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Logo of AdAgrA 2019: True Success

Introduction to Market Gardening - Part 1

John Dysinger Pamela Dysinger

Conference

Recorded

  • January 16, 2019
    8:15 AM
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Dear Heavenly Father we're so saying full for another day of life we're thankful that it's not raining we're saying full that each person is here from literally all over the country and even other parts of the world Lord we know that you are working we know that you are raising a movement of people who are wanting to get back to your original plan back to the garden plan and I just pray that today we can encourage and inspire we can empower or that you can do all those things through us and that. There will be more people in the garden because of this time that we spend here today these things we pray in Jesus name Amen and. So I feel like I have the best part of the seminar and that is why why should we do market gardening. So I've been titled What have you left your pot that's not something that the largest really hit as I was thinking about this presentation I was reading in the book of John and something there really struck a chord to me like this fits about agriculture not just agriculture could be other things too so why it's a blessing to be a market gardener and I'm going to share 6 things with you this morning I've reduced it from another presentation I did 12 so this is what I think are the most important but certainly not all so I'm taking my thoughts from John sorry chapter 428 the woman at the well she comes to the well and she meets Jesus and after they talk. The Bible says the woman then left her waterpot and I I just it just kind of hit me like have you left your water pot and what does that really mean have you left her waterpot and why did she leave her waterpot So to me as I thought about it the water pot represents just what she was planning to do that day you know so to me the leaving the water park represented OK what was what was on her agenda for that day what was she supposed to be doing what were her responsibilities maybe not just for that day but maybe for her whole for her whole life. She now had a burden on her heart let me back up and say that for our family I consider we left our waterpot when my husband and I left the academic world of teaching and started on a journey to know god's will and that was it was quite a process and but we left it because we had had an encounter with Christ that had given us such a yearning in our hearts for more and we knew that the life that we were currently living was not going to reach that goal and so we left that water Pod and we said Lord we're yours what would you have us to do that we might know you we might raise our children to know you. If you stay here for the marketing class I'll introduce you to our whole family through a picture we're blessed to have 3 of our boys here and 2 of them with their wives. But we have others that aren't here so the woman at the well she now had a burden on her heart a job to do and people to tell that's that's exciting. So she had a testimony to share you know I don't know how much we had a testimony to share before we left or waterpot But I'll tell you our testimony has increased 10 fold since we left our waterpot So then the message that she said was come and see come and see what he's done for me and so for us our Come and see has definitely been our farm it has given it has been the vehicle for us to tell our customers come and see what the Lord has done for us look at these amazing strawberries or look at these amazing vegetables that God spared when everyone else is crop might have been wiped out and the Lord just put his hand right over ours to give us a testimony to say look what God has done you know at farmers' markets when our customers come by your produce tastes the best you know what we can say Praise the lord these are prayed over vegetables you know we grow the same batch tipples that everybody else does the same many of them the same varieties but we can say because of the farm come in see come and see so 66 reasons that we think that. Market gardening farming is a wonderful thing for families. It's the perfect way to live in the country and yet work the cities you know we hear so much about when we've got to work the cities we've got to work the cities but listen to this quote from a letter that Mrs White wrote the cities are to be worked from outposts said the messenger of God sounds pretty clear doesn't it it's not even they can be they they are to be worked from out post said the messenger of God Shall not the cities be warned Yes not by God's people living in them but by their visiting them to warn them of what is coming upon the earth so we're in there are close this big city as Nashville we are there in the summertime twice a week that's a cross for us to bear to have to go to twice a week but you know what that's where the people are and that's where our ministry is the 2nd reason is because it is a very wholesome environment and I will say this 20 years ago when we started farming it was a lot more wholesome than it is now but now right in your pocket you have every every sin that can be seen in the city you have brought it now to the country setting so it takes more effort but still the message is clear I urge our people to make it their life's work to seek for spirituality now how many of us really can say that is our goal we are seeking for spirituality. Christ is at the door this is why I say to our people do not consider it a privation when you are called to leave the cities and move out into the country places here there are await rich blessings for those who will grasp them. By be holding the scenes of nature the works of the Creator by studying God's handiwork imperceptibly you will be changed into the same image what you promise I tell you that's encouraging because I'll tell you why it's encouraging because at times I felt like our life was bringing out the worst the worst stuff in my character and didn't even know it was there you know you go through hard times you just think. This is bringing out the worst in me but God's promises are sure and he is working so 1st we want to reach the cities from the Country 2nd it's a wholesome environment 3rd who hardship and privation are a safeguard hole how many of us would like to say I just love hardship and privation it's so. I sometimes tell myself that. Even now so listen to this from desire of ages the parents of Jesus were poor and dependent upon their daily toil he was for a mill year with poverty self-denial and privation this experience was a safeguard to him in his in in his industrious life there were no i don't moan moments to invite temptation no aimless hours open opened the way for corrupting associations so far as possible he closed the door to temptation you know that was our aim with our children I'll be honest we aimed to keep them so busy that they didn't have idle time and when they did have idle time it was. It was used in the out of doors it was I mean it was a hard I was hard pressed to keep my boys inside for any purposes. I mean well of course they will they would ditch school at any opportunity that needs a small. So there was a lot of hard work what a blessing what a blessing especially for young men I think that's why the Lord gave us 4 boys because we were on the farm and that's what boys need it closed the door did it did it shut the door and make it impossible for temptation no you can't in this world parents it's really impossible to make it so that there's no temptation but at least we were together and we did what we could to give a little hardship in privation although I always I mean I felt like the Lord gave it to us and I said you must know we need it so hard ship and privation added to country living and added to the wholesome environment OK The 4th one it builds faith and trust never the last one the son of man cometh shall he find faith on the earth you know. When we left teaching I will I will say that it was one of our main goals was that we recognised that our faith was was not really strong like we wanted it to be our trust wasn't strong and I it's an embarrassment to say that it's taken years I mean 10 years into it I remember having such a meltdown and saying I do not trust you Lord after all you've done for us I mean anybody who can't relate to the children of Israel just has never been there because. I have no judgment on them I've been there and you just think i've never forget what you've done for us Lord and then something hard cams and and you forget but with agriculture and with farming let me tell you every new crop is an opportunity for face every new crop is an opportunity for trust every crop failure you know you plant and you lose half of it you just planted again you don't wait around you don't wallow you don't you just keep going and you say Lord you know what we need you know what we need and we trust number 5 spiritual lessons a bound and this is so true. Sometimes John and I have said when we've heard people talking about still the the. Faith versus works you know how does that work righteousness by faith versus versus were. The balance we say just get in the garden it's crystal clear you know if you don't do your part you will never get a crop and we have learned that the hard way. So it's so easy to see I can you know I can remember times with our boys and our daughter too when they were doing different things like I remember one in particular and fortunately I don't really remember who it was but somebody was going to start to made as and they were going to sell to Maida transplants in the spring and they had them in a little at that time we we didn't have a good way to start our plants in the spring but we had these tiny little. I don't know what you call them they're like little incubators that's a little cold for plants and they were in tiny little blocks that we were starting and then they would take them from there and transplant them well the thing was you have to take the lid off of that every day or the plants inside are going to get too hot even we were starting them early February probably Well the lid was not taken off and it was forgotten and you know all those little baby plants died because when your fire and you forget so you pay the cost and it's the same spiritually that's why the Bible so full of remember remember remember so God's love is written upon every opening but upon every Speier springing grass. Our challenge is we don't always think about it you know but when we discipline our minds to think about it. There are so many lessons you know just even here while you're here I want to encourage you to go outside and say look hard you know what I've been inside all day listening to seminars I need to just give me something from you and it's amazing the things that he'll show you from nature test him try him and see if it's not true. Through the things of nature and the deepest through the things of nature and the deepest and tenderest earthly ties that human hearts can can know he has sought to reveal Himself to us so isn't that sweet through nature and through the deepest ties so those are all I think of personal reasons why the market gardening has been such a blessing to our family and why I think God's people really should be doing more but the next one is the part where you you reach out and this is to me the most exciting because as the Lord feeds you you always have something to give the friendship of evangelism the world needs today what it needed in 1800 years ago a revelation of Christ now mind you that where those dots are what's between these 2 sections is our theme for this year one encourage you to read it from the book it fits right in here so this is the part afterwards there is a need of coming close to the people by personal effort if less time were given to sermonizing and more time were spent in personal ministry greater results would be seen now I'm not here to tell you of all of the results that we have seen. But I believe by faith that in the Kingdom we're going to see the results because we have such close deep and personal ties with our customers and I wish I could tell you more about them all of our customers which usually is around $85.00 we might have 2 advantages one is Grandma and Grandpa. The other is you know I mean it's all just wide open lots of Christians because we're in the Bible Belt but lots of people who are very in the New Age sector but who share so many things in common and what you can do through friendship of evangelism is wonderful These are some of my suite I just call them my girlies I have watched these little girls grow up from the time. While they have 3 little girls and when I 1st when they 1st joined our C.S.A. she was pregnant with her 2nd so you know when I see these girls when I have not seen them they just run and hug me and it's just a bond that is so sweet and I will talk more about that when I'm doing the marketing section on C S A's because that that is really where it's at as far as if you Angela's them and reaching people's heart and meeting them where they are so that's just a little bit of the why why we should do or our agriculture as a lifestyle and as a ministry so as we go through the rest of the day I don't want you to get too. Too caught up in the numbers and the physical side of it yes I mean that's that's a reality but the greater reality is this is a tremendous way to not only. Do outreach but to to work with the Lord on the development of our own characters I would encourage those who are over here the closer you can come together the easier it's going to be for me to see you and connect here so just press together that's what we're counseled to do right. You know there's so much more Pam could have said about. You know I'll just mention something for the men and for the women. You know women. How. Would you not like your husband to be in the most pure environment there is in this world. I think all of you know the challenges and temptations out there in this world and as my as Pam said the garden is not free from temptation Eve fell in the garden so it's not free from temptation but it's the most. I mean you're surrounded by the things God me you're not surrounded by the things of man and so as far as men go I just I can't encourage you enough it's just not only is it a pure environment but it makes you feel like a man. You know if you sit at a computer all day and come home and and you know you're mentally tired but you're not physically tired and then it's hard to go to sleep in whatever you know whereas if you work outside all day man when you come come in you sleep like a log I mean you and you feel like I accomplished something you know you can look out on your little dominion and you can see this is what I accomplished it's it's amazing so anyway I could go on a long time on that. But let's now look at the market gardening model what what are we talking about here and I'm trying to use this term market gardening as compared to farming because if I tell people I'm a farmer you know they're thinking big tractors and combine than thousands of acres No I'm a market gardener so what is a market garden Well I'm going to say in that you know there's this there's no definition of this but I'm going to say that you're cultivating less than 2 and a half acres because I don't know of any market gardeners who can cultivate more than that and do it well most of the models all be sharing with you today are people who are doing an acre and a half or less you don't need a lot of land it's characterized by intensive beds and multiple crops per bed per year I mean this is where the planning comes in you know you're putting crops in and when they come out boom you have another crop ready to go in there you've got your transplants ready to go. It's not your plant corn and then leave the corn stalks up till the next spring and plow him under kind of thing it's very intensive it takes advantage of season extension and we're going to talk about that. Actually we have another session on Friday I think it is on growing through the winter but very very simple techniques that you can use to grow year round here anywhere in the country. You know it seems like no matter where I go people say well we can't do that here yes you can I know you can because there are people doing it there's people doing it up in British Columbia northern Idaho growing year round usually very diverse this is something we learned the hard way way back when we started you know we started as a strawberry farm animals lost well lost more than our shirts. So by diversifying you know every year you're going to have successes and failures depending on the weather and the bugs the insects and so on but the more diversity you have so you lose a crop Well you know that's too bad but you've got plenty of others that are going to make up for it. Now I do want to just emphasize this is not I'm not trying to say everybody should go into market gardening there's no one size fits all if you have access to lots of land if you inherited a 1000 acres and all the equipment you know go for it that's great I'm not going to try to downplay that. But what I do want to help you to see is you don't need all that you can you can make a living on an acre or less and there's plenty of people doing it not only do I have a personal passion you know everybody has their own personality I like I like to feel like I'm in control you know and we at one time we were up to doing about 7 acres of growing and I did not feel in control you know you can't keep 7 acres weed free it's very hard to keep an acre weed free but it's it's possible. And so I really have the strong feeling that your market garden your garden your farm should be a place that people love to be a place that brings peace and if you've ever been in and out of control gardens you know it's not a place you want to be it's like oh I don't want to go out there I'll do better next year let's plow it under till it is. The beauty of a market garden is you can you can be in control. And you can keep it like the Garden of Eden a place where people come and say wow this is amazing I want to do this well we found most people really don't want to do when they know the costs of doing it. But at least it gives them a desire for something more so I think that if fits very nicely with it and my wife already shared some of these things you know families working together the beauty of of this is that any age you know from 90 to 2 can have a job on the market in the market garden. You know the little ones can can carry tools for you you know they can set the plants out mark out the bed and they set them out whereas on a big farm you become dependent on outside labor and you hope you lose the whole idea of families working together and being together and it's just amazing how much bonding there is when you're up against a challenge you know there's a storm coming in and you've got to get something harvested before the storm hit and you get the family together and you say guys we got to do this and we got to do it quick let's go for it and then you accomplish it and there's this incredible feeling of wow we did it you know together yeah so we talked about those things so here's here's some of the advantages this is our little bit of heaven here or part of it a drone shot. We actually live in that barn there at the bottom and. Next to it is our starter house our greenhouse actually you can see we've got all or strawberries being propagated on the gravel pad next to the greenhouse then we have 4 movable tunnels those those 3 tunnels right there are movable tunnels 3 pads for each one and then we have some so we've got 12 of these pads out in the field and then what you're not seeing is we actually have 3 more large hoop houses beyond those fields there so we're growing right now on about 2 acres we'd like to we'd like to you know like I said we keep shrinking and we'd like to shrink a little more if we could but the point is the less you do the better you can do it so this idea this mentality of well we made this much this year so we need to plant twice as much next year is a faulty mentality you've got to look at it well if we did less we could do it better I mean I can guarantee you if you plant a 1000 tomato plants you won't make that much more than if you planted 200 in a hoop house and took care of them properly that's that's actually a spiritual lesson and you know the quote from Mrs White where she says if she was speaking to a farmer. Who was working too much was not focused on the kingdom and she said Don't you know that 20 acres with the blessing of God could produce as much as 100 so we figure one acre should produce as much as 5 right with the blessing of God So it is a spiritual principle less lending needed less water needed I think that's a bigger issue out here I was talking to somebody yesterday who said they have one gallon per minute I said I had to be honest and say you know I'm sure you should think about market gardening. Because I'm going to recommend later on that I feel like 10 gallons per minute is probably minimal. But I don't want to discourage you if you feel God Calling you to it and you don't have 10 gallons per minute you know you can use drip irrigation a lot of things but anyway the point is if you're you know you don't need big center pivot systems like I see many places you know those cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. You don't need that much water when you're growing and so small a space less equipment needed you don't need it you don't even need a tractor. Some of the best market gardeners out there don't have tractors less stressed need it it's not so overwhelming you know again you feel you know I should have a point here but our window our bedroom window is on the side of the barn looking out towards those fields and I love to get up in the morning and look out the window at my dominion. It's so nice when everything's under control and I'm not going to tell you that we have no we you know we're we're still it's we're still in the process of character development but that's our goal you know and to be able to look out at that and have peace is a wonderful feeling it's it's. It's a stress reliever more people can make a living off the land to me this this is a big passion of mine you know I hear so many people saying oh I'd love to do it you know I would love to move out of the city but you know I just can't afford a piece of property and I don't have the resources to get into farming. Well what if you only need to buy an acre and a half most people can come up with the money to buy an acre and a half. So you know Mrs White talks about the 00s who are living in the cities who if they had a piece of land could could make a living that's that's what we want to inspire you with so now let's look at some keys to success intensive production again we already talked about a little bit this is your you know. The best market gardener that I know of out there right now or at least the one that I'm trying to learn from is Conor Crick more and never sink farm he's up in New York state his beds are never empty for more than a few hours. As soon as a crop comes out within the day there's a new crop in there either direct seeded or transplanted So that's kind of the gold standard you you can't afford to leave empty soil. So it's very intensive tight spacing beds rather than rows you understand the benefits of beds I don't want to to go into things that I don't need to but beds produce a lot more per acre per 1000 square feet then just rows rows you know people started using rows when when they started mechanizing agriculture with tractors and so on but if you're not using tractors forget the rows do beds and I thinks a little later on we visit the the market gardening world has kind of standardized on a 30 inch wide bed those of you from outside the US That's about 7075 centimeters. And that was really Elliot Coleman who standardized that I mean not that he was trying to but he just started out with that and so now there's a lot of equipment built for that and everything high value crops Joshua is going to share with you. In the next hour about high value crops keys to success highly fertile soil this is huge you know because you are you are working the soil over time it's really to be totally honest you're you're creating a very unnatural system you know you don't have this high intensity. Planting in nature and so you're having to supplement natural fertility by adding you know just recognize the fact you're taking a lot off this soil it's coming from somewhere if you're not putting it in the soil. It's not going to be in your plants and your fertility is going to go downhill so you know there's a whole 6 hour sessions today on soil fertility we can't get into that but I just highly recommend getting your soil tested amend as recommended grow cover crops if you're not if you don't have winter crops on it you need to have a cover crop on it don't just leave your soil bare that's not doing anything make compost season extension again we've talked about that but just quickly row covers floating row covers Does everybody know about floating row covers I tell people floating row cover is your dryer sheet you know that you put in the dryer just big and unscented. OK so that's what floating row cover is now there's different weights you know the light weight is very much like a dryer sheet the heavy weight is more like a diaper wipe so the the heavier floating row cover is just large sheets of diaper white without the moisture OK. So that's what row cover is and it's amazing what that very thin piece of fabric does to temper the climate so that's kind of your 1st level of season extension then you can do low tunnels there's different kinds of little wire hoops that you support the floating row cover on or you can use plastic over those low tunnels and so it's very simple Now I will say that with those low tunnels it's very labor intensive because there's a lot of moving sandbags you've got to sandbag it down otherwise the wind's going to blow it off. But it can be done we have harvested marketable lettuce out of a low tunnel. With with one layer of floating row cover in a layer of plastic when we had minus 0 degrees Fahrenheit temperatures marketable lettuce minus 0 it got into the negative digits we don't normally get that but it does happen occasionally hoop houses is the next step after low tunnels. And I define a hoop house as basically an unheated greenhouse usually with just one layer of plastic a greenhouse if you've got heat in it you want air inflation between 2 layers of plastic and then transplants most people don't think about transplant as season extension but it really is it's a huge way to extend your season by starting things inside and putting them out. OK more keys to success efficient see. This is huge using specialized tools and we're going to talk a lot about that different tools you can use. This is huge and this is something we've been working on recently for standardizing all our beds you saw in that overhead shot we've kind of got this field that is oh I forget the mathematical term not a rectangle but a rectangle trap a story parallelogram OK so that's what we have and for years we just had it divided into 3 sections and it was this funny shape and so our row cover had to go from this cornered to this corner you know what I'm saying and it made things very awkward and so on the last few years and I give the credit to J M 40 A. The market gardener from Canada we went to a seminar of his I'd already read his book and everything but my wife went with me and it's good to have a wife you want to wife. To help you with this but she said Why don't why are we standardizing all our beds stars well because of this and this you know our field is just because of the lay of the land this is what we've got to do but as I started thinking about it more you know well maybe we should you know we're going to lose some space at the top and bottom but we've got plenty of land we're not short on land. It's been huge now and we've continued fine tuning it and now everything is. 30 by you know like all our row cover and everything is 30 by 50 our plots in the field are 30 by a 100 so we just have to use to silence tarps or whatever all or hoop houses are 30 feet wide 50 feet long or 100 feet long so again you know irrigation Sila just tar road cover all these things are standardized you know figuring out how many plants you need per bad it's all there and it's simple to just say OK we're doing 2 beds of that we need this many plants so I can't overemphasize this enough standardization of space and materials is huge because you know before we have this big pile of row cover if anybody has any tips on how to store row cover I'd love to know them. We've tried all kinds of things but you end up with this huge pile of row cover it's like OK now we need a piece this big and you're pulling through it no that's not it you know it's it's a huge waste of time but now and we're still kind of in transition but now they're all going to be the same size huge work smarter not harder so these are more keys direct sales eliminate the middle man you've you've all probably heard the the. Statistics that you know the average farmer in America only earns pennies on the dollar of his produce it's ridiculous you know and of course with commodity crops the farmer has no say in what he charges for his stuff that's craziness. I want to be able to say this is how much I need for it you know you want it that's how much it costs if you can afford it I'll teach you how to grow yourself that's our philosophy we charge premium prices at the farmer's market. We couldn't afford to buy our own produce that's why we grow it ourselves. But if you don't want to grow it yourself this is what you have to pay for quality produce if you can afford it will will help you grow to yourself and that's even better farmer's market that's a great place to start and again by wife is going to talk more about all these things everybody know about C.S.A. as. Just very quickly C.S.A. is is kind of a subscription model families sign up subscribe to your farm for the season and then they get a box of produce either every week or every other week and there's we really like that model high end restaurants are great sometimes we have had the best luck with the restaurant because they tend to be I don't know there's a lot of turnover and they say they want it and then you grow it and then it's like an animal that's not in you know kind of whatever Martha Stewart or whoever says is the thing to grow that's what you know everybody all the chefs want to do so it works for a lot of people in fact we have friends in our area that only grow for one restaurant. And that restaurant has actually invested in their far bought hoop houses and stuff for them so if you can build that kind of relationship with a restaurant it can be very profitable very good but we haven't had that experience yet so I just made this note this is definitely changing as more and more people get into market gardening there's been a huge influx in the last 5 years of people getting into market gardening My only regret is that Adventists haven't been a ha been a part of that huge influx. But there are thousands and thousands of small farms all over the country now. And so because of that because farmers markets there is you know you may not be able to get into a local farmer's market they only take so many farmers and they may be full you may be on a waiting list so people are branching out and doing more wholesale and that in many ways is easier. Because you know you're not having to sit at farmer's market for hours and so on but the downside to it is that you don't have the same customer contact and that's really important to us so that's the main reason we haven't gone there OK I think this is the last key to success planning you know in this is what we'll talk about the last session no how much money you need to make. Do you do you know what your minimal needs are you know if you're thinking of this as a way of getting rich I would. Tell you to go to another class. Because I'm not going to show you how to get rich but. You can sustain yourself we're living proof of that we've been market gardening for 20 years now and we're still here so obviously once you know how much you need to make then you can figure out how much you need to plant and then you got to figure out when it needs to be planted and then you need to have a succession of planting so you have a continuous harvest and that is where your head starts hurting as you start trying to think about you know this this. Stereotype of the dumb farmer. Needs to disappear because market gardening is one of the most demanding and mentally challenging and physically challenging things that I think you can do you have so many things that you're thinking about it's amazing. Because you're not just thinking about what needs to be done today but you've got to be thinking about the fact that if I'm not planting today I'm not going to have anything to harvest 2 months from now and so you're always having to think out there and thinking about next year and your crop rotations and on and on and on it's it's a lot to surround and so we're not we're not thinking we can make you market gardener just today but we want to just expose you to it so I love this quote always tend the smallest amount of land possible but tend it exceptionally well. You know there's been this mentality in the US for many years get big or get out that was what the secretary of Agriculture said some years back. And this idea that you need to get bigger and bigger in order to be profitable Well I would like to turn that on its head and say smaller can be more profitable Do you know any big farmers that are making $100000.00 or more per acre you're not going to do it but I know many small market gardeners who are making $100000.00 or more per acre you need to think about this at least one full time worker per half acre that's a kind of minimum so don't think that you're going to start. After hours keep your your regular job and do an acre and a half market garden it's not it's not possible half acre per full time worker that's kind of my my assessment I mean I've heard other people say that too but in again we're talking we're not talking about tractor farming we're talking about intensive market gardening using mostly hand tools income potential $100000.00 plus per acre I would strongly encourage you that if you're not within an hour's drive of a major metropolitan area then you need to kind of I'm not saying you shouldn't do it but you need to kind of rethink it because the big cities are where the market is your little small towns people aren't going to want to pay which you need to get for your produce. Course you know cost of living can be less the further out you go and there are ways to get around it again if you feel God Calling you to it and you don't live within an hour of a major metropolitan area don't let me discourage you but you may have to be more creative and do. More shelf stable crop storage crops like garlic or something like that garlic is a pretty good money maker it can be a. Good water source we talked a little bit about that you got to think about your sun exposure you know do you have a lot of trees around what kind of slope is south facing in the northern hemisphere. All these things are important good soil Well the good news here is for an acre or acre and a half you can make good soil you're basically making the ideal is you're making potting mix out of your whole garden and you can do that on that small scale. Really amend your soil so it's just beautiful. Needs to be fairly level and then just I think this is the last slide 30 inch way it wide beds 100 feet long that's kind of such a standard that John Martin 40 A J M 40 A The market gardener kind of set out. It doesn't have to be a 100 feet long but it's really nice if it's something that can be easily easy easily divisible. In Because you know when you get your soil recommendations it's going to be. Precise 1000 square feet or per acre and you know it's really nice when you can just do stuff in your head have got a 100 bed I've got 3 rows 12 inches apart so I need 300 plants per bed right. Whereas if your beds are 47 feet long it starts getting hard to do the math in your head or else you get really good at math when where other pathways basically keep your pathways as narrow as possible that's wasted space you're going to have to cultivate it keep them as narrow as possible Eliot Coleman does 12 inch wide jam $4818.00 inches wide right now we have 8 beds per block 8 beds fit in a 30 inch Why are 30 foot wide Pad So whether it's a hoop house or outside they're all a Pads per block either 50 feet or 100 feet long OK that's it so I'll take a couple questions and then we're going to take a break I think you are 1st and then OK What it what is major population I would say 100000 but that's a bit of a random number. 100000 or more you know national greater national I think is a 1000000. How high as in raised beds they they really aren't raised beds they're what Eliot Coleman calls sunken pathways. Because you're walking on the pathways year they get compacted you're your beds you're using a broad fork on and so they're loose so you know we have use J.M. model of raising them with a rotary plough raising them up but in less you have real issues with water logging. I don't think it's worth the extra effort unless you've got rock 6 inches down that you're dealing with then you need to raise it this media was brought to you by audio post a website dedicated to spreading God's word through free sermon audio and much more if you would like to know more about audio or if you would like to listen to more sermons Please Visit W W W dot audio for top work.

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