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Plant Pathology - Part 2

Michael Trevizo

Presenter

Farmer, Agricultural Reformer, Production Manager at Five College Farms, & Soil Scientist with a focus on Soil Science and Agronomy; Education: Bacherlor of Science in Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State University.

Recorded

  • January 15, 2019
    8:00 AM
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So you have to with all the different diseases educate yourself in the disease cycle of the different diseases that you deal with so if you're somebody that has an orchard or whether you keep an orchard for you know as a hobby or you're actually farming apple scab is something that you really have to deal with so you saw in this video for one they start off in the spring and they show you a spore that's on a leaf that has died from the previous year that's on the ground so there's your initial knock them now once the rain comes and that takes off that put spores into the air once the spores get in the air of course they start to attack Muley and then those newly continue to produce more spores which continue go on and go on until the whole orchard has been contaminated assuming the you know the host is susceptible to it. And then of course you know at the end of the season develops more per the cm's on the leaves the leaves fall off and go to the ground and it sits there until next year so by understanding this disease cycle which is actually. This was actually late I should have put that one in here this is late blight and this is the disease cycle for late blight now OK late blood is a very different disease an apple scab but the important thing is that when you understand the life cycle of the diseases you can understand how you can come in and interrupt those life cycles right so remember in the beginning I told you that we were to become intelligent and disease it's cause it's prevention and it's cured so understanding a lifecycle is understanding diseases and what they're looking for so if you can understand the cause if you ascertain this causes drop $26.00 says then you can somehow come in and interrupt it and this yes that's apple scab right there so there's a part of the C I'm there this is referred to this big cycle right here is a cycle that the video 1st talked about and then I start talking about the Canadian fours which are right here this is the summer cycle a sexual summer cycle the nice thing about the a sexual summer cycle is that there are exactly genetic clones what is what's important about that versus a sexual part of the cycle and a sexual productive cycle its exact D.N.A. there are clones in other words there's no more new information so if you have a genetic resistance to the apple scab so you've got a variety that has it or whatever. You don't have to worry about a new pathogen a new race coming out with somehow has developed. The capacity to overcome whatever genetic resistant your variety has. When you have sexual reproduction that's me Iosa stats new information you know that's creating new species or new varieties I'm sorry of the species so if I were to take everybody in this room as an example and everybody comes from various different backgrounds and cultures and races and nations and tongues and people etc As we're supposed to be as Adventist and we just decide we're going to bring within ourselves and we keep bridging within ourselves and we go down 78910 generations you're end up developing. Particular type another word that that population is going to exist is going to be a mixture of everybody genetics in this room so what everybody is those genes are all going to mix up and what you end up with completely different people now let's just say for an example we're going to do this for this experiment I'm going to kill everybody in this room with a green sweater so this young man everybody else is going to die now the rest of us are going to breed and then 2 or 3 of them are born with a green sweater so we kill those and every generation we keep wiping it out after a while nobody's going to wear green sweaters and more right. After a day you know a little more Delage of a plant the disease is not that intelligent So what happens is that you're selecting that's what's referred to as the left being a particular variety so we decide that you know one that's why they call it eugenics or you know when we go try to wipe out a race like you know Adolf Hitler did or or Stalin or over in Uganda they tried it as well when you decide you're going to you're going to take this group of living organisms and you're going to exterminate them and you only want this other group to survive that's essentially genetics you're playing God you're saying I want this to be alive I want that to die so when it comes to this life cycles of diseases and develop and overcoming the genetic resistance that many plans have been bred to have especially with STEM rust. But Nanna's or another one of these are the wheat. Citrus what's another one 0 I know there's another one I can't think of the other ones but anyhow those 3 are 3 world very important world food crops. The have an uncertain future in other words they were bred to have genetic resistance was bred to have genetic resistance against them rust Well it's overcome that genetic resistance through Uganda 99 which is the new stuff that came out in the band in 1909 which was called the Uganda $99.00 and it's spread throughout Africa and it's expected to spread throughout Europe and Asia and the Americas alternately affecting everybody's ability to grow wheat so and we have no genetics to overcome that. So Cavendish the mish Michael banana was the 1st banana that came out in the 20th century very popular they got hit by Fuse area Moxy sperm a form of these are and well they came out with genetic resistance that came out of the Mitch McConnell variety which is a banana that we all eat now we come to accept a yellow one that you find everywhere Well now we have tropical race for it only has genetic resistance against one and 2 and partial genetic resistance against 3. So now 4 has come out and came out in Indonesia we have no bananas to replace We have no genetic information every single one of those banana trees is an identical clone everywhere in the Globe they have the same exact D.N.A. so it only takes one pathogen that can overcome the genetic resistance to wipe out the in all of the planet's bananas so it's already here to Indonesia and I think it just recently was identified in Africa and we're expecting it to end up in Latin America at which point right now as rich Americans with respect to the rest of the world. We can still buy then because whatever is grown comes to the U.S. but in other parts of the world bananas are not as readily available anymore and that's going to continue to be a problem with citrus we've got to deal with citrus and we have no genetic resistance against such a skunk so. We've lost a lot of orchards and for. We're losing orchards in Texas and it's expected to hit California we lost a lot of orchards in Mexico tons of orchards in Mexico of citrus have gone due to citrus canker which initially came out through the Mexican key line so we have no genetic resistance against that again we're told we are to be intelligent in disease its cause its prevention and its cure and there's more to overcoming disease than just simply genetics so 50 percent of this room is susceptible to coming down with cancer because you happen to have the diseases that are going to make you sick with cancer. I would hope that you would understand that your genetics only loads the gun your lifestyle choices is what pulls the trigger so the genetics is what you put in the ground the seeds you put in the ground the crops you see the plant how you decide to manage that soil amend that soil work with those crops the environment the moisture the nutrition etc etc That's what's going to pull the trigger for disease that's what I hope to teach you today so I'll go back there's a lot of very interesting things in the world of that are culture I'm not going to talk about them today but. Alright so I talked about overwintering how as a new infection cycle initiated we said that that was from the leaf litter right so you know if you want to minimize if you have apple orchards and you want to minimize apple scab when the most important things you need to do is mowed down that leaf litter either all it out of there or mowed down until it down and get it off the surface of the soil. That gets rid of those spores when spring comes you don't have to worry about it. Are for foreign bisexual or a sexual processes so predominantly they're formed through. A sexual reproduction which is your polycyclic like summer cycle but you do end up with some sexual reproduction you genetics towards the end of the season so again you should really really wipe out those leads in the summertime I'm sorry in the fall which for type is most important economically it's definitely going to be the Canadian for the reproductive cycle in the summertime reproduces rapidly and completely inoculate the entire crop now going into late life I want to go into actually talking about. Funguses. A large portion of what I have to say is fungus because the majority of the diseases that you deal with as a farmer as anybody producing a crop is going to be fungal related. Excluding all your past insects except it's going to be almost entirely fungus that fungus is is wide and there are so many fungal diseases out there however Almighty is not technically technically considered a fungus because it's not actually under the same tree now I don't believe that the world evolved I don't know what you believe but I don't believe that the world evolved I believe that we're doing the opposite thing of what science thinks we're going to find thinks we're creating the super human race I believe that we are degenerating and we're going down into the pit so I very much opposite to what science teaches However what they have decided to do is make what they call phylogenetic trees and trees alive and they try to tell you know well let's start off with this little protein or whatever and then Bowman went off that everything that exists but. So unfortunately. Not just we as Adventists but we as Christians have not really embraced the science world and the atheist and. Other folks that don't really respect God have come in and they have overtaken the science and they have decided how they're going to call things how they're going to name things how they're going to classify things so when we start to talk about science unfortunately all this evolution or nonsense comes into it it's very very difficult to teach science from a godly perspective simply because they set everything up under a theory of evolution so what that does is that it simply tells us that oh my seeds are not in the same. Clade and are going to stand that word in other words they they believe that all my seeds of all from a different branch and that the other 2 fungus them all from a different branch in other words they're not related is what they're saying. What that means is that all my seeds are different in the sense that they. Anyway they evolved from. Oh I don't believe that they have all however they have different walls or are made out of instead of. That Anyway the cell walls are made out of different organisms different structures that require different metabolites to break down so when you're looking to fight you know my seat fungus 1st off my seeds are are also known as water moves and the reason why they're called water mold is because they're. They look just like tadpoles but microscopic and essentially they have the jealous they swim around the way that they get around is by moving this tail and moving through the moisture and getting to where they want to be where they believe the environment is ideal for germinating it's boring so they fall under a completely different category predominately water modes so when we're dealing with all my sea funguses you're almost certain that your problem is too much water. No matter what it is too much water. That could be something like. The. Pythian is another on my seat. With the other one. White Molder also my seat downy mildew isn't on my seat so if you get hit with the mildew on your leaf is a downy mildew or is a powdery mildew Well downy mildew is in OH MY see powdery mildew and ask them I see so there are different funguses they require different life different environments in order to thrive therefore you know that would downy mildew you can if that's what you really have then your your leaves are to weigh whether it's because it's been very rainy and there's nothing you can do about it or you're using sprinkler geisha as many people do in the West Coast and western part of the United States if you're using a sprinkler or a Geisha and and your sprinkling too much water your 1st sign that you're putting too much water is your fungus is take off so there could be late blight which is in my seat that could be down to mildew which is also in my seat fungus. So you know right then and there water needs to be cut back so if you see that then you can make those connections or if there's too much rain if you're in other parts of the country or especially just west of here where the rain goes from 40 inches of annual rainfall the way up to 80 inches of annual rainfall then you're really going to be dealing with these funguses So understanding what these fungus is easer classified is going to help you to understand the environment that is necessary for them to thrive. So terms associated with disease cycles getting back to some of these. Terminology there's a primary not to them which we talked about was the very 1st one I came out of the leaf litter and hit the leaf. Performed on my seed pathogens of a sexual Spore is involved in the disease cycle it typically serves as the. Scope of Spore which gives rise to Zeus bores which is your primary an ocular. The secondary not too long this is going to be that again that summer cycle is infectious probably goals that were produced in the infection and took place during the same growing season so your secondary an ocular if if you have that not all funguses do that but if you have that cycle is definitely going to be your summer cycle. This type of an argument is nearly always a sexual which means you don't have new genetics it's a clone and the infectious probably go there relatively short lived they don't they don't last very long so for. Powdery mildew For example it has a polycyclic disease. And that leaves the mold that you see on the leaf is releasing spores so if you're coming in and doing property leaving and getting rid of these things and hauling it away from the growing area and thrown in a compost pile at some distance away you're removing that an ocular I'm constantly removing you and if you're training that plant to keep growing. Because it's a mask it also requires high humidity and low water it doesn't like water it's not a water mold so if you have a lot of wet leaves you're not likely to develop Bascom I see fungus are going to develop those fungal diseases when you have high humidity you can get high humidity simply by not believing and having these microclimates in areas where too much lead to many leaves are there and when the crop tries to transpire that makes that area too humid so that's another thing that sets it off These are all things that are not associated with. Again all these things that I'm mentioning are environmental issues they are the environment changes in the environment and not changes in the host or changes in the host you want to go. For the best. Advice on what you can do to change the host you want to actually look at soil nutrition and feeding the crop right I'm not going to talk about that in this class I'm going to focus on the environment and what you can change in the environment. What I have here food borne disease are commonly model cyclical of course of these areas wilt both of your folio diseases are polycyclic full of diseases their model circlip the timing of individual infections can still very drastically and they're mostly environmentally related as well as plant maintenance So if you're getting in there and you're doing things doing the plant maintenance was which is pruning and leafing etc and not planting too close. Sick with diseases of disease where. Where on too many cycles of infection are initiated by a secondary not to them I think I covered that that maybe I went backwards many fuller diseases powdery mildew is rust and grasses and late blight are probably sickly it turns out our address in the time required OK so one OK So incubation period which is the amount of time that you know you get these spores they land on your crop right so it is it's impossible in the greenhouse industry where I work a lot of the different farms are absolutely dogmatic about sanitation it's ridiculous I mean they will not even let you walk into their greenhouse without putting on this big like almost like a biohazard see when you want your breathing on their plants because they don't want to knock them on their way and I'll show you how foolish that is when I look at a later because most of these greenhouse industries grow hydroponically so their nutrition is out of whack just because I said that one word I mean there's a lot of things those crops don't have just by saying hydroponics. But anyhow they know how to do it make a lot of money doing it so that's what they do so the incubation period is the amount of time that you know the knocking on comes in and they simply just to sleep it's just laying in your leaf your spend your soil whatever it's not doing anything is just there the latent period is similar to the incubation period it is a time from infection to a new spore production so this is really important because when you start talking about something like late like it could be as quick as just a few days. So that means you get your 1st floor on your plan if your post is susceptible whatever that plant is and less than a week it's already put Now it's horse boom just on the now thrown out everywhere and I know 10 or 15 years ago right here in the Pacific Northwest I think it was something like 30 or 40 percent of the potato crop was wiped out that's huge for the Pacific Northwest all along the gorge because of late blight and it just took off and was gone. They couldn't stop it relate blight that's why I say if you really think it's late blight and it happens to be late light then yeah your only thing you could probably do is just you know till it all down and hang up your boots because there's not much you can do if it really takes off like that and a lot of farmers have had to do that but not you know it's not always the case that that's what you need to do most more times than not that's not the case. Then there's question infections which is an act of symptomless microscopic infections in other words these are infections that come in they take off their very quiet you don't see it you don't know anything about it a lot of the stuff exists this this is happens more often than not when you have a very healthy host and it can put up that system of defenses and keep itself from actually being attacked so the pathogen is there but it's not really doing much of anything and you don't even know it's there because the plants look pretty healthy for the most part. So if we put these turns into a disease cycle this is just a generic disease cycle description here you have the incubation period here which is the time of infection till the disease actually develops and then you have the latent period which is from infection down to reproduction and then of course you have a sexual reproductive stage and then you have your Which is their secondary cycle and then you have your primary cycles here which is a survival cycle the overwintering cycle. And these are covered all the terms Aurora So then. Another microbial life stage that is important is understanding whether pathogens are following the symbiosis of separatism which is mutual ism or communalism which is symbiosis and then you have parasitism. And then of course what those pathogens do the reason why this is oftentimes important is because if you're dealing with a pathogen that like to try to switch it straight it only really likes dead plant tissues and likes to live in the world of the dead It only wants to fight things that are dead or consume and feed on things that are dead dead plant tissues. Fruit or simple sugars doesn't really have a lot in its tool box in his genetic code to really be thrown out to be breaking down all these different. New plant immune system defenses that can be brought out while if you're dealing with something that is straight symbiosis like for example Mike arising so I talk about. Akamai see funguses funguses and then you got all my seat but then you have gobbler my seats and most of all your micro beneficial Mike arise it falls into the goblet or my C. which is a whole nother area fungus but those are usually all mutualistic. But most of your parasitic or a Most of your disease base fungus is fall either between separate separate fights or some sort of work well actually I think the next life does a better job of explaining the THAN WE GET OVER SO life stages of plant pathogens you have the parasite has them in a separate fight tism So a parasite only and is something that feeds on the plant and is dependent upon the host being alive so its goal is not to actually kill the host so these are usually are slower or slower diseases than your parasite but sacrifical occasionally what's referred to as facultative SAP or fight these are terms down here at the bottom really what you get out you need to get out of this is this right here because when you start looking up the diseases that you're going to have to deal with every day they're going to tell you it's an obligate parasite usually not going to tell you because if it was you probably wouldn't even be bothering to look it up you're going to be looking at the facultative sacrifice and obligate sacrifice and occasionally you get this one but these 2 are overwhelming lot of the overwhelming large majority of the diseases we deal with are either facultative several separate or obligated separately which means that live only in the world of the dead or. They like to be in the living tissue but they can be in the dead tissue too which means that they will infect the crop kill the hose or portions of it and then feed on the dead tissue that's their objective so just I guess that's all you really need to get out of that like. OK so now I'm going to talk about the my coda which are common names are water molds are all my seats they are hi fi are Cohen centric In other words when you like I mentioned earlier if you get yourself a microscope you start looking at the stuff under the microscope and you want to look at the actual hifi if you can manage to get that hyphy what you will see it's almost like a straight garden hose they don't have walls there they're very simple organisms their cell walls are made out of cellulose So the enzymes in the different not only the enzymes that the plant puts up to defend itself but also the different sprays you go after if you look at the active ingredient sometimes they have the capacity to break down cellulose if it doesn't have the capacity to break down cellulose it's worthless bring that whatever that is on that pathogen that you're fighting so if they tell you you have late by you spray something that is absolutely useless on some of those 10 it's useless to use it on whether it's organic or conventional or whatever it is going to turn to those sprays and they don't affect this it's money down the drain. Sexual reproduction again as opposed to or a sexual reproduction is brandy in the seas zoos boards. I guess you can see that in the livestock and the life cycle that I showed earlier important disease is called The caused by oh my seeds of course pithy I'm damping off that the blight of turf to fight off terror of the roots This is also oil borne for the full year pathogens laid by the tomato and potato sudden death and then downy mildew disease or just some but there's a lot more than that. So here are some pictures of in this field that. That's pithy I'm hitting this part right here here as well these are some raised beds and what you see here is pithy M. or damping office what is often called is more common name so the other statement I'll make is that when it comes to to plant pathology this was originally started the discipline that originally started in the 18 sixty's $870.00 S. I forget exactly when after the Irish Potato Famine happened. And since then they've come up with so many names for these things that as we did. So they're trying to actually simplify the names but there are so many names of common names in there scientific names and then there's old scientific names so trying to remember the scientific knowledge is sometimes pointless most growers know the commonly. So here's some more damping off caused by pithy. These are definitely opportunistic Another thing I wanted to actually share is you see this stuff like that I've dealt with some of this before and just to know I go out and I test this stuff and often times absolutely absent of calcium absolutely absent I mean if you get these spots like that you need to be testing these individual spots and you'll find most of the time of chemistry is totally out of whack. I'm just on that and this is often times found because you're dealing with seedlings here and some simple soil some simple media all you're doing is dumping water on it with maybe some nutrition and you end up with pithy them in your seedlings again I always recommend for your for your starting your sprouts or anything you're doing and you don't want to deal with the you need to learn how to. Pre-charge or media in other words that is put the right nutrients into that media before you even plant. That avoids a lot of these types of diseases this is late blight a potato I think of some of the you are familiar with this some you don't know this there's the spores there the sporangia a sexual the sexual spores of the white part here you see the necrosis and I mean this right here is just a general blight of the potato that wipes them out fast. This is a downy mildew again downy mildew of. What is lettuce here which is a very common one and lettuce and again lettuce is almost an overwhelming amount of the lettuce is grown in 2 different ways it is grown hydroponically where they put a lot of calcium in the media but I'm sorry in the solution it synthetic forms which oftentimes react with other minerals and don't actually go into the plant. And then of course this is downy mildew of great. The same the same of mice actually different slightly different from what they are still in my seat. Again this is a sexual structure I think we really need to get into much of that there and see for this is what I was talking about was looking at the actual sport if you look at the actual spores in all my seed they actually had these little tails on them and that's why they're referred to as water moves and with your if you have too much water. Again you're going to get these these diseases here some more this is the actual When the spores that come out. He's a really nice images of really into the actual fungus itself and when you send your samples into disease clinics they're looking for stuff like this this is what they're looking for and oftentimes it's kind of over our head but what I really want to do guys understand is that this stuff can be usually identified down pretty closely to what it is so you don't have to do a lot of guesswork try to eliminate your guess work as brand your 4th of downy mildew or slightly different kind of come up like this here and you have little spores like this guy that are on these high full and then they release out and they can be spread out usually through water droplets from overhead or rig ation or excessive rain. Oh my See question is what is the basic life lifecycle of an almighty pathogen. Would you guys think that is this is actually more of the open question here when and whether or not I did the testing myself with the basic life cycle cycle of an almighty pathogen very water dependent which is the primary or not to them if it's mostly especially if it's soil based What about a. Fully or M I C A secondary cycle so you have your 1st inoculate and then you have your primary not to and then you have a secondary one that's the one that mostly does that does most of the damage so if you got late with just a primary not kill in of late blight it probably wouldn't bother you much you'd see it knock it out be it go away but because of that secondary cycle because it can reproduce so fast that is what gives it that famous name if I thought through and fastens which means plant destroyer that's exactly what that name means so they have a name like that is it's pretty scary how does a life strategy of the damping off pathogen Pythian differ from the down and know the path the pathogen. The strategies are pretty pretty simple this pick them is an initial inoculation highly dependent on high on high moisture but also I would say. I keep going back to calcium I have to give calcium respect because the issue is with plant roots they do not have. Cuticles In other words they do not like you guys so in the video of the Ask them I see. Sorry of the apple scab remember it talked about how that came in and it dug in underneath the cuticle of the waxy cuticles where the roots of every single plant out there does not have that waxy cuticle so it doesn't have that protection so when you start dealing with a lot of these pathogens that really there are real serious problems in tropical regions because of the high moisture content there and the and the warmth. And those plants that have managed to survive there had very thick waxy cuticles that covers that entirely but roots need not have that roots are dependent on the strong cell walls strong bonds and the strong bonds are formed through calcium and silica and if you don't have enough if you don't have. Some of these biology textbooks I didn't bring a biology textbook with me but they'll tell you if your base actuation of calcium goes below 50 percent your roots are done they start to break down so that's 50 percent so you do with some of these soils that are down in the thirty's in the 40 percent you have the whole. So the only way that you can really protect the best way to protect yourself from Pentium is one get that calcium in there build those strong bonds grow healthy roots and then you can come in in the not too late with trying to determine and prevent that. But really if you're just using try to determine which is root shield of those anybody that uses anybody know what. It is a got one per 2 persons great 3 persons All right so Ruggiero is a product that sold. The active ingredient instructed Dharma tried to dharma is supposed to actually cover your roots and prohibit pithy I'm from developing on the root system so great for your starters anything you put in a tray but however it's expensive right when you start to mix it in your transplants and. We've actually gone as much as you know we've got as much as 2 and a half pounds per acre which is still not that much but it adds up. However if you use track a derma and your cow seems out of whack it's only but marginally effective it's not it's not going to it's not a cure all I guess what I'm trying to tell you is you know like I said the guy's going to show well I remember when the guy showed up from my bio works oh he got a good track of dharma or a root children and they got a new one now because different species now plus it's a different species and but they're both dermis and. It makes as great promises but I really didn't have to bother with it and I've actually never had to deal with the I'm at all and tell I until just a few What about a month ago I started to develop a little bit of his area of what is going on so I did I sent my media off to be tested in the house where I was had some fees Arum I could not believe it came back with 36 percent. Calcium 36 percent potassium the crop had pulled it out. Quickly it to me those are very very hungry tomatoes are some of the hungry of crops you'll ever grow they'll pull it out of the ground in a hurry so I went back and I got the calcium back up and I use Tracker Derma. Which is one way. It was done not wiped out a few plants it was over but my point is it was inoculated with trying to determine at the beginning of the growing season and I had plenty of calcium in there I guess I did not if I underestimated how much calcium the crop would remove and it cost me dearly it's really really I mean how many of you are. I started to develop Oh that's another thing you see you can get away with last minute I started develop a little bit of blossom and rot so I upped the overnight temperatures it went away so I upped my daily average just a hair at but then I upped my overnight temperatures from 58 degrees to about 62 degrees I mean this isn't a greenhouse you can control this you can't do this outside. For those guys that are outdoors Oh yeah whatever. He can do all the stuff you don't have all that fancy equipment but anyway I just adjusted the overnight temperatures a little bit and got rid of it right but then I still wasn't happy because I started to notice some wilting in some of the crop and when I started look at the root stems I noticed some blackening of the vascular system so I ripped it out a looked at it and I said there's no way you can beef it there's no way it can be I started the season at 86 percent so I took it easy with my lining at 1st I didn't put any calcium at 1st but then I got ahead of the I didn't realise that it pulled about the equivalent of 6000 pounds of elemental calcium from the acre in a matter of 20 weeks but in those 20 weeks I produced 40000 pounds of tomatoes in that one acre so when I did the math the real plus all the vegetative matter that I grew and threw out in the compost pile so when you start adding all that up you realize wow yeah I pulled that out but that was just fine example of just changing that one just changes in those imbalances in the chemistry and what is I'll talk about a more tomorrow I'm not going to get too much into it today but. I'll talk about this whole science portion tomorrow and I'll talk some about some of these things but the leech it was coming back just fine but what I didn't realize is that you know again you've got to take soil samples I mean even sometimes folks that grow you get hit with surprises like this but I'll share it with everybody but essentially what I what I was doing is I'm always injecting potassium because potassium swells the fruit. And I inject magnesium into the system and I've had some fertilizing issues so I ended up with more nutrients in some areas than others. Had irrigation issues so some nutrition went more nutritious went to certain parts than other parts and I decided that I was going to. Monitor it using looking at my Leach. And it is a very good example but I started to notice minor drops in the calcium that I didn't think were real big issue so then I took that nutrient you know what I want to pull something up that's really interesting for those of you how many of you really do nutrition I mean I know what Mark does keep your hand out but the rest of you guys. I mean if you guys are really into you know figuring out nutrient cycling the amount of nutrients that are ripped out of the soil that your crop actually pulls out of the ground I got one person there not enough about 2nd person here a 3rd person there yeah well give away some secrets here don't tell anybody I told you I should go off microphone here but it's OK. OK yeah yeah yeah so he's saying that what some of these other folks are so I presented a lot on diseases and how they come and others have presented on you know if you have these other things right you don't have to worry about that that's very true and big and because these guys have presented a lot on that I wanted to touch on this because I wanted to come from a different angle and I wanted you guys to see. I guess what a lot of the world in the scientific community in the agricultural community you know their approach. I wanted also to educate you on what causes these diseases in other words I'm not trying to tell you how to solve the disease. I can I'm going to talk about it tomorrow but I'm trying to educate you on what causes the disease what is that disease what is powdery mildew Why is it on my Leaf what is you know late by why don't why am I fighting this what's clear Tenia you know what are police spots what's what is bacteria etc etc I just want to educate you guys on those things because I feel like. It just hasn't been done and that's why we decided to do the plant pathology and why I'm I'm really focusing more not on how to solve these issues but what are these issues that's my main objective here. So the question was if you have apples. And a leaf goes on the ground. You're saying to Rick I was saying to break it up and get it out of there in the Fall Well it's January it's pretty much winter right now is it still safe to go out and break those leaves I would say yes go out you don't have to rake them because there's a lot and there's are some nutrition there is quite a bit of nutrition in those leaves However if you're really fighting apples scab you so. I'll say this. If you're really fighting apples scab there's more that you need to worry about than just raking leaves All right let's start with that Secondly if you're doing the right things to correct your production system it would be ideal for you in the interim to get the leaves out of the way all right so you know I. I don't condone the use of sprays I've got a whole bunch of sprays way more than I need our own real use I'm. When I 1st got to 5 college farms we sprayed at least twice a week now sometimes I don't spray for 2 or 3 weeks. I sprayed. Yet again expertise because the thing is you can be certified organic folks but that doesn't really mean anything anymore everybody jumped on the organic bandwagon so you know we have this idea that if we go and we eat organic food somehow it's going to be better for you Not really are getting by eating organic food as you know that you're not getting a lot of toxins but you don't really know that you're getting all the nutrition you need to understand so you still need to correct your nutritional deficiencies you might be able to detoxify yourself some by switching over to a fully organic diet but you'll never guarantee that you're going to get all the nutrition because I can produce an agricultural can grow tomatoes very well I can grow tomatoes very well and they can be very empty and I can do it again right I think a lot of people here probably accomplish that and it serious wonderful beautiful yields and cut corners all over the place and send out these to these water bags and red water bags all day long and that's what goes to the store and that's what most people are eating Canada's very good the Netherlands are very good growing red water bags. That are called tomatoes but to grow a real serious you know not tomatoes but anything that has good quality instruction it's going to give you the nutrition you need Unfortunately there's only one way to really do it you got to do it yourself like Mom always said you wanted done right I do it yourself. That's how food is that's how farming is you want to eat right you've got to just roll up your sleeves and grab the pitchfork in the shovel and get to work because you're not going to you're not going to get it by going down to Whole Foods Oh man says Amazon bought a Whole Foods who is anybody deal with the Whole Foods besides me our guys are now there's one person back there that bills you sell the Whole Foods Oh OK yeah anyway there are there are headed to deal with. They are serious how to do it but everybody runs a Whole Foods to get they're going to produce and I look at their products and I know what farms they come to I've talked with some of the people that have grown in those farms have had that's not a healthy product of bought some of that food that ate an old man just a terrible. It's not a solution OK So his question is you have to read those leisure Can you just burn. Or tell them into the ground. So OK I was taught by Ken Johnson who is the head of the plant pathology department Dr Ken Johnson and the head of the plant pathology pathology department at Oregon State University and I approached him with this question similar to what you said why can't I just burn him and I was baffled when he answered that question because what he said to me. So this is a guy with a Ph D. that I'm quoting over down and just down the road here couple hours away he told me that there's very little evidence to suggest that burning fungal spores will actually kill him it just puts a whole bunch of fungal spores in a pile of ashes all it does. That's what he said I'm just quoting him and I've gone and I've researched I know particularly with. Oh what was the one that was really in question oh yes. Which a lot of people have to deal with filberts are hazel nuts if you're from the Pacific Northwest we call them filberts right everybody else calls them hazel nuts but anyhow it was light that he was talking about and they were talking about cutting the branches off and burning them etc The burning an argument is doesn't really work we tried it it didn't work of fire blight. I think with fire blight you actually are more effective with that because fire blight if I remember correctly is a bacteria so yes that would be effective in fact can Johnson has a tree that's his main focus is fire blight if you go to always use extension website and you look at fire blight that man has got he studied fire blight for like 20 something years and it's very interesting what he says because what he said Whitmarsh. Can Johnson set about fire blight is almost exactly what you would say but I won't go any further what you do with what's under the apple tree fire I'll just say it fire blight sorry apple scab is a apple scab isn't asking my seed fungus it's a folly or disease so it would be most effective to put it into the soil where it is going to go anywhere. In a stand so it's not that you have killed it but you have taken that an ocular and you have put it somewhere where it can't easily be blown up into your leaves and it's also in an environment with a lot of other fungal and other bacterial a lot of stuff going on in that soil that essentially it's as I I don't want to this is not the right environment for me I'm not going to really get out here and go do something else and if those aperitif actually grow out and push out those spores they push it into the soil where they will die with time so some people I know out in New England they practice root pruning and they go out and they buy essentially rototiller and they till the top 2 or 3 inches they don't go very deep but they tell the top 2 or 3 inches of the soil others have begun practicing there's a number of different bulletins put out by the Pacific Northwest handbook. They grow. Essentially they're putting pasture they're looking for different. Legumes and other grasses that they grow in the orchard and they let the stuff actually grow up in the mowed down and they grow it up and it actually works to provide nitrogen and other minerals for the orchard but while providing this lush grass they come in the mole and they finally moto there's not a leaf in sight and I've done this just because I'm from I grew up in Arizona I never had the MO I never had to Rick leaves I never had to water the lawn I don't any of that stuff as I grew up in the desert so when I went out to the east coast and also I had a mo I mean I had to Rick leaves early on do this so I started blowing them up and you can just Moammar until they disappear and what happens is they go into the into the actual. Into the soil into the grass and they just decompose down there along with the grass and they they are not as likely in fact a very very unlikely to go airborne versus a leaf that sitting on top you know the blades of grass that is on the surface where the water will hit it it will actually get the D.C.M. to shoot out the spores and then the spores are up on the surface where they can go straight up into the air that will blow them off to wherever they're going to go so what you're doing is you're destroying all that leaf litter you're getting that spore that sit on a little table if you will like this table is off the ground and these legs can be the blades of grass and you're here on the surface but you're getting that and you're putting it down in here to a pad where the wind can't blow it away. So you're not really killing the spore you're just putting it in a place where it's not likely to go airborne and Rhian ocular at your your leads all fungal pathogens are related to calcium deficiency. So the question is is powdery mildew related to calcium deficiency Yes it is but I've also had also had my calcium very very nice and high and I had almost no but Tassie I'm and I had very little phosphorus. And. I can't remember what other pathogen I had I mean a nutritional imbalance I had and patrie mildew just took off so it's not always just a defect that you don't have calcium. It's the fact that you need proper mineral balance in order to properly feed the plant in order to appropriately translocate nutrients and be able to produce a healthy plant tissues so it's not just saying that the calcium level needs to be through the roof or whatever calcium alone won't do that but it's having everything appropriately balance and the reason why I was using that example is because I remember having literally like nothing for potassium and when I tested it it didn't it came up like 7 pounds to the acre or something like that and I was just like nothing in any way that produced the sick plant that was unstoppable to disease but I had plenty of calcium. So the question is about blood in the right land rest every year we get that question almost every year every 7th year I'm sorry I don't hear every 70 year we get that question almost every year. The problem with or not the problem but I do believe in that and I see the benefits from that and really the benefit that I see there are the benefits associated with cover cropping. However some of the problems that I have was just saying oh I'm a let my land rest for whatever amount of years and then go back and do it is that it's not going to fix your. Deficiencies in imbalances it's kind of like saying I mean there's a lot of spiritual lessons we can learn from this is kind of like to try to take a spiritual lesson it would be a lot like saying you know what folks take a break from the strip club in the bar I'm not going to go for a year and then I'll go back to singing was the sense in that there is no sense in that you know you're still just as much a sinner you're still you still have all the same problems you had a year ago right really it's going to take a serious change and that's what most every single soil on this planet needs is a serious change because it's just been so deteriorated in neglect and abuse from years of. Full of erroneous farm practices and then you have the flood that made it even you know made it not even when say that this media was brought to you by Adil force a Web site dedicated to spreading God's word through free sermon audio and much more if you would like to know more about audio verse if you would like to listen to more sermons leader Visit W W W. Dot org.

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