing the crop and making sure they can get the crop is a lot of hazards with that but you know sell to us we get you going in the right direction you start asking questions but I would be the 1st one they'll say you were in a freshman then you were taking soil science ecology were freshman and you were taking your 1st class and they brought this up because we're going to bring it out. And so you wanted to know what I just asked and you raise your hand and you say. So if somebody doesn't have that how do we help them get it what do you suppose the answer would be can use that can you believe that the answers by a large still we don't know how to do that you just stuck with what you have deal with it we're going to explain OK how do you get half of that is there what I have left in it that less than 50 percent of the spaces there what if I have more than 50 percent of that and you guys have sandy soil most sandy soils are going to have more than that and for space most I say some will not to have left how many people have a clay soil most of you guys are going to have less than that some of you will have that somebody might even have more than that what makes the difference but we're going to we're we're going to look at it a little bit here we're going to look at some of the some of the. Some of the things that have to be considered in order to achieve that optimum soil we're going to need to look at a few things that involve form you know what is that soil made up of how is it functioning and. And how is it expressing what it is the question was if you had a standstill would you want to add more Danica matter to it. To to improve this still structure and improve that condition that's one possibility I have drawers and if I feel like if I said I did devil's advocate sometimes I'm just simply wanting to encourage you to think I have some growers Yes Danny surly rather getting mad if you had a messed up their chemistry so sometimes one of the things you need to remember is all these things are interacting with each other and so it's important to look at the whole picture it's very possible a very possible outcome let me give an illustration here I had a I was at a training and there was a lady who works for a big composting operation in the Midwest and between classes he was asking me could you give me any insights or you know ideas on how to to approach my clients so that I could sell more compost and my answer shocked her I said yeah I could give you some insight I said tell your grower when compost is not a good idea she didn't like any actually. There are times that compost is not a good idea so we have to look a little we want to start digging in here and start looking at the form function expression of soil and we're going to look at a few things here that will start flashing us out OK Number one parent material. How many of you came from pear material. I hope all of you say half how many of you are source parent material so little is the same way so originates from some parent material I'm sure some of you have kids in here and some of your children parents I hope do they have similarities to you Do you have similarities to your parents. And maybe your looks and maybe they're your disposition your propensities we do for we did foster care medical foster care for 16 years we've adopted 4 kids and I can tell you for sure that there are very definite propensities and dispositions to people because the topic is we have do things and have attitudes and dispositions that are totally different and are biologically if you will still is just like that and what do I mean by that if this oil originates let's say from. Cal carious will just pick a star calcareous What do you suppose it's going to have a lot of calcareous the oil is high in calcium it's a large amount of calcium what mineral do you think it's going to have a lot of calcium. What if you what if the parent material is rock it was granite now you guys probably wouldn't know some of these things that if it's high in granite you're going to wind up with a lot of magnesium potassium and probably not enough calcium. The deicing as you guys all know the deicing or I do there's a fertility there on Iraq phosphate or an appetite rock or body they have excessive levels of phosphate in calcium I had an acid sandstone soil Colorado it had a lot of iron not much of anything else so we could go we could go through this and I'm going to try to keep this simple so I don't. Get things too complicated here but there are there classifications of different cell types and it depends on the type of material the type of rock that they originated from or whether they washed in they blew in. And they have certain characteristics as a result of that well the reality is though soules want to express what they are they want to express what they are so do you think that a soul is high in phosphate calcium is going to express itself as that and by the way their very deficient potassium. Do you think that's going to express what grows there the same way that that soil is high in calcium and and deficient in a lot of trace elements because there's so much calcium there do you think they will express the way things grow the same way. They won't you'll have very specific plants that will grow well in one type of soil in the very specific ways they'll grow well in the other cells you know of others that won't grow well at all because of that and that still can't do anything other than what it is without intervention it can't do anything different than what it is now there are some things you can be done and we're going to talk about that later there are interventions in all of agriculture by the ways intervention all of it and I should point this out right here because there's a lot of ideas out there it's very incorrect What do you what do you think of me think of the term organic growth but the term actually means it actually defined the capacity or a level that natural systems can function at without intervention So in other words if you're a look at a. Half a forest or a prairie or or a desert earth whatever you look at it's it's functioning at its organic growth level in other words it's functioning at the maximum level that it can function at now this is the opposite of what you're told a lie you're told that nature is evolving that nature's advancing and that things are improving but I but that's just simply not the case when you look at when you look at it in reality and I get asked the question how many of you have seen any apple towards apple orchards just popping out of popping up out of nowhere in originating or strawberry fields or or. Vegetable gardens just all sudden you know starting to manifest themselves you don't see that do you if anything you see things start to get worse and having more more problem and that's the reality so it's important understand that nature is not holding anything back it's restricted by the condition it's in but it's not got something that's holding back and saying I'm just not going to let you have this because you're not being nice to me or whatever nature is always trying to preserve life it is always trying to maintain life at the highest level it can and and maintain stability now if any of you garden for a long period of time or something whenever we plant a garden in there we're now changing the demand on that system and it may be that that'll work well for a while because we haven't exceeded the capacity of that system to maintain stability but what happens all of a sudden I'm sure you people had this happen to you what happens when you have a big long stretch across a cloudy rainy weather or you have a big long stretch of hot dry weather and all of a sudden you start haven't problems disease problems cause problems things like that that's because you exceeded the capacity of that system to maintain stability the stresses from the entire environment have it have put to such a degree that they've exceeded what that system can maintain as stable and you've been having problems so now we're going to be talking about soil here but I should point out as I mentioned that that there are 2 parts to a growing system you have the soil system and you have the environmental influences and the environmental influences you never know I mean you know to a certain degree depending on where you live but you never know what to expect from it has anybody been held out I have as anybody been flooded out I have as every by anybody been wiped out by disease I have hurricane. Without. Locus there is a much bigger pool of effects in the environment than in your soul system but the only thing you have can treat control over like you we have control over our own character and our choices we're going to make and raise the only thing you have control over is that soil and what you're going to do with it because that's so it's going to be able to give you the greatest amount of stability in the greatest amount of suffering against these things I mean how many people have had people things in your life happen to totally altered it you didn't plan for you didn't you didn't ask for stuff that happens you didn't have any say in it you didn't have any control over it. But the best you can do is just order your own life in a way that can endure the highest degree of that I call it insults because. So you have when when the professor says well you just have what you have he's correct in one respect is you have this oil that you have now I've had people ask me Can I just dig it all up and take it away and bring some more and I said yes sure it's a lot of work I said but you just exchange one set of problems for another set of problems the simple solution is to address the problems you have and if you have a good model to measure it against you can address those conditions and bring them to a better condition so that they're more functional OK if anybody has any questions along the way feel free to ask them but just be sure that I repeat the question for the recording OK So another thing at it we're just going to start looking at some of the aspects of so one of things you have to look at is the texture and this goes back to the pair material in texture just tells you the. Texture is just telling you what size mineral material or what size rock or what you whatever term you want to put on it you. That what the make up what percentage of these different sizes of material your soul is made up of and those 3 materials are stand still in clay and this is just a diagram giving you a relative comparison to their size Now if you go to the clay part down there you see it's quite a bit smaller. When we get to it when we start looking at colloq a passerby the stuff that actually holds fertility is way smaller than THAT WAY WAY smaller than that it's the tiniest fraction of the clay and it has you can even see it in let's under a microscope so that's texture is just telling you you know how much clay you have how much sand you have how months old you have and that's what you have a now we need to look at structure structure is you take that sandstone clay and you build it into a house and this is more important than necessarily what weather how much sandstone Clay you have and I know the people of Sandy so think it's really hard to go into here because it dries out too fast and it does not really fertile and people with the client think it's too heavy and stays wet and and doesn't grow very well but structure is more important in texture and that. That's how those are put together and that's actually how you get the poor space that air space in your soil it's how this material is put together in the silt of to build that is build that structure and how does it do that how do you put it together as they get built and put together a well that's the next thing here Claudel capacity in the soil there there is that clay that I told you about which is a very fine fine fine crystal in material it has a charge to it it has a net negative charge to it. Humus that organic matter that's in the stable is stabilized form stable humus is also colonial in that it has a charge to it and it's primarily a negative charge as well now both of them have some positive charge in them but primarily it's a negative charge so how do you think that that builds structure in your soil PH Well how do you with 2 with 2 negative charges attract to each other. No they wouldn't right so what do you have to do to get them to come together. Yep you've got has something with a positive between them right OK yeah well it would it would attract they would come together and be a tad attracted to each other. Both this the the modeling that I was talking about and it's almost it's what almost every lab uses to run their analytics but they use a totally different process analytical process and they don't come up with reliable numbers but it's called Cat ion exchange capacity when I talk about Clojure capacity I'm talking about what's called Cat an exchange capacity the term cat I am just means it's positively charged OK all your major your major cattle and. Your major talents are calcium magnesium tatty in and sodium calcium and magnesium have a double plus charge to have 2 plus charges available and potassium and sodium have single Plus charges they're there and these are all alkaline forming and there nutritive you have asked the forming cat ions to. Hydrogen and aluminum or a couple of those iron as well. And the trace elements a lot of the trace metals are positively charged as well but these 4 major. Cateye and these 4 major elements are the ones that influence the structure that soil now I'm sure a lot of you've heard it put organic matter on in the biology breaks down and they create lots of glues and that glues everything together net structures the soil Well that is true it does do that and they do it does contribute to the structure of the soil but the lion's share of structuring to the soil is done by chemistry it's not done by biology it's done by chemistry and so it's actually if you get you. Well do that one on the go to the slide here so I only put 2 of them on here we'll talk about potassium and sodium but I didn't put that in put all 4 of them on here how do these how do these mineral elements structure the soil. Well I didn't drawings and I'm not a real good artist so forgive me for the quality those drawings but calcium and magnesium are the dominant 2 elements that structure the soil and calcium structures that by flocculation the soil call it that says that that Clay now Clay is the cause clay college or like plate their flat there we go to get that picture like the drawing here they're flat you know on my squares and rectangles or anything but they're flat plate and calcium at 2 plus charges in the way it the electro chemical attraction binds them together pulls them together like you see on the left here it'll be either take those 2 plates and attach an edge to edge or it'll take those plates in the attach and face the edge magnesium flocculation the so-called Lloyd's just brings them together but of the calcium increases pore space and when you will look at there since I can see why when magnesium brings it together it decreases pore space because it takes those 2 plates as 2 clay plates and it puts a face to face can you see if you look at that diagram can you see if you stacked a bunch of plates. All up attached by magnesium how much pour space would you have not a whole lot but if you had a task like this over here how much for space would you have you'd have quite a bit more now you don't want all magnesium you don't want all calcium when we talk about that core space there's a very specific size of poor space that you want whether it's sandy soil sandy soil you your pores are too big and you need to tighten it up you need to make it smaller in a clay soil or too small and you need to make them bigger but you want to very specific course base and I don't know if you saw now that next right here was or P. or which is oxidation reduction potential the reason you want a very specific pore size is because that gives you and let me just throw this in here how many of people of heard it said that you you want aerobics oil you want your soul to be aerobic and I heard that that's not exactly true you might consider me a heretic before today. Actually it's more biblical the soil needs to be able to breed it needs to be able to exchange air and soils do brief you know by a gravity gravity and you know the lunar gravity and tidal tide of movement water actually moves up and down in the soil and you get air exchange and you get you get water movement in the soil if that porosity is right and at that at that core size effects another thing called capillarity and capillarity is simply the the poor sizes are such a size that water can actually travel along the outsides of this pool as part of those aggregates and they can work their way through the soil they're not trapped anywhere and as they can freely move but when that core space is a right certain size too you also have some areas that are full of water. And in those areas those areas are anaerobic Now why would you want an aerobics spot in your soil that you probably all been taught that anaerobic organisms are terrible but did you know that nitrogen fixation this still requires an anaerobic environment there are a whole bunch of what they call facultative and erodes that contribute to the fertility of the soil and you want a condition in the soil that facilitates the function of those organisms now it is true that you brought If you want to predominately. Aerobic But you more importantly want to be able to breathe you want to pour space to be the right size that you get maximum air exchange and maximum water mobility in the soil now. I'm not going to go back to that so you'll remember c net 0 R.P. that's the oxidation reduction potential so it's the ability to oxidize minerals and its ability to reduce minerals in the soil reducing the minerals in the soil is what makes them available oxidizing is usually what ties them on and so you want a slightly reducing environment in your soil and that breathability that pore space again is what contributes to keep maintaining a slightly reducing environment in your soil if you've got too much air in at Silden attend to reduce that and get more oxidation if you've got too little air in there then you have too much reducing going on and you can have problems as a result of that so it all comes back to that soil being structured the right way and that the dominant factor in structuring is chemistry it's not organic matter although organic matter contributes to it but people overemphasize the organic matter and it's well it's contributing to it it's not it's not the dominant structuring factory in the soil it's chemistry now. I'm just going to tell you I don't have time to go over the model that I use but the model that I use based on the mile use well there's another term we need to know here based adjuration percent a saturation percent what that simply is is telling OK. When we talk about CAD an exchange capacity or the capacity that solves the charge capacity that the oil just pictured as a bucket. 5 gallon bucket a one gallon bucket. We haven't talked about another aspect we will talk about exchange capacity basically tells you how much fertility you still can hold OK So in essence it's how big of a bucket you so have how much fertility can hold some people still have a 5 gallon bucket some people have a 2 gallon bucket some people have a half a gallon bucket it's kind of like the parable of the talents you know one person one talent wanted to want to 5 the one who had one wasn't expected to do what they wanted 5 which was but it's important to know what the capacity that soul is people get themselves into more trouble not knowing what if you what if you had a one gallon capacity still and you put 5 gallons worth of fertilizer on our soil amendments what you think would happen we've thrown off a lot of stuff out of whack and you waste an awful lot of money now this is $1.00 of the things you have to be careful about that I have to share with you too there's you'll see 2 terms will he wanted total exchange capacity as you want to scatter an exchange capacity most labs only run a partial Caton exchange capacity in other words the only measure calcium magnesium and potassium they don't measure sodium and I don't know why. And it all measure the other bases and in fact they factor in hydrogen but they don't always measure the other bases the problem with that is they're not telling you how the bucket actually is because they didn't measure a whole bucket you want to total exchange capacity which would measure calcium magnesium potassium sodium all the other minor bases and hydrogen because that'll tell you what the actual bucket size is the real bucket sizes capacity. And it is very important you know what that capacity is because it. It only causes a lot of loss and headaches when you don't know what that is what if you have a festive The other one you have a 5 gallon bucket you only put one gallon Wortham in and then it's on but it's the still just not going to do what it could do and it's. And potential but it's also not going to perform very well because there are percentages marriage that is based adjuration percent there are percentages of material that are involved not just pounds and so if you don't if you don't have the right percentage of those materials you're not going to get this structuring and you're not going to get the right or the right conditions. So so Bates saturation percentage is what the it that is actually measuring is actually saying what percentage of your bucket is full of this element and this element in this element is primarily those 4 major cabins it is talking about we'll look at what are called an eyes which are sulfur and that phosphorus and nitrogen. Will look at that just in just a minute but this is how these nutritive elements are held in the soil so base adjuration just tells you what percentage of your bucket is full of each one of those now your bucket might not be full you might only have 40 percent your bucket or 60 percent of your bucket full and you might have 60 percent to 3100 percent of your bucket full but it's full of wrong stuff because there has to be the right percentage the right proportion of these nutrient elements in order for them to function both in a structural capacity but in their nutritive capacity as well and so with the modeling that I used in the one that is demonstrated self worldwide the only one that had you want at least 60 to 70 percent of that bucket to be full of calcium you want anywhere between 10 and 20 percent of the bucket to be full of magnesium and you want about 3 to 7 percent of that bucket to be full of potassium. In general the average so they average soul is going to be more in the $6812.00 range with calcium and magnesium and $5.00 to $7.00 with potassium and that's order to get it that's in order that you can see that calcium is the dominant element in that bucket that's because in order to get the right structure a net soil that's about where you need to be and that was the range on that is simply as a result of the exchange capacity that's all so the lights and your soils that have a lower capacity are going to need more magnesium to hold them together so going to be closer to the 20 percent and less calcium and heavier cells are going to need a little more calcium and a little bit less magnesium to get the structuring that you need on that and then sodium then and when I mentioned sodium fuels a well of sodium kills stuff doesn't it in the soil. You actually want about one to 3 percent it's actually a half percent up to 3 percent but optimum would be about one percent sodium in the soil actually know of a fellow up in Minnesota which is very deficient in sodium who was told to put a rock salt on a hay to put some sodium on it so he got rock salt of apply it and the state flipped out because he brought a whole semi load Iraq's all the odd couple 1000 acres need to apply to and but he was growing barley barley uses a lot of sodium and once you put that that sodium on which he was deficient in but he put that rock salt on it. Dramatically increases barley yields because it is sodium and if you grow beets. Swiss chard and the goose foot family all require extra sodium to do well. Now I'm just mention a couple things here but. Each plant family pulls heavier on different things and so you've heard all the time people say well you need a Ph D. this need a Ph D. that are need a lot of this and a lot of that but what you need is actually a banquet table that is complete and balance made available in a condition it's acceptable to your crop and then the crop will pull what it needs it will take what it needs now if you grow the same Crapo over and over this every year in the same place then it's going to pull heavier on certain nutrients and you're going to have be mindful of replenishing those nutrients to keep the balance that you're trying to keep their eye on it OK so if I lost everybody at OK So are you getting a little bit of a picture of what you should take what you should be looking for now I haven't I haven't so you're going to have somebody come say oh this will work great for the back even that back the method they all think it works great I know people who work Fantastic 4 and I know people it was a disaster how many people even told a compost on can't put enough compost on I know people this has helped tremendously and I know people it has been a total disaster you have to know what your condition is to know what your need is I had somebody tell me one time well do I had to fulfil a task you're close enough to me is in Kentucky you're close enough to me in this was a highly educated highly successful person who was telling me this in the ME just a farmer. And he said Can I just use do what you're doing because we're pretty close by and you know I don't see the need to spend money on a although you had plenty of it. On a saw test and I said yeah OK If you'll agree to one thing if you'll agree that in that your spiritual condition is a set identical to mine in every particular I'll tell you and he said well I don't think that's true and I said well I'm not telling you. I was trying to help him to see that his condition is going to be different than mine is the model that matters we all a lot of times we try to be we compare ourselves among ourselves and then we try to match some other person and sometimes that works out because we kind of have a similar disposition sometimes it doesn't work out too well because you know we don't and so we you know it's having Christ as our model to measure against not somebody else and then we go from where we are and what our need is and we we fill that need not what somebody else's needs and so that's and that's important to recognize Now let me let me just jump on the the and what are called the and I and for the the negatively charged nutrients the negatively charged nutrients are primarily how that's nitrogen phosphorus. Sulfur. Are primarily held in organic matter there are charge sites that are positive on these on these total clays but they're both positive and negative charge sites in including humans and so the majority of those nutrients are held there phosphorous is held by by bonding and so when you put phosphorus on that's why people to put a lot of compost on get themselves into trouble it fosters it's got a triple negative charge when you put it on it's going to stay where you put it and that's it washes away what with the soil or blows away with the soil and you'll have to grow it out and want to know but nobody knows how to get access out if you get too much of it but nitrogen and sulphur Will Leitch out well leach away so they don't get built into humans or they don't get built into microbes or plants whatever they are and if you have rainfall going through there this going to leach out and it doesn't go by itself it takes something with it it usually takes cattle and calcium magnesium potassium it typically takes calcium with it to please your county so I hope I gave you just a little bit of a framework to work from your soil has a capacity it's designed a certain way. You need to know what that capacity is and then you need to know what that capacity need to be filled with what is it filled with and what is a need to be filled with and what I need to do to bring it to the place that it needs to be how does ph affect. The crop you're growing Well the simple answer to that is that when you develop when you fill your bucket in the right balance and fully fill it the PH always lands between 6 and 6 and have ph is only relevant B. It only tells you how much hydrogen you have in you so it doesn't tell you any fuel you have a low ph you're missing alkaline cattle and if you have a high PH You have too many outgoing calves and so what's more important is that your soil is complete and balance and the palm tree and the great vine and all kinds of other plants will grow fantastic power so now you mention climate the other factor is climate you're not going to grow bananas in Alaska unless you have. Some way to modify the climate so it has to be able to handle the climatic influences of the temperatures and those type of things but as far as the soil goes ph is only relevant because it was telling you that you're missing something you've got too much or something but then you have to go and find out what am I missing or what am I what I have too much of so I don't I don't personally I only pay attention to ph because it is to tell me that I've got to figure out what's missing or what I have too much of and what I've got to work down and get out you can have a high P. H. and B. commission stuff you have too much of one thing you're missing other stuff you can have a low ph and have enough something's not enough of others or too much sodium we bring up this real quick sodium. Effects ph for almost 4 to have times more than calcium does so you can have just a little little bit too much sodium and your PH look great but your mineral balance is terrible. And things will grow Vallance. Balance is the key word in the know what that balance should be and then learn how to make it to supply that balance to show and maintain it you have to maintain it remember I talked about the parent cereal you know the pear material was the express itself and if you don't die daily and if you don't continue to impart the right condition to that cell it will migrate back to the disposition it has and the way it wants to express itself people are that way too and we didn't get to it but there it you know then once you're going to you're going to intervene you have to ask the question and my opposing growth on a system or on my parting growth to this system and that's a big factor because a lot of agriculture is in part is in positional it's imposing on that system is decreasing the capacity a life rather than imparting to that commission an increase in that ceiling in our mission is increased one Be fruitful and multiply failure that's our objective. So we want to be sure that as. 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