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Logo of AdAgrA 2019: True Success

Plant Pathology - Part 4

Michael Trevizo

Presenter

Farmer, Agricultural Reformer, Production Manager at Five College Farms, & Soil Scientist with a focus on Soil Science and Agronomy; Education: Bacherlor of Science in Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State University.

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  • January 15, 2019
    8:00 AM
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OK so I talked about all my code a last time and now I'm talking about asking my coda So this is the 2nd one of the group funguses that I want to talk about so the big difference now remember I gave you a very good counsel when I asked you if you really want to learn these things these pathogens I encourage you to get even just a simple compound microscope or a dissecting microscope something you can get on Amazon for a 100 bucks or whatever. Very high school level early you know 1st 2nd year of college level microscope that are available just about anywhere and when you get those microscopes you can begin to look at these things under a microscope and see them under that lens and you begin to see the high from the hi fi in these organisms so what the ask the ask my coda you don't have these these bridges right here is that divide that clearly divide the cells that tend to be straight long high fees that just go seemingly for ever and they ask oh my coda you have. What they refer to a septic hifi which means you have these breaks and the hyphen and the hifi if you don't know what this is it's essentially the long thin hairs that funk that grow out of a fungus. And these are usually you know all over the forest floor or the soil. And they're very complex systems they're made out of instead of cellulose So these take different metabolites to break down the cell walls of this ask them I see fungus see they're haploid but that's not really important to you so the sexual spores are usually the ASCO ASCO spores which is a product of Meo system than a sexual spores or committee of spores which is a product of my ptosis So again I spoke last time about sexual reproduction a sexual reproduction the introduction of new D.N.A. information new species if you will or subspecies or of varieties which can oftentimes come over can. I guess you outcompete the genetic resistance that you might get in certain writings. So disease is caused by asking why code I want to get into asking my coders pathogens were you ask oh. Yeah school sport plays an important problem that role is powdery mildew apple scab Eastern Filbert blight and white mold these are some of the just a few examples of these and ask my coda by the way is the group where the majority of all plant pathogen fungal pathogens are actually ask of my code as some are. The majority are asking my quota so asking my CO to have 3 different fruit fruiting bodies and the reason why this is important because if you were to actually go out and get that microscope I encourage you to buy you can begin to look at some of the stuff and if you look at the primary an ocular among your powdery mildew you should find it. Like this where powdery mildew began that would have been your primary an ocular. Finding a Chaz is going to tell you right away you're dealing with powdery mildew not downy mildew. And now with apple scab remember we talked about that parrot the you want to know whether you really have apple scab on your on your apples or is it maybe a leaf spot or some other pathogen again this is a kind of wave you put this stuff under the microscope you can start to see these organisms Now there's a build these here with another type of fruiting structure for asking my seat and this is usually associated with least spots or not all the spots but maples in particular get this so if you're an ornamental business or the previous arborist have to deal with this one the most is probably one of the most annoying pathogens for arborist because they leave the spots on your leaves which. It can be difficult to deal with diseases caused by ask of my code of passages with a sexual sports play a prominent role as this group has the largest number of pathogens species relative to the. Other groups we will look at think I talked about that here is powdery mildew on Grace. Again this is the ask of my coda Canadia force is the actual reproductive cycle that causes this to spread severely throughout your then your this is the Canadian spores an actual picture there your C.D.'s of spores are the ones that break loose and keep and they just keep growing and gone and gone to look like a bunch of hot dogs on a string when you put them in a and or a bunch of sausages linked together when you put them in under the microscope again is a cutaway picture of the powdery mildew here you have your mycelium that's the actual channel P.C.M. that landed on your lease surface this right here is your cuticles and you have your epidemic cells he has them as well she sells and then etc etc go to the bottom so that pathogen lands on there starts producing these high fees and it produces ultimately Canadia force which goes into your secondary. Reproductive cycle which just after that point it blows up and you know put powder in mildew all over the place but if you find the patrie mildew up 1st which I'll bring up another point that I have not yet discussed today is the importance of Scouting and I know that is scouting I mean if you're farming you've got to have somebody scouting whether you're doing it yourself or you're paying somebody to do it. We're fortunate enough that we're literally I can see the University of Massachusetts from the farm so I guess the kids that are studying either plant pathology or crop and soil science Plant Sciences horticultural except for usually they've gone through courses and learned a couple of tricks so I'll hire them and they'll just come in and work you know I say hey I'm very very flexible. Whatever hour or 2 you have in the week that you can come in and Scout look at all my crops and try to find problems and they find a lot of problems and a lot of times in this label but you know what I have had them give me a bell me out a couple of times simply because they told me. They found something that was an issue early on where I could deal with it so if you were to actually find powdery mildew when it 1st comes up you're going to find a child with the same as you've been fighting powdery mildew for 3 or 4 months you're not going to find a child with the same you're going to find Canadia pores and you might think it's downy mildew or you might think it might be another pathogen maybe a leaf mold except for a but it's very important that you practice scouting for both pests and diseases get somebody in there here's another child with these you know again is a low quality picture those are the fungal spores that are coming out of the side of it the inside opens up and sets out more boards this is what is this this is the disease cycle for powdery mildew. I just talked last time about the disease cycle for late life I believe and I talked about the disease cycle for apple scab we're looking at powdery mildew here our initial and overwintering and an ocular mode again is that Chaz with the C. on that child with these humans what's going to survive the winter and inoculate your crops in the spring and get this pathogen going again in your crop if you have it in there so once it gets going to liberate the ask those spores which land on the least surface and it takes off a lot of times this Jasmine C.C.M. is really on the surface of the early and these things are really small folks I mean you look at it it looks big but really if you go back to if you're looking at this right here you're probably looking at that at around a 100 to 200 X. and you're not actually seen the spores the spores are inside of the Canadian So you've got to really go down to about 400 X. on a microscope. OK So we've got a disease cycle here it starts producing you get infection on roses if you're if you've got infections there so again the powdery mildew like most other fungus is are looking for simple sugars they're looking for a way to survive like everybody else they want they want to eat they want to reproduce they want to get old and they want to die that's what pretty much in a nutshell is what everybody does every living organism on this planet does so for them. Things like leaf petals are hot spots where you can get it sometimes the leaf itself some of the fruit sometimes can be a good place for these guys and then they start to come back here and let's see they go from the leaf petals to the my Celia form the child with these goes to the leaf again and then you have the overwintering cycle but during before you have your overwintering cycle you have your primary cycle in this is the one that goes over and over and over again and it can be within one season but usually the one that you see mostly wiping out an effect on your crop is a sexual secondary cycle like I mentioned on the other other ones and I'll keep mentioning that over and over again because that's the one you need to try to interrupt. Here is apples and see all the scabs on the actual apple we saw the video of you were here this morning this is is a polly sick with disease the primary and not to them is the ASCO spores which usually tends to land on the leaf it doesn't land on the Apple the apple is content usually has apple scab because the spores have been released from the leaf during the secondary a sexual reproductive cycle and then puts those spores onto your apples which then contaminate your apples and give you these really ugly apples here of course a 2nd or innocuous referred to as a Canadian and it is a facultative sacrified Does anybody remember what that is facultative sacrifice that means it prefers to live in the world of the dead but. If it has to go on to living tissues so if you're dealing with a facultative separate separate fight then you know that nutrition is probably really an issue or something is wrong with you with your fertilization regimen your You're not doing something right it could be a lot of different things so here it is on the leaf this is apple leaves and you see the spores here again remember I talked to you guys about is a biopic or is it a biopic and this particular example you see this is a biopic pathogen and what do you have is really just this blockiness kind of all over the place you have limitations in the size of the actual growth so maybe if I were to burn this with some sort of herbicide or chemists pesticide or some other chemical Had this been burned it would have been probably a whole huge portion of the leaf and not just part of the leaf so he's asking about metabolic metabolic pathways of the fungus whether it's on living tissue or dead tissue the answer is yes because when you're dead tissues the cells are already broken down and have no way to defend itself when you're alive that fungus has to release something to actually attack or overcome the plant or the host system of defenses so in this example again we see that you have multiple blots spots here there's limitations to how big those gaps can get and the reason why is because after it attacked it will hit the 1st cell it'll begin to signal we have a problem it will start sending signals other cells ultimately it limits how far that fungus can grow it can only go a certain point and no more not all pathogens are this way and not a host of that way but for the most part that's how you end up with most of your ask a mighty funguses I don't want to break into much more than that because it's going to get real complicated and a lot of scientific terms that most people probably well we have to discuss it thoroughly I'll just try to cover it superficially so here we're looking again at SCAD lesions with Canadia So this is apple scab you see right here this is the actual host epidermal cell right there. And then you have the Canadian forces here and then you have your actual. Medal she sells the cells beneath the epidermal cells and this is the actual fungus right between us comes in and then some self right at home. Here's a During the winter the per P.C. a mature in the leaf litter and these little black spots that you see here are every single one of them on a dead leaf so that's what sitting on the ground when I talk to you guys or earlier about removing those dead leaves of your head if you have a heavy emphasis Taishan this is just part of the leaf and every single one of these black spots is a pair of that's going to release spores That's a lot of spores going into the environment and you realize when you get start talking about fungus is a bacteria etc There is so much an ocular around us that we cannot just come in with this idea of. You know we're going to just knock it all down and kill it. Sanitation somehow or some heavy harsh chemicals to come inside and just kill everything because. I'll talk about it a little later but these type of affects I mean they have gone in and they have just eliminated on some pathogens will eliminate 80 percent of the an ocular and kill 80 percent of the spores and all it did was buy in about 8 days because it produced so quickly. They reproduce very very quickly here some leaf litter I mean this is a real thick leaf litter and the sword. Really if you're fighting Apple scabs and you have a really serious infection it's not a good idea to leave this kind of leaf litter in the orchard you want to get that out of there. Here is another cutaway picture of the Perth E.C.M. you see the actual epidermal cells in the metal sheaf cells and then you have NOW I'M SORRY THIS IS THE up with normal cells over here these are the metal sheaf cells and then of course this is the parrot and these are the actual fungal spores right and center this is what's going to blow up and come out as we saw in the video here's your ASCO spores in here in ASCII I want to ask is actually these tubes in the ASCO spores what's inside those tubes so you're talking about just I mean just an innumerable amount of sports it's just like to try to count the number is forget it it's just like God said to Abraham you know company count the stars the number the stars but no Lord can you number the an ocular I'm home bored it's impossible so the idea of trying to just eliminate all the an ocular in this. It's a it's a futile efforts I mean you're not going to succeed there again I showed this earlier this is the life cycle of. Apple scab and you know your goal as a grower is to one strengthen the host as much as possible and then to interrupt these life cycles as as best you can with whatever tactics we have in this case the leaf litter is very important but. If you are in a desert or a dry region an arid region and you're irrigating How does the spore wake up. With water so it might be wise for you in every region to try perhaps transition to a drip taper some sort of controlled release irrigation system and not just come in with broad. Sprinklers or to use heavy flood or a geisha which is which was practiced some years ago then to do that so much anymore but the they used to do quite heavy flooded rig Asian and of course that's going to wake up all that all that and knock them on the floor Here's a ask those poor I mean this is a little Petri dishes maybe 4 inches around and you just tap it and you see all that mess oh they're all spores and they just go airborne and it's not like you know you need to have hurricane winds I mean just a gentle breeze will spread these things all over the orchard it doesn't take a lot of folks. I think I discussed this earlier the diagram of ask ask all my code of light infection process and chickpeas I talked about the fungal spores here. Look for. Want to form a percentage of the house story I'm accept or alternately A produces of the apparent D.C. a minute releases new spores. So here's White maul the switch over to white more this is another ask for only from. That it's also is a facultative sacrified as most of the other ones it prefers to live in the world of the dead it looks for ways to kill your plant and then it consumes it it cannot survive alone on healthy tissues. So and this guy has cut like $400.00 plus host I mean it can it can hit all kinds of different crops. So here what you see of the. Seed able thesis I think is what the white powder is on it and then of course this is a stand here of the I believe what we're looking at is beans here. Looks like a green bean there yeah that is exactly what is the green being I'm sorry that's a green bean there that's totally wiped out. You can't even tell if the green This is the spot of maple asking spores only again you see that this is actually not able to see in this is. I forget the name of this no I forget the name I'm sorry I'll go back and there you go able to see I was right OK and these type of pathogens leave these spots on your leads that are very on. Undesirable if you are working in. Say different resort or golf courses etc and you have trees out there and they don't usually like it when the trees have these ugly spots on the leaves but that's for those folks. Other names for this group for the asking my code are perfect I like I said earlier today these things have been given so many different names and when you get into some of the old literature you find these names these old names like func I am perfect guy or dude are all my seats and these are all names for asking my code it's all the same thing. Artificial toxins and. Says OK that's not too important so now we're looking at here this summer to purge these here but the Canadian instead of ask and you have a Canadian lifecycle again goes from the germination to the leaf back to full forming spores I mean it's very similar lifecycle most of these again here's a pair. Of service for a flat disc shaped fruiting body embedded in plant tissue which also raises more floors. And of course this is actually oftentimes a cause of anthrax or notes which is a whole nother fungal disease that typically goes after the fruit or the bean whatever the actual edible portion of the plant is that some sort of fruit of the and they leave the black spots all over it maybe some of you guys are familiar with. This is sub Toria which is another least thought there's different pathogens that there's a tomato leaf right here and there's actually quite a number of pathogens that will cause this but in this particular one we're looking at a Toria and you see the same thing pick Nidia Here's some I think that's wheat and same thing it's just nice ugly spots that are left all over the plant and these are actually not natural trophic So again they've got to kill it before they can consume it. Hears and crack and also the bean seals blackspot there and cracking off of turf you know this is a little bit different because this is actually hitting the ground it knocks the turf back. Siller got dogwood with interaction O.C.C. the leaves dying here totally wipes out the leaves the can there's a 3rd type of Canadia on Canadia for this group of she have a number of different diseases associated with the Canadian The Canadian Fords and some of those actually include vascular Wilts root and Crown rot and least spot most all of these are actually above the crown they're not associated with the actual root system itself so you tend to see this above the surface of the soil here is alter Narea again here's an early blight which you see this spots right here it actually looks like it could be and Draco's but it's really early blight both of those are actually ask the mighty fungus is but they're different funguses and you may be able to find some that are resistant to it but really at the end of the day like I said before you get your nutrition right you don't have to fight this so much you won't have to figure out which one this is but you normally would early blight you have more of. A larger pattern that will actually totally wipe out your crop and it really gets ugly and Draco's doesn't usually get this ugly and that's a very very severe early blight normally gets this disorderly it's normal for that but the issues is like I mentioned earlier today is how do you figure out you know what disease or dealing with how do you know whether you're dealing with an Draco's or you're dealing with late blight or you're dealing with early blood or least spot or some other disease you've got to identify your disease if you don't identify it then you know you're not exactly sure what to use and this is just a real generic description on how to handle the pathogen so we'll just say for example you think that you have late life therefore you think our I think I need to rip out my crop because there's no hope right you're losing hope before anything else so I would tell you to always try to assume that that's going to be towards the end don't jump the gun on ripping your crop out or plough it down look at other things and make eliminate other things so you're not jumping straight the going to rip that out but I just want to go through here and share what this recommends you should do as a grower to deal with this disease or I will start with early blight the responsible fungus is also an aerial salami and the description of one or 2 spots per leaf except for the damage is. That the description of polio damages one or 2 spots for a leaf approximately a quarter to half inch in diameter so 1st off late light is what half of the fungus or might be fungal which is also known as what watermelon OK. So Toria and Alton area are actually as I see which are more of the human environment so 1st off you need to think about as a farmer what environments in my dealing with what am I putting my plant underneath it's a wet year maybe it's late blight if it's a dry year or you're out in the desert somewhere and you don't use overhead irrigation then it's highly unlikely that it's going to be late blight. So we'll go back over here what the spot is when we look at late places pot start out pale green usually near the edges of the tips of foliage and turn brown to purplish black and humid conditions of fuzzy mold appears on the underside of the leaves and also this guy reproduces very quickly so you find it today by next week the whole plant should be dead if it advances in those conditions however with early blight it takes some time a couple of months to knock it down with least bought and never really knocks it down it just makes it ugly so there are some differences to take into consideration OK so his description of the fruit damage it talks about the food in structures etc If we go further down we look at description of stem damage so we start looking at the stanzas this is another telltale sign of what you have is looking at your skin so you have dark sunken cankers outer above the soil line might be early blight black or brown spots appear spread entire veins I mean usually with late blight if the whole stinking plan there isn't hardly anything well the spot nothing so if you've got nothing on the stem then it's probably like it's most likely not going to be one of the other 2 Now let's look at the organic treatment everybody wants to grow organic What are the recommendations for organic management of these pathogens so for early blight it's remove the lower leaves that 1st 1st fruit sets move affected leaves as they appear plant tomatoes in a different area next year cetera. So that kind of tells you right away that this guy's a slow mover so if you just go in and you do leaf you're probably going to get ahead of the game. You look at late blight pull and destroy the planet. Is what I've seen it's this is what they're recommending you to do put your plan out this is why it's so important that you figure out what it is don't just jump the gun to pull the planet out and throw it away so at least body did remove infected foliage as it appears clean told before moving etc sanitation in and deleting sanitation and deleting. Late blight rip it out. And the thing is that a lot of folks will come to me and say I think I have this and I think I have that and the thing is if you don't really know what it is you might you might say oh I got laid like Go read it what I want to do a label pull it out that's that's not really the best way to deal with it however what if you did have late life and you're thinking you have the spot or early Like most likely you would think it would have I would think that you would probably if you were to make a mistake you were think it's early life well if you decide to do nothing about it you could potentially lose your whole crop so you know there's 2 extremes you're one you're too quick on the gun and you rip of a thing out or 2 you don't do anything and you lose your whole crop and maybe even your neighbors crop if you happen to have a neighbor farming next to you so again it's very important to appropriately. Identify what the pathogen is but try this I'm going to be are familiar with gray mold but try this for Graeme also known as the try this that is one that can be a tough tough guy. It's a very simple fungus only likes to live in the world of the dead it only likes dead tissues it's likes to start it can only start by dead tissues so if you have if you're fighting but try this as I thought it once. How did that happen if it only likes to eat dead tissues Well there's a fine example right here. I got guys I have asked them to go out and delete and they leave a whole portion of a leaf there that they didn't remove that was damaged died down neck rhotic this is a necrotic fungus facultative sat for a fight which means it starts on the dead tissues once it established itself that says OK well you know we ran out of food what do we do now let's start killing the neighboring cells OK nobody notices until you walk by that I put the picture near it is walk by you find whole plant dead and say what happened what is this a secondary symptom What is this a primary symptom what got my attention what usually gets everybody's attention might have made a study what happens with the tried a very very simple very easily preventable pathogen attacks the baryons on strawberries because strawberry when it ripens up or simple sugars and it goes to town and simple sugars so when you buy strawberries and put in the new refrigerator and then you notice they go grey they're not Dylan was already there the problem is that now that it's right and completely in the sugars are readily available it's now readily available to the fungal pathogen that notices HATE IT WAS IN THE QUEEN Yes and state remember now it notices I have the right environment wakes up and starts to consume the edible food and this particular case I had dead plant to shoot from. The removal of the leaf that was an appropriately done in other words this is poor plant maintenance one of the guys moved to quick what have you left the portion there to try to scheme in it started to dine on it on the dead portion of that plant once it ran out of the plant tissues it starts releasing toxins. To kill the rust and eventually it'll choke out the host them and kill the plant the thing is you don't notice it until the rest of the plant is dead so you mentioned strawberries there's the strawberries but you notice that it starts on the strawberries and if you don't remove those strawberries in the event that you're in a production system where you're pushing strawberries for a long period of time that strawberry there that will try to start coming this way go right into the ground so try to something as simple as detritus can wipe out your strawberries very very easy right here we have a bean again that's but try to see this portion of the bean right and up the don't take that off of the stock you leave it there you don't harvest out beans you normally only grow and you know $120.00 days or whatever and you rip it out for most people don't particularly care but if you want to leave it there it will ultimately take out the plant. The neck rot of onion again that's the dried us great mold very very simple pathogen and this is probably oftentimes due to the way that they actually grow onions a lot of people think onions need to be grown in super acid soils very little calcium Anyhow here you can get away with it but you set yourself up for failure in some of these departments if you want to do that here's the try to skin it is for so again you're thinking well it's just been tried is or could this be something else sometimes to try this doesn't look like the pictures I had it's more of a gray bold but if you want to put it underneath there you'll find the spores here and you see the ask of my seat height see here that go to storm the spores the Canadian spores and when you look at those spores you I mean you'll know right away to try to. Of course with the trite as it's predominantly it's very very rare to have a Tilia more which is the sport of produce through sexual reproduction in other words for but try to is hardly ever ever reproduce sexually so it's almost always the same exact genes which means that you don't usually have to worry about but try to overcoming genetic resistance it's the same with tried as we've been fighting for 100 years or whatever has changed very very little it's the same pathogen. Talked about that so here's another one OK so you have that wilting there that's your secondary symptom but what if you didn't find the try this what if you found this what's that he's there and will you see how you have the same primary symptom different secondary symptoms totally different pathogens but they're both Bascom I see fungus and so this is he's very unwell and this is what happened again this didn't happen to me until my calcium levels tanked before that I had no problem with these ARE you get the calcium up the problem goes away. Also this is very host Pacific and you can see it right here see right there right through there that's the grafting point at attack both genetically resistant and attack the non genetically resistant so something else I'll point out is you can have passed the genes that will start here on on the design on and even though your root stock is genetically resistant to freeze area and it has the genetics to resist that pathogen if that pathogen starts in the Zion on where you do not have that genetic resistance it can begin to attack the genetically resistant portion of the plant rendering your root stock really useless so it's important to not bury this or whatever you have into the soil as ions into the soil where it might become susceptible to soil pathogens it is just a fly. Berta psyllium will take could have been verge of psyllium well. You know like. I was really confused on this one because I didn't want to keep it about that well it can't leave his area has to be something else so I ripped the whole thing out I looked at it under a microscope I saw a number of different to try to horrors inside of their eating the dead plant tissues doing what the Lord created them to do but I still couldn't quite pin it down so I had I had to get that certainty so I took it into the lab I knew it wasn't bacterial well because I couldn't find the bacteria inside the OR inside the vascular system I thought was very and wilt over the psyllium will the verge of psyllium will is very different in that bird psyllium will the stock somewhere above the soil while he's area is actually soil based So there are 2 different ways a pathogen hits it and so I had to give it up and he's there but sometimes you know just as farmers we just don't want to admit you know like parents who don't want to minimize faults or you know as husband or wife we don't want to hear false as Farmer sometimes we don't want to admit where we go wrong but I went wrong. So anyhow here's a committee of floors with masses of Canadian Mort's has not been observed again with the psyllium the Tilia more that means a sexual reproduction new D.N.A. new varieties. There are rare so this guy doesn't change much so it's not usually something you really need to be scared about you can you should be able to overcome for the most part Of course of a zillion will is different with that's what it's secondary symptoms because like he's area Metaxa typically the crown of the whole root system knocking the whole thing into. This techno plant out. Of psyllium attacks the vascular system alone and may only take a certain branch out or a certain portion of the leaf it doesn't hit the whole thing. Here's some more of a psyllium you see it right there were at the stem vascular BROWNING You know lateral will again if you see this vascular Browning even if it's on the main part of the stem and knocks the whole plant out it's very far removed from the soil and it's probably not freeze area because he's area is almost strictly soil based and of course there are some spores of the verge of psyllium Dalia I think I made it through asking my coda their timeline of infection you notice you have late like or any fungus on your crop You're already over here somewhere you're way over there way to the right those fungus eyes are only affective remember I said here and to the left which means before it established itself so when you come in with the fungus side especially with late life it's pointless you're throwing money away you're not going to save the crop it's like doing C.P.R. on somebody who's been dead for a 100 years you know it doesn't make any sense it's way down the line it's over game over so most of those are. Contact homicides in other words and you put it on the surface of a router leaf or whatever and that'll keep the spore from from germinating so that eliminates the germination if it doesn't affect it through a contact if it's a maybe it's. Somehow germ it confuses the germ tube so it never really finds the place then you know it affects the germ too or maybe perhaps it affects formation but whatever it is it's going to be from here that way only a slight few fungus sides can actually kill a fungus and none of those are approved organic use and all of them are extremely toxic you don't want to put it in your body so if you're going to eat organic that doesn't exist in the organic world there is no such thing as a fungus side meaning that it actually kills you the idea that kills there is no. For fungicide in organic everything is a preventative Yes that's why they tell you you know spray baby spray get all this stuff and spray they come in they want to sell you all the sprays like I talked this morning prevention the best prevention is not true sprays that's kind of like saying the best prevention is through vaccination and that's prevention is through nutrition developing the plant and given the plant the ability to have a strong immune system and fight off these pathogens and of course proper more secure environment management double nickel again is is a contact double nickel is honest. For. Africa anyway I forget the active ingredient double nickel I'm trying to remember but anyway if you do a search on the that it is a contact based fungus side it can work in the root system as a drink as well as a spray but again it needs to be there before the inoculate gets there and remember what I tell you that there's so much in Auckland out there I've used these products before and I find that they're only marginally effective the only thing that I have found that is really really keep them out is proper nutrition you can use these products but they're almost marginally effective so the question is you know what hydrogen peroxide can do to fungal spores Well hydrogen peroxide in San today which is a product that is commonly used which is a peroxide with the per person and acid mix of very strongly concentrated that is used for sanitizing you know taking that approach of coming in and this just clean everything and kill everything. This is such a serious protect and when you bring in these peroxides for most of those they won't do anything all they're going to do is kill the actual spore So let's go for example to this what do we have here apple scab so an apple scab we have the ASCO spore. And the ASCO Spore is inside the asker's and the asker's is inside the P.C. I'm so you realize if you're going to go out and spray for example Saturday so you go out and get a wild idea going to go outside you can spray all your leaves with sanity you want to you want to kill it all with this proxy I'd personally Kassam it well 1st of all that stuff has to break through the pair of P.C. I'm right and then break through the ASCO spore to finally get to the ask and sort of the ask us to finally get to the ask for another word that has 3 levels of penetration has to go through before has any chance of killing that Spore 1st probably not going to work the question is about using products like sodium bicarbonate or what was the other one with charcoal powder etc to try to knock down some of these spores. The answer is really no charcoal patters pretty much like. Bio chard which is really nothing more than like humus it's really useless in that department it's good for pulling perhaps having metals and other things but definitely not for spores it's not going to really hold on to a spore spores actually too big by the time they get into the. Humus except for because at that point you're really dealing with some really small stuff the other product he said sodium bicarbonate they don't use that as much as they used potassium salts of fatty acids to try to talk not fungus is down and that usually only works and it's only marginally effective but when it doesn't work it usually only works on very simple funguses with very weak walls cell walls that will actually throw a mineral imbalance into the into the fungus by throwing too much excessive potassium in it that will cause it to shut the system down but a lot of time to doesn't even kill me all it doesn't slow him down so all it does is buy you a little bit of time. But the problem with using those types of products is when you use them as a fully or spray if you are they tend to burn the crop because most people tend to run high potassium. And if you're running a high level of potassium the soil and use that and also fatty acids like mill stop I believe is the name of the product if you spray that on there you're going to shoot the potassium up in your crop and you could potentially get potassium burn in that crop so you can't use it liberally you have to be very restricted unless you know that you have a potassium deficiency so when and then if you were to use a sodium product you would have the same issue you get in salt burn on the crop because you dump them too much salt and you throw in chemical imbalances on the plant it's not it's not really in other words you create more problems than yourselves and it's not really a good approach but you know people have used it it is marginally effective they like to sell you these products you just got to know what they can do and what they can't do and for the most part like I said if you're already to the point where you're looking out across that's hit hard by a fungal pathogen like we talked about any one of these 3 will if it's late forget it. If it's least bought Honestly I get lease bought a cage only. I don't do anything I just keep believing. And it's just it's not that big of a deal it's just an ugly spot on the leaf but if for some reason it gets really really bad you have serious problems somewhere else and usually it's your chemistry is not right in the soil if it's bad enough to where you're worried about it with early blight you can usually get away with it you can usually control the humidity again with late blight there's not there's no spray to control it and any production system that they have sprays to try to prevent the establishment laid by but once it takes off there's nothing to spray the gains over the product they're metal Bromide is what put strawberries number one of the dirty dozen list that is a very very seriously toxic chemical that you really don't want to use so his statement is that when you start using a lot of these products you kill beneficials especially when you dump them into the into the drenching you dump them into the root system and methyl bromide strawberries are typically grown on the ground only just now started growing greenhouses but when they go out they spray the Roma in the ground they cause they wreak havoc on that ground. And they're having serious problems and O'Driscoll ease that. They pretty much have the monopoly in Watsonville in Salinas for strawberries and I know that their production systems are start to look elsewhere OK So the question is how long does it take to collect correct the nutritional problem so you can grow that crop again will 1st depends on how bad it is and 2nd it depends on the crop so for example. If you're dealing with a short season crop then really you're not going to get the season's going to be over before you correct it you can come in you can make additions and you can try to get it right but the best thing to do is to once we're going to start all over again you know take your soil sample make the changes apply it fill it all down mix it all and start over and have a better better luck next time that would be my approach maybe if I didn't like certain things like potassium you could put in the ground the react pretty quick if you happen to have a deficiency in potassium magnesium you can turn an absence all you can get in the ground and get magnesium up calcium usually takes a considerably long time if we're going to lime it to get that calcium out so you're talking over a month before you can really see a serious change in that calcium unless you're going to come in and use. A synthetic form of calcium like calcium nitrate or calcium chloride then you can get the calcium up pretty quick. It really depends on the crop and the nutritional deficiency of nutritional imbalance OK The question is is gypsum any faster than lime Well depends on what type alignment is really only through types of calcium that's CITIC lime Dometic lime and then there's. Gypsum which gypsum is calcium sulphate of course Dometic line is calcium carbonate magnesium carbonate declines just calcium carbonate all of those take quite a bit they takes a good minute and it really depends on your production system for how long it's going to take and it also depends on how finally. When they mined them whether or not they crushed down and how fine that that is actually crushed so if you're using more of an agricultural line which is more pelletised line I could take months to break down if you're using like a micro Nies limestone that could probably break down and in a few weeks in depending on your speed system maybe if you're very acid it could probably break down in a matter of a few weeks. But that it's not going to be right away. So his statement is he would recommend using Gyptian and less you have a minimum amount of calcium which again goes back to what I said it depends on your imbalances and I believe that that's largely driven by the fact that the sulfate in the calcium is and oftentimes in the sitting soils or low calcium soils is too high for there to ever actually for it's in other words it's more likely to participle take calcium and actually release calcium so which means that it's going to lock up calcium and stead of making it available to the plant I'm sorry so the question is you go out scouting and you have powdery mildew and you find it on tomatoes depends on how severe it is now if you find it early enough it won't be severe So my 1st response would be a daily thing and then I would go look at my nutrition numbers and see what's going on 2nd would also be to go look at your 3rd even look at my mind irrigation system and make sure that I'm actually irrigating properly the crop is not ground stressed or water along this media was brought to you by audio verse a website dedicated to spreading God's word through free sermon audio and much more if you would like to know more about audio verse if you would like to listen to more sermons lead to visit W W W audio or.

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