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Logo of 2019 Adventist Agricultural Association Conference: True Success

Growing Through the Winter

John Dysinger Joshua Dysinger

Recorded

  • January 18, 2019
    10:45 AM

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Do you have only father we're so thankful for the opportunity to come and learn and Lord I pray that these people who are here would not just come to learn from us but would be learning from you and that you would teach them and guide them instruct them in the garden so just bless our time together we pray in Jesus' name amen. So just as a brief introduction before Joshua takes over here I I want to say where we come from in Tennessee our garden and putting in a garden is an event you know you go down to the local Co-op in the spring and they say got your garden in yet and that means have you planted your garden for the season and it usually happens in our area some time if you're the gambling type you know the middle of April if you're more if you want to hedge your bets you wait till the 1st of May and you put out your mater's and your squash and and they do their thing and then they're gone and we take over and it's a foreign born patch and tell the frost kills everything and you look forward to the next spring Well what we want to try to convince you today is that your garden can be in year round and that doesn't mean if you live in Tennessee that means if you live in northern Idaho northern Michigan British Columbia Maine I know people in all those places who are successfully growing year round so this is for all of you don't think well I can't do it where I'm from. So with that introduction we're going to let Joshua take over here for a bit OK So the 1st thing that we're going to make sure A is just what you're going to be growing in the winter so the goal is not to be keeping the same crops going year round. People do that but you're going to deal with having to have heating greenhouses and a whole lot more. Hassle So we're going to look at what what crops are going to be. Be wanting to grow the winter hardy crops and so I've made a list of the crops we grow a lot of them I've put specific varieties if we have a specific variety that we really like a lot of don't have or ids so we're just going to go through quick. And you can snap pictures or try and write it down so you've got your Brosco family a very cold hardy. So with the kale there's Brosco neighbors and there's a process of. OK. And so the Nate this is what you're going to be wanting to grow in the winter. If you are if you're up in the Maine meeting I guess it was yesterday morning he was talking about the red Russian kale that's a across canape is so those red Russian There's white Russian and there is a Siberian kale it's a curly tail. And yeah there's more but the red and white russian are the main ones that we grow and that's for. You know later well this time of year so end of December January of for the for the winter will do. Other calles that go into the coal you know now will be finishing off some of our other varieties and the Russian tails will be taking us for the next couple months cabbage cauliflower broccoli Koran be Brussels sprouts. Are all other cross because that we grow root crops are a big thing in the winter carrots I've done a large amount of carrots in the last few winters it's been actually a kind of a. Staple crop for our farm and we've kind of been become known for our sui into carrots if you haven't grown carrots in the winter it is a whole different story in the carrots are absolutely amazing once you get a couple hard frost your carrots are so sweet beets salad radishes So the small. The small radishes pink beauty and French breakfast radishes storage radishes keep us. You know for our C.S.A. later in the season we can harvest them and store and they'll keep us through the real real cold months having stuff for the boxes turn ups both turn up switcher a gourmet salad turn up and the more standard purple top turn up we grow in the winter and rutabaga. It's the recross who grow so salad greens we grow all of our baby lettuce we grow salad over we talked about in our in terms of cost on Tuesday but if you aren't there it's a it's a head it grows the head but then you'll cut it above the cut the loose leaves see oh you'll cut the head above the ground you'll get a handful of loose leaves and it will grow again and you'll be able to cut it a couple times it takes a little bit of practice to get that cut you know what because if you cut it a little too low then you actually cut your stem and it won't grow again so you have to practice with that there's 4 different Salan over so those butter butter salad over there is oak leaf cell Innova there's incised and sweet which are both frilly and there's red and green on blue for both of those so there's a different selling over the Johnnies has the butter we have found to be the most cold hardy but the South mix of just butter is going to be like flat like there's nothing to keep. Loft there so we always will mix in one of the curly Leafs to be able to have some loft in your in your mix lettuce. Head lettuce weed those are sky folks and Sylvestre are a red and green butter head that we grow original spinach and baby kale So the baby Kale is actually the same red Russian kale we just will plant it thick in a bed and then we'll cut it and mix it in with our. Let us mix or sometimes will make brazing mix more for people to cook with baby kale and some of the baby Asian greens so with the Asian greens we got bok choy you kena Savoy Chinese cabbage Tokyo because. Taught soy a lot of those are are not. Common not a lot of people will be familiar with them but they're great they're great winter greens all of them are very mild a lot of them the Tokyo B. Khana topsoil Mizuno. We will grow thick as a baby and will mix that either with our salad greens or with our cooking mix. You kena Savoy instead of you Kong yet you kena Savoy and some of the other ones that we grow our mustard Ruby street mustard will grow that thick as a. Baby green clay Tonia modish if you haven't grown or had mosh it's really good really cold tolerant probably one of the most that's actually in the picture that's mosh mine of tuna cress Garden press sorrel you can do there's some really pretty like a red vein sorrel that are beautiful in your in your salad mixes. So I think that's that is just an overview on on the winter crops that we grow and you know when you look at your seed catalogs they've got. All of that as far as cold hardy crops you can see when you're when you're going through there what are the cold hardy crops so we will look at protection. Row cover is kind of the basic frost protection that we use so you all your row cover you know there's different thicknesses and so there's and there's also variance of how hot it's been in the day how much you know if you've had sun. Depending on how much that row cover is going to help you at night when your temperatures get colder I mean you know they may be cold in the day but it's been a sunny day you've got warmth in your soil the rover is going to help hold that and you're going to get a a. Higher degree of percentage of protection. If it's been cloudy cold you know it's going to be 3 or 4 degrees additional recoverable increase or protection obviously they'll increase it but they will. Increase more than the 1st one so if your 1st row cover took you from 20 degrees to 24 degrees your 2nd row cover will take you more than 28 degrees that air in between helps insulate and so your 2nd row cover you're going to be probably getting closer to that 8 degrees of additional protection. And along the same lines if you have. To thin row covers it's going to be more protection than if you had one row cover that was twice as thick because that air in between gives more insulation. If it's sunny you want to uncover because you want your soil to be able to heat up. And that's going to help with keeping your temperature through the night so you want to uncover especially if you have multiple covers on if you have one cover on. You know in our area. The winter can be any temperature so I mean right before we left we had it was full sun It was like $75.00 degrees is beautiful. You know it's this next Sunday it's like a high of 30 and low of 12 and you know it's just going to be anything so if it's if it's. Sunny but it's not getting very warm if I've just got one cover on I'm probably not going to take the time to pull it off but if you've got multiple covers on You want to take them off of the your your plants will get that sunlight and your ground will warm up so for for. Covering for a lot of the crops it's good to use a hoop. To keep from damaging your crop and we've actually we actually didn't do as much this year but I think that probably things some things kind of used it. You know your lettuce is they're pretty brittle and if you especially if you're in an area where the wind and stuff if you're covers over your lettuce and then it's like flapping in the wind it's just really going to bruise your crop. So there's multiple different options you can use there's wire hoops that Swope cover 130 inch bed there's you know just round hoops we also have some like square ones. There's plastic conduit. So with that we've will gets. Pieces a rebar that are like 18 inches long pound them in the ground it's $68.00 inches and then you'll put your plastic conduit over that and then you'll bend it over and put it on your other one. And you can cover to 2 beds with that we used to use a lot more but we've we've pretty much totally moved away from those if it's really cold they'll be really brittle and like you can just you know kind of hit a bump and they'll just crack and it's also a lot more work because you have to pound in all your rebar and then put them on so what we use mostly is metal conduit hoops 1010 foot half inch conduit and then to bend it there's multiple options so the bottom right Johnny is so quick you Bender's they so like 3 different ones depending on the hoop that you're trying to make but it's not nice I don't know how much they are there $6070.00 but you can do you can see the top there is somebody who marked their bends put a bunch of screws in put a block on the outside to keep your conduit from swinging now and then you can use bend around it into the same thing with like blocks of wood anything like that and you can make yourself a bender on a plate on a piece of plywood that will do just as good a job and be be less expensive and then in the top top right that's what I was talking about with the The Wire hoops OK And then we will just go look at. A plastic structure or plastic covered structure. So there is some significant benefits of that and this year our farm we were on sabbatical for the you know the biblical 7 year sabbatical that my parents took off and myself and my wife were growing on some separate land our farm we've got enough acreage that we were able to grow elsewhere but we have 7 hit houses they were all resting and we were outside and it was it was difficult to say the least and I didn't I guess I hadn't really realized how much of a benefit it is to have things under cover so there's different options it doesn't have to be super expensive but if your trying to do it on any kind of marketing scale I would highly encourage looking into getting getting some structure so it heats up your soil and your air when the sun comes out it doesn't matter what the temperature is outside it gets very warm in there and the row cover is not going to do that even when you have the hoops to us little extent it does but not nearly to the extent that plastic will. So you can be well below freezing outside but if the sun is shining it will be really warm and you who pass. If you live in an area was snow we don't we don't really get any snow but you know if you just got rover out there and you've got a foot of snow you can't really get to your crops. And so you know it gives you access ability in their more of a controlled environment. Ours you know we don't heat them we don't have any way to heat them. So it's just venting them so it's not like we can really control it but much more controlled with the water and you know we can cool it down if it's going pretty high vent and so it's definitely much more control of an environment and it gives a place that you can work when it's raining and that was another huge thing that I realized we had so much rain this fall. And as Dad will share in the fall getting stuff planted on time is your biggest biggest challenge and you know your biggest goal like if you're a couple days behind your harvest is going to be weeks behind and it would rain for like a week and then I'd have so much stuff to plan I couldn't get it all in. And it just really was a an issue with that so that's some of the. The benefits so then we'll just look at I just have 2 different I mean you know there's lots of lots of different. Structures different orientations you can do. Caterpillar tunnels are. Very cost effective way to get your crop under cover and my brother has a booth in the room over here with farmers friend he sells the caterpillar tunnels they are 16 feet wide I believe 100 feet long 14 feet wide 100 feet long how tall they are probably 7 feet tall 7 and a half feet tall now what I was say is if you are well in the winter it's not in the winter the the height. Doesn't. Doesn't affect you as much because you're growing most you know grown tomatoes and stuff but he has a he's got additional. Add on's and one of them is a 16 inch riser so you put additional 16 inch on all your bows on both sides takes it up to like 9 feet. Very nice if you're in an area with snow you don't want a center solid center Pearl and when braces. He's got he's got lots of different different add ons but you're getting that 14 feet by 100 feet covered. Base price is like $1200.00 because of the Gothic style is a little bit more expensive. Should sheds no better. And it's got a little bit more of height but check it out there so you can do different options they they are not. Open and normally so that one you can put wiggle wire and you can have open end and you can just. Drape plastic down normally you you've got like 2030 feet of plastic extra on the end you kind of pull it tight in a knot. And secure it to like a tee post at the end so I don't know I don't know all the price ranges and everything you can you can check it out there I know it's less than it's between 12 and 1400. Our other hoop houses. OK And they're also they're also relatively easily move why I would say with 2 people. You know you can put one up in if you've got if you've got the center Pearl and when bracing is the 2 hours if you've got just the basic one with the nylon center thing it probably an hour hour and a half or 2 people if you're taking it down moving it it's going to take a little bit longer but they're pretty quick. It stands up pretty well. They just had somebody that had one come down they claimed it was like 45 mile an hour winds. But I would say they probably didn't have it put up quite right because there's been multiple people that have said they've stood up to you know 60 mile an hour winds I mean obviously if you have a tornado comes through or something and you kind of not really much is going to but. For most places even if it's if it's kind of windy they're going to they're going to hold up you're going to want to you know if you live in a windy area you're going to want to buy the reinforcement for it. OK So the question was if the main purpose for it is to be easily movable I would say if for the most part yeah also just getting a really cost effective coverage. So with with the with a regular hoop house a bigger hoop house ours are 40. 45135100 or so twice as wide same length. And you know they're going to be sturdier it's a bigger structure and they're permanent You're not going to move them. You know from year to year they're. Cemented in and permanent but your cost is a lot more $10000.00 for a good structure so to cover with the same you'd need 2 caterpillars to cover the same amount of space so you're talking about the difference between $3000.00 and $10000.00 I'll admit the big ones are very nice you know much easier to work around in but whether it's worth it especially when you're starting off to put that much into a structure when you could. You know start with with something smaller that does the same thing you've got the same the same benefits of the plastic. Durable already. The plastic on these you you know to vent it you'll pull up on the on the on the edges and they've got hooks to hook them up when you're moving them around the plastic is not going to last as long ago yes so. You pull the plastic over your hoops you put your hoops and pull us to go over and then there's a rope system that goes over from each hoax on the bottom where the Caribbean are at each hoop and tightens it down so you've got your ropes tightening your plastic down. And if there's wind your plastic isn't to be shifting under a little bit and it's just a little bit more more wear on the plastic so your plastics not going to last as long I mean it depends on how much you move it and stuff. It probably is going to last $3.00 to $5.00 seasons. On our. On our big houses the plastic technically is like a 5 year plastic I mean a lot of ours has been on for probably 8 years and we've got a few that really need to be changed but. And as far as durable it ages overall they're you know they're pretty they're Derby all use got to. You know get them up in tight if your plastic is not tight and that's when you. Have an issue with the wind and all. You can roll up the sides but you just pull the sides up and there's hooks that are on the hoop and you just just hook it up like that so you know if you're if you're taking the side if you're putting the sides up every day and down every day. You know it's going to be it's going to take more time than if you had to roll up side. But if you if you didn't and or you could open the and you know in the winter if you open the ends that's all the ventilation you're going to need. Just a couple little things I wanted to mention as far as those quick benders you know they they sell you one that's 6 feet wide they'll sell you one that's 4 feet wide and then they've got one that's 3 foot wide Well here's the trick you can buy the 3 foot one and in the instruction manual which is actually you can download it off their website it will show you how to use that same bender for a $3456.00 foot wide one it's really kind of. Silly the way they do it but and actually it's better because it's a lower you know it basically comes like this for a 6 foot wide one rather than you know like this and based in The point is you want to keep your row cover as low to the ground as possible because you're trapping in that ground heat so just a tip in you know it's the kind of thing you're going to use to make your hoops and then it's going to sit there so if you can work out something and have a few people go together on it that's a good thing and then the other thing I would just mention is that you know who palace which is what we call you know a large unheated structure is kind of the ultimate goal you know the caterpillar tunnels are great they serve their purpose but eventually people are going to say you know what I'd really like just who pals it's just less less to worry about and fiddle with so and then one other thing I want to say you know there's a lot of companies if you subscribe to mothers news or whatever there's all these companies that want to sell you these little home greenhouses and they'll cost you know thousands for $5000.00 for a tiny little you know 8 by 14 or something you know if you have the space go for a commercial one you can you know you can get 30 by 50 for roughly $5000.00. And that's a lot of space for a home gardener so so don't get sucked into all these gimmicks for for the home gardeners who they think don't know any better OK so. Timing is almost everything this is just huge and I'll just tell you we learned the hard way and this is the thing that. I see over and over with people who haven't done this for a while you know they buy broccoli plants. In September and put them out in their garden the end of September and you know I hate to break the news to them but it's like you know those aren't going to do anything and now you know I'm not from the northwest so I don't know if they might but I don't think so they need to mature early on and then this is another trick that we learned the hard way. You look at the catalogs or you look at the seed packets and I mean this is really confusing and I don't know why they do it but the days to maturity for a lot of things is from transplanting not from seating so your broccoli when it says $75.00 days to maturity you've got it at another $3.00 to $4.00 weeks to grow your transplant so basically what I've figured out is anything that is normally transplanted now a good catalog Johnnie's usually says if you read their technical call him there they'll say. Days to maturity is from direct seeding or days to maturity is from transplanting but don't get caught by it because if you don't figure in those days to grow your transplant you're never going to make it in the fall so that's a little trick and then one other thing I want to just mention we had some territorial seed catalogues but they went very quick those of you who are in the Northwest territorial seed company I think is one of the main ones kind of catering to organic gardeners they are the only ones that I'm aware of that put out a special catalogue for winter growing which is really nice and it gives you a lot of a lot of helpful information in there so that's a great resource for you. OK with that introduction the key is you've got to be thinking winter in the heat of summer for us we're planting our brussel sprouts we need to we need to seed them by the 1st of July at the latest. That's actually pushing it that you know that means we've got to get a short days to maturity broccoli which you know 90 days is the short days to maturity. Sorry what are they said bras because 90 day maturity for brussel sprouts is short usually it's like 120 days or something so you know who's thinking about when are the beginning of July and so that's the mistake you fall into if you're not intentional on this you don't plant soon enough you know as soon as it starts cooling down in the fall in September it's like OK we need to plan our fall garden well sorry you've missed it for a lot of things. Except for like baby stuff so it's huge timing is huge in the fall in the spring you have 2nd chances in the fall there's no 2nd chances if you see your carrots and they don't germinate well better luck next year you know now I will say once you get into protected culture. You have a little more leeway so once you get your who pouch that you dream about for years. You can go later into the fall with your seating and you know it's adding It's basically moving you zones South Eliot Coleman I'm going to go ahead and mention this book right now Eliot Coleman pioneered winter growing I shouldn't say that because I think probably the pioneers knew more about winter growing than we did but he kind of reinvented it I guess you could say. This is really the only book out there that I'm aware of of course it's geared more for market gardeners but it's got a credible amount of information we've got some at the at Agra booth but they're going to go quick after this session so I encourage you to to make a rush to the winter harvest handbook he spent years fine tuning the system in the beauty of it is it's so simple a single layer of plastic and a single layer of floating row cover and you can grow through the winter in northern Michigan Well he's in Maine but I think northern Michigan he's actually on the coast of Maine so he's in zone 5. What is that here it's probably zones 6 or $77.00 yeah you have it good out here we visited a farm yesterday actually we took a little side trip and visited working hands farm and. They grow they grow all winter outside here you know you're fortunate for that. OK So have I emphasize that enough timing is extremely critical now unfortunately I'm afraid many of you aren't going to be able to see this well but this this chart is something I would just encourage you this is out of the winter harvest handbook it's. Incredibly informative if you study it so we have plant this is planting and harvest dates going up is number of days from planting to harvest and across the bottom is the planting dates and we have a graph for a cold house and this is the terms Eliot Coleman uses a cold house is a house with no heat and then a cool house is a house that is heated to just above freezing so the important thing that I want you to see is the shape of this curve and notice that the cool house has the same shape but not as drastic a curve so what that tells you of course you know plant growth keys in the winter are light in temperature. And so a cool house by just adding a few degrees depending on what it is outside but just adding a little bit of the heat just just keeping it above freezing shortens that day's to maturity dramatically so this is for a I don't think it says on here but I remember correctly it's for 40 days to maturity crop so here this is August 8th. If seeded on August 8th they were harvesting it on September 15th so what is that's about 40 days. But notice how steep this goes up end of August in September September is really the key in fact for planting lettuce you would just think OK if I want lettuce year round I just planted every week no that doesn't work so planting the lettuce and Elliot Coleman and his books gets into a lot more detail than we have time to but in September you're planting every 2 days to have the harvest a week apart through the winter so you just have to change your mentality you just have to understand the way this curve works so a 40 days to maturity crop seated on November 14th I can't even read that what is is is March 23 is that. So how long is that lot more than 40 To Hades. So I you know we could go on with that but we'll just leave it there you have to do a little study you have to do a little count fuel ating you've got to do your research you can't just go out there and throw some seeds in the ground so we've talked about that many winter crops need to be started in the heat of summer just a few days different since eating in late summer early fall can mean weeks difference in harvest in the winter for us in Tennessee we have figured out that we like to see that our winter carrots are last eating of carrots outdoors this is outdoors the 3rd week of September 20 maybe I guess it's more like the around sip No I'm sorry not September August 3rd week of August. You know I did some trials years ago and I felt like August 24 was about as far as I wanted to go when we seeded into the 1st of October you know those carrots going into the winter were just this big now of course if we go earlier then they're going to be real big you know most people most consumers like something a little smaller and more tender so that for us was kind of the sweet spot but you know a week a week later and they didn't mature properly OK he so some plants can be seeded through the winter now this goes back to the gentleman I don't know if he left OK there you are OK. You're asking about you know how does things germinate and stuff so I vs the outside I would not even think about seeding outside through the winter but if you have a hoop house which is going to be keeping that soil even though it may often go below freezing in there at night. Usually especially in this climate the soil under that rock cover is never going to freeze and so you can germinate a lot of your salad greens and stuff through the winter and they will just you know kind of. Creep you know you go out there every day and it's like you didn't do anything you know but they will slowly slowly come along. But others will never mature if they don't reach maturity in the fall specifically things like heading bra sukkahs you know your cabbages your broccoli. Cauliflower those kind of things you have to get them up to almost totally full maturity before the day start getting really cold I better keep a track on time here OK A The perception in the months this is a term Eliot Coleman coined in you know I guess it's from Greek mythology or something. Something we don't know about but. Anyway the point is this is what he's called the time of year when day length goes below 10 hours. And basically plant growth shuts down below 10 hours of light. Now I say basically because that's not totally true and I think people have found out more even sense Eliot wrote the winter Harvey's handbook if you have that heat. You know a minimally heated house or even if you're further south in the country of course the perception the months are much shorter further south in the country you can get some growth and that's why we encourage you with the bras that canape a super id's they keep growing you know if you've ever grown kale moles standard curly calles Del survive a cold winter but they don't keep 3 growing you know you keep harvesting off smaller and smaller leaves and pretty soon it's just this little sprout and it won't die but it's not producing greens for you whereas the nape of us will keep producing greens there's one that I would just recommend Elliott recommended it to me it's only in I hate to do this because they're going to run out of seed and then I won't get it but Abundant Life Seed Company here in Oregon grows a variety of brusque in a prescribe Western Front. I'm pretty sure I've got that all right. Bundle life or any of you familiar with that company the small seed company. That was the most winter hardy and got the most winter growth from Elliot's trials so this is Wednesday lengths Yeah I've already said all this I wanted to ask you I hope you didn't see that who knows when when the day length goes below 10 hours here. See this is part of farming and gardening you get more in tune with nature November 4th of February 6 so basically November December January your day length is below 10 hours which means anything you want to mature. You need to have to. See I think OK sorry I just wanted to check where I was. You need to have almost a majority by November 1 this is a great little resource from Johnny's little winter growing manual. And on the next slide I'll give you the where to look for it it's actually a little bit hard to find if you don't search for the right keywords but the P.D.F. You can download off the Web site so so a lot of this is talking about different winter crops which Joshua has already talked about but it gives you a little bit of additional information I'm not sure I totally agree with there are 3 tiers as far as Tier one is most reliable tier 2 2nd most reliable. But anyway I want you to look at the back page and again this this is approximate. Because every year is a little bit different depending on the weather you know obviously there's a cool falls and warm falls and rainy you know if if you have a lot of rainy weather it could back up your your days to maturity a little bit. Notice the back chart it's planting dates Well there's actually 2 charts planting dates for winter harvest and planting dates for overwintering Spring Harvest so you know you can grow stuff to be eating on in the winter but then you also need to be thinking about growing stuff that's not going to mature in the winter but it's going to mature in the early spring before stuff that would be planted in the early spring does that make sense so we're still experimenting with some of this you know we've been never been able to have carrots in the spring before the 1st of May and that's even or maybe end of April but that's seeded in a hoop house like in January so this year I seeded beginning our 1st week of November and those carrots you know are about this big At least I hope they are. They were when I left. And and I'm hoping to have them by the beginning of April because that's when our C.S.A. starts and you know people would like carrots and every box carrots are big crop so now just to complicate this a little more a lot of your biennials if they get to mid to or in the fall. Rather than like a carrot rather than finishing maturing in the spring they're going to just go to seed. The other thing we're Asian greens they will win the day start lengthening for us it's usually in February they'll just bolt they'll go to seed and so it's kind of frustrating when you're you know they anyway it is what it is so you just have to understand there's some of these nuances you've got to figure out now just understand you know we usually think of bolting as a bad thing because lettuce when it bolts it gets better but your bra cicadas Asian greens do not get bitter so you can take the seed you know the sprouts and they're incredible I think the Italians column Rypien and it's wonderful stuff anyway this chart so I've told you your last a 10 hour day if you're not from Portland area you can go online you know sunset sunrise calendars and figure out when is your 10 hour your perception the months and you just can't count back from there so I did this for you we really don't have time you can do that on your own. And in Figure out when you should be seating stuff but take notes because you might find that you know this they did this in main course. Yeah you might find it differs a little bit but it's a good starting point. So to close I'll just give you already talked about the top to one other thing that I would point you to and it will kind of make your head spin when you 1st see it because it did for me but Alan Seiler and I think he had some help from maybe a few others has come up with quite a. Exhaustive chart that is on our website the admin as AG website you go to pass conferences click on 2800 archives and then Siler family succession planting graph and basically if you take time to really sit in focus on it you can figure it out it's it's for different zones so you've got to find your zone and then it will tell you depending on the time of year how many weeks you need to add to the days to maturity for your different crops. So obviously you know starting in January you're adding quite a number of weeks but then when you get down to April that's when the packet thinks you're going to be planting those seeds so that's when the days the maturity is and then as you start getting later into the fall you need to again start adding more and more weeks but it's a good place to start. So with that I'm going to wrap it up thank you for your time this media was brought to you by audio post a website dedicated to spreading God's word through free sermon audio and much more if you would like to know more about audio version or you would like to listen to more sermons Please Visit W W W dot audio person dot org.

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