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Plant Pathology - Part 5

Michael Trevizo

Presenter

Farmer, Agricultural Reformer, Production Manager at Five College Farms, & Soil Scientist with a focus on Soil Science and Agronomy; Education: Bacherlor of Science in Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State University.

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  • January 15, 2019
    8:00 AM
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OK so I talked a lot about you know there's a lot of questions what do I spray in how do I deal with it and blah blah blah you know it's I'm not against using sprays necessarily I think there are certain situations where you got to use something and spray it. But you know you it's not going to solve all your problems folks you got to get to the point where Try at least work to that point where your nutrition is right and you don't really need to worry about it and in the event something goes out of whack OK then you can turn to a spray or 2 and if you turn to a spray or 2 what are you using and is it worth it we have you have different reasons why you may want to spray her but you may want to do so I just caught photocopied these pages that I took out of that handbook and they have a lot of valuable information. But again there are some products in here I would never use ever I would never touch them. Whatever biome heard of the one I'm I'll never use them in my farm even if that means I'm going to go out of business I am not going to use them because I don't believe in shutting down people's nervous systems I don't believe in destroying their guts I don't believe in you know a lot of other things I just don't think that's what the Lord called us to do so what can you use well well I guess we'll start in the front here scouting guidelines for biological control options for bedding plants and it talks about all these different issues here it tells you how to monitor where to look and biological control options so I talked about Scouting that very 1st page is all about scouting. All right so for a lot of you especially the folks that are just barely getting into farming that's all news for you so read up on that you will definitely be educated on that we'll move to the next page because I don't want to spend much time there can read that on your own time now we're at table 19 page 54 from the sides and bacteria sides labeled for vegetable transplants and bedding plants so every country is different in the United States you have certain products that are labeled for vegetable use doesn't necessarily mean that they're good for you it just means that the government said they're good for you you understand the difference. OK So the very 1st one there is a never that's a never a serious danger and my brother is actually working on a Ph D. doing a bunch of the research on as oxy strobe and what that is there anybody heard of the socks and strobe and sold under the name of heritage you can get heritage. It tends to be used on the actual production for spraying it says the target pest right here Leaf spots and blights downy mildew betide is blight powdery mildew downy mildew depending upon crop leaf it such are labeled crops vegetable plants grown for transplant such as coal crops bold Dutch doubles cue curb its leafy vegetables peppers etc You go to the comment section all the way the right says preventative what I tell you earlier prevented till In other words it can't kill fungus. And curative broad spectrum fungus eyes this is saying curative which means it could potentially kill fungus side. The supplemental label used for vegetable transplants OK This particular as oxy Stroman actually causes chemical imbalances in the neurons shut in the thing down what do we have neuron receptor in our bodies as well so what do you think that does. So some people are suggesting that that one has something to do with autism I don't have the science on and on it's just what some people suggest they go down to the next one is Oxy strobe and benzo vended I can't even pronounce that one same thing I would never use these type of products some of the key words you need to look for. Oh well now you have basic copper sulfate knots of old one has been used for many many years. It's very it nowadays it's marginally effective it doesn't really work that well but it can work on some cases then you have a bacillus I'm a local fashions which is double nickel that is rather over here talked about I think is this one over here that's a I'm a little fashioned It's just a bacteria exiting In other words it's what bacteria is released to fight funguses or to break them down or prevent them from forming so they discovered that this particular bacteria can do that so they harvest that act that and they use and that's a product that I actually use and you can see somewhere on here it says it's approved Yes it's got a little O.-G. on it which means it's approved for Again if you use the other ones do not have 0 G. They are not approved we're going to use. The Camillus which just so the Sonata same thing for fungus is but. You have ceased which is a different type of bacillus ability which is you know you have different strains of different products oftentimes have different strains of bacteria the very similar but they're not the same again that can be used as well so these are some of these products that are oftentimes used but the important thing is to understand what they're good for what they actually work for so when you are told spray this or spray that you know look into that product figure out what the active ingredient is and if you really feel comfortable using it but also sometimes you'll find that the does it doesn't work. For example over here says Target purse for bacillus of Tillis we're talking about seize from the land of Tiriel least powdery mildew to try to blight downy mildew etc etc This one US sees it can be used as you know you go away I'm sorry go all the way to the right you see broad spectrum pesticide preventative biological fungus and begin application one can conditions in greenhouse favor disease development through coverage they're all coverage is essential what does that tell you right there it's not going to knock down the fungus it's telling you right there it's not going to do it so if you already have a disease that so developed and you think that you can you see a product like ceased and knock it down it's not going to knock it down if anything it's just going to prevent that. A sexual reproduction cycle you know that short cycle might slow that down a little bit but it's not really going to knock down the fungus that's already there so the pen's on what crop you're dealing with if you're grown peppers for example you know you only get a few peppers in the season is over so it's probably not going to do you any good if you're growing tomatoes in a greenhouse It just keeps going and going and going you might be able to prevent it the new leaf that you vegetative matter you know again if you're not likely to be grown in that environment likely are going to be grown in a short season environment so if you're dealing with it it's probably not much good and you could go down the list and find a whole lot more products in here here's another one somebody mentioned hydrogen peroxide and Percy take acid which in here doesn't say Saturday but they saw it as accident 2.0 Santa date is the same thing down you know the. Bloods rootsy eccentric such are works by contact which has to touch it with means it needs they're all spraying and when you do some thorough spraying on these type of products sometimes you really stump the plant. I've seen some products that have just. Hydrogen peroxide they just stop it in its tracks in other words production stops so yeah maybe you'll get the fungus to slow it down but. You're really not going to get ahead so I guess the point I'm trying to get to is 1st off some of these are extremely toxic and the ones that are not necessarily that toxic in your proof or again abuse. Are really nothing but but in the dreams. He was them and they don't really change that much they're only marginally effective which means that yeah it might work but probably not you get back to the point I've been trying to make it's nutrition that you really need to look at. However I'm I'm wanting to educate you on what these products are then you have all the petroleum oils on the next page. Table 19 I think you have a fungus eyes you have all these oils and in. What. Renewed there are some products that work like. They don't really they're listed here in alphabetical order and it's not really biased or compart or would you call it. Compartmentalize in any way but there are some products that I really like Michael stop is is. A good one for preventing damping off streptomycin known and looking for sole for powdery mildew is it's not even marginally effective I found it to not even do much of anything I have had almost no success spring sulphur to control powdery mildew. And in my experience anyway maybe somebody else has but I certainly haven't there was another one in here looking for root which is track of Burma but I don't see it in here oh there it is tried to Derma Harzi on and tried to Dharma. It is root children which will plus. That works really good against some of these are actually really good things to put into your soil good soil and another these are living organisms that you're putting into your soil versus a dead exit date or some chemical has been extracted that is simply just supposed to stop things. I don't really believe so much in that as much as I do believe in putting proper inoculating So we talk about an ocular aiding the soils last year I think I did a soil biology class and people said well what do I put in there and I'm like OK well has so many different things well here's a list of things and one of the main things that you can look for if you're looking to see whether you're applying a living microorganism or you're applying an exit a is it tells you right on the label so if you're good like trying to determine for example you get root chilled is going to tell you 2500000000 colony forming units program that means colony for me units it's a life inoculated versus so many milligrams of a certain exit date of a certain bacillus of a certain concentration then you know you're just looking at an exit date it's use it once and it's done versus you can apply it it's a living organism it's going to multiply and produce more spores it's going to actually cover the root system and prevent fungus is from attacking the root system as well as micro apply which I don't think is on the list and that's a little too similar to. My Go apply M Y C O apply OK let's get started with the city oh my Kotak this is the one that most of us are somewhat familiar with and this is the type of fungus that a lot of people like to eat. And don't know what they're reading. And some people come in and say have you have you read the quote by Ellen White that says that we shouldn't eat mushrooms or something along those lines I don't remember anybody have that quote off the top of their heads a little more for us I read it somewhere I can't remember where it's been an awful long time but anyhow we'll talk about what a mushroom really is OK so the city on my coat up this is the last fungus I'm going to talk about. This one is has 4 major pathogen groups which are the root rot and webbed lights that you find a lot of times and sterile fungus root and rots of forest and fruit trees of cereals rust of grasses and. Apples will cedar apple rust that's a big city a mighty pines. Rose family coffee etc. Let's see Dutch elm disease is also the city OH MY see there's actually that there'd by this beetle the dark beetle which wiped out most of the Dutch elm in the. Midwest part of the United States and here is you see the difference pours he's actually put out different spores to the thing that's really interesting about some of these big city Oh my so here's another. Bronze thing. Actually I wish I would have put this up earlier I'll put this up again. For you guys too if you want to learn more about asking my see diseases these websites here especially A.P.'s net dot org Is there any particular disease or pathogen that you're dealing with. A.P.S. is the American. Society for plant pathology or something like that or an American pathological society that's what it is and the website is A.P.'s net dot org And they have tons of information on different diseases how to manage the diseases not about the life cycle so everybody in here is doing something different growing something different there is no way I can touch on everybody's problems but whatever you have it's a pretty good chance that if you go to the A.P.S. it vs net org There's a lot of educational information there for you so I'm going to go ahead and apple scab white mold or mildew eccentrics after Eastern Filbert blood and what is growing the then I'll start talking about the city of my code Oh so. Of course this has a high fee which are the same as the ask them I see where you have these connections here the only thing that's really different is the way that they actually meet again their cell walls are also made of cotton. And sexual reproduction is of the city Oh spores produce externally on club like or for cell the city I'm like such as these which you'll find are actually what you're eating when you're eating a mushroom So 1st group root rot and web pathogens fact they're facultative parasites mostly in her vicious plants diseases caused by stir sterile fungus is a sexual reproduction is the most common type sexual reproduction in this area is very very rare as well so these type of diseases don't usually become something else that's why when we when they when they bred 1st for a stem or us. Resistance in wheat they did it in the fifty's sixty's or so seventy's so here we are 50 years later it's taken 50 years for the fungus to finally you know evolve if you will I don't really like using that word but now we have fungus is that can actually overcome those genetic resistance and so it took a long time because it's extremely rare to have sexual reproduction in these funguses. Here's Tony are examples of that damping off of alfalfa called The Rise of Tonia you see it there that's of the city Oh my I see black colors glitterati of potatoes is also. The city of my seat fungus Here's the. Hunk of. Fungal high fees this is how you can tell that it is of the city OH MY see and not to ask oh my see is because they had these these teas almost perfect you know 90 degrees in the way that the fungus actually interact with each other where they intersect and you don't normally see that in any of the other fungus and so if you're wondering whether you have a pithy M or you have. To actually look at the fungus again you've got to get that microscope get that fungus get get those alfalfa out of the ground take a look at it and see what's going on or you can send it in a 2nd a 2nd group or the rights of trees which is. This is you normally see the actual center of the tree of your walk to the forest and you see the center of the tree is rotted out and the tree fell over those are usually the that's heart rot of whatever treat it is with hit with that and those of course are also the city of my seeds and those fungus is spread from tree to tree via root to root contact and then the city OH MY see is the one that is known for being the biggest living organism in the world that they found out that these organisms can stretch miles and miles and miles and all be connected to each other some studies have shown that these guys actually. These guys in other globular my seeds which is a different fungus actually communicate they use fungal high fees to communicate with each other. It's I don't even understand it myself but it's amazing how these trees in the forest can actually talk to each other and send out signals by sending out different chemicals etc that get into the fungus and eventually find their way into the neighboring trees and how they do that. I don't know they could even exchange nutrients and you know if one plant has too much of one thing and the other one is deficient it can release it to the roots and send it off to another tree it's it's fascinating absolutely fascinating how those fungal organisms work in the 4th floor and of course they have a large host range from oats and grapes and pines and fruit trees excessive etc They are very aggressive colonizers of dead wood so every time you see wood rotting somewhere that rotting that happened with a fungus is usually here to the city Oh I see so here are some mushrooms these are the actual reproductive organs when the 2 different the city of my seeds come together and they produce a sort of a mushroom they produce the the actual spores are in that mushroom and that's what you're eating you're eating the actual reproductive organ of the fungus which is really which is really interesting when I 1st learned that I got kind of grossed out and want to eat mushrooms anymore. Is just me and anyway inside the gills of the mushroom if you take the mushroom sort of upside down and open up those gills what you have inside of there would be actually see with a microscope are these the city I'm and this is what you see there and on the top are the actual sports of those of the spores of the city and from the mushroom or the compound that's actually in the gills of the mushroom which is this is what you're eating throw rhizome or are aggregate. You know again they tear up most of your trees that in the forest that you see destroyed. It's this type if you're dealing with orchards Sometimes you have these issues and again it's usually the city of my seed pathogens. I talked about that earlier. Here is what is this poplar tree and the whole center was rotted out the tree just fell over. So that's an example of a fungus wiping out trees Here's a conk is the same thing that's the city of mice it's a similar to a mushroom except it's a calm it's the same way you have a lot of fungal spores right underneath it you have a commons gills like fish and a bunch of spores inside of that and you can see how they come in through the center of the tree and their work their way to the outside and that's how they put the new spores out. The 3rd group Smuts and this one to me I I was really grossed out by this one but. You'll see in a minute there's 2 kinds of spores to tell your Spore and there's the Presidio spore this the city of my seat to me was the hardest one to learn about so I'm trying I'm going to try not to go too much into it but it has so many different stages that it goes through and comes back that this is the only one that has usually to host so it's it starts on one host like cedar and then it goes to another host like apples so with you're dealing with cedar apple rust because it's a rust on both apples and cedars so to complete a whole life cycle it needs both host not just one you remove one of those host you destroy the life cycle very interesting so the Tilia spores and of the city of spores of the 2 main spores that you have to worry about. Let's see so host tissue infected initially health understand disease cycles and smoke from Guy see you can have issues with the seeds you can have in the soil growing tissues except for the c. I can't remember what I was trying to say not my brain is still tired I put the slide together and I forgot what I was trying to say I'm sorry. It happens I guess anyhow it's obligate parasite mostly it was known as a replacement disease because the fungus tell us sports replaced a normal seasonal plant this is actually talking about ears of corn to read smut in corn or smut in grain it actually replaces the consumes the seed in which you end up with the small in the place of the sea and anyhow it's not to get is also associated with when you eat it was a bird got of barley or wheat I can remember got right there you go you go out of rye it actually produces chemicals that are known to be. Essentially yeah. So hallucinogenic would be a good way I forget there's another word psycho something or another I can't remember anyway. Then I go crazy. From you go back maybe heard of the Salem witch hunts Anyway they believe that these women were eating a lot of smut and or sorry. Rhi was with. Her got and that essentially it made them go crazy spoke of a interesting story how a fungus can literally make you go crazy. And of course I think there's a example barley. And you can see how it actually can seem the actual seed on the flower of the barley which is the seed and there's an image of the sea that's an image of a combine there so if you have a smoke in a barley field then you combine ing all the sudden boom it all those fungal spores out in the air and that's not usually a good thing for a guy on a combine Here's another picture of a combine You can hardly see it but. That what that out here is corn with smut and this is common corn locally infected this is more of an issue in Mexico what I found that was really disgusting is that in Mexico eating that is considered a delicacy. If I could never bring myself to eat that. Anyhow that's just a little here and there you see the corn you see the smoke partially consuming the corn of course these are the Tilia spores of the smoke these are long lived rusting spores so they survive a really long time. Very difficult to kill the actual sport. Now we're going to in the 4th group which is the Russ I think a lot of people are more used to the rust you can get rust on your flowers you can get rust on. Your orchards even your apple trees you can get rust on what else we have here. Let's see attack leaves and stands over the other one I can remember wheat week is the one that is actually hit wheat and roses are the 2 that get hit the most by rust at least most popular in this is some rust on Little Flower leaves rose leaf I'm sorry and Russ ho strategy some rust complete their lifecycle on a single host which is out of patience which is a rose rust it only actually infects the rose tree it goes from the leaf to the Rose and back to the leaf. Other rust longer require 2 different plant host to complete their life cycles these are heteros is what is called the actual term example of stem rust of wheat it's probably cyclical on wheat with this which uses the your radio for and then it becomes a Tilia for or to LEO on wheat and then this bird Goni I'm. Barberry So it actually requires 2 different hosts to actually complete its life cycle. The cedar apple rust is another example it's monolithically the Tilia is on the seat or no you're already a stage and the sperm go Nia and asked are on the Apple so you actually have 2 different hoster Here's an example of where we're going to this is this is on a rose I believe and this is also on the rose leaves here you see the rust coming out that affect the petals. This is usually an issue with folks that are dealing with ornamentals and have a roses Here's some more rust on this on these them I believe and this is the repeating stage of the summaries he's bores in here they're not quite like the ask him I see but they have some similarities in that of course it comes in from underneath the epidermal selves and then just shoots right out. See this is wheat right here you have to lean on your radio spores and black in the orange and there are the actual spores that's taken back that week and then here's a cedar Apple Rossley have a Tilia Gallagher until you spores on the cedar and then you can see the different spores here and then on Cedar apple rust and then over here you have the same spores of the city over the city until you cetera this gets really this is where I talk about that it gets really complicated because these are all the different stages this. This was the. Is usually coming from the apple tree the overwintering stage which goes to the city and to the city of sports in the spring will go into this from audio the A.C.M. to the A.C.S. to the radio to the radios for them back to the till in the back to the 2 leaders for so this is overwintering stage this is the repeating stage this is the overwintering host this is the repeating summer host so a fact that it's on 2 different ones as rather rather complicated so to whichever one is the one that is of value is the one you want to keep the other ones the one you want to get rid of it's that simple this is the life cycle this is kind of complicated here so over here you have a grass host we can say perhaps. Well we know here you have the ultimate alternate host which is the Barberry So you have on the grass host you have the room you're really young which is a repeating cycle throughout the growing season and then when it's all done towards the fall it begins to form the chili on which 4 go through carry AGA me and then it becomes a pro of a city Explorer then and now it's on the actual secondary winter host it'll sit there until the spring and then in the spring at a wake up again and you have the Pennsy arm or whatever. This knee I'm sorry which forms an A.C.M. which comes out here form a seal spores which land on your grass host your wheat and it starts all over again this is why they couldn't get rid of this thing is easy it was so difficult to get rid of they even tried to go around and actually kill all the berry barbers and then there's there was some. What was back in the fifty's and in the sixty's the federal the U.S.D.A. went out and they actually paid people a bunch of money to go out and kill as many as they could and couldn't do a whole lot because it was so prolific and then they came up with they ended up breeding thanks and down in Mexico they bred a resistance to this and they brought those Rust back their nuts when it went from some of these taller riders down to your lower varieties that we now traditionally consumed but that's how that was the main instrumental thing to changes from the tolerated to the short of righties was the actual stem rust so I'm not going to go much more on that there's a lot that can be said but here's an awful lot more on and I'm guessing a lot of you guys or. I don't know some of the guys of a market with a lot of information. Some of them have been here for a while the question was I bought a bell. It was mostly I put it in my garden as a mall and then around some tomatoes in the new development. Fruit. OK so. It's highly improbable if you put it on the tomato that it may have been but could have been I'm not going to say it wasn't because I really don't know. I don't know exactly what pathogen was affecting you if it was even a pathogen it may just been nutritional issues. But I it's highly improbable However I think that there could be pathogens in Alfalfa that could affect your legumes because enough of the legumes and some of those pathogens that it could've had on it could have also. They could have also used or of gone over to legumes as a host but again it's hard to say most mostly I would say probably not probably not probably what you're most looking out of to try to and that's what would probably consume that if you're in a most environment. The question is if there are products on the market that claim to have my feelin's and I'm not supposed to be Mike arises. So. I can't really speak for every product out there the difficulty with buying some of these biological inoculates is that nobody regulates them and we don't really know what's in them or the quality. There's no checks and balances on those products so hard to say what they're really good for. I always encourage people to say what are you looking for what particular pathogen are you looking for something not pathogen. Species are you looking for of that period or fungus expectorate and if it's not on there and it doesn't guarantee you say. Still it's. Probably my rectum that's a good one but Silla fall in our what is that good for that's good for mineralize and phosphorous OK great. It tells you it's in the bottle but how many how many see if you are in there and others see if you is a colony forming units program of. Actual portion then you don't really know what you have so my comment I don't really have a lot of can comment on it besides that you need to know what that product is and look into that product. And understand that sometimes you're being told things that are maybe not worth the label so he's saying there's a function change over time and I had an idea that I thought that may be I think the scientific world says a lot of these are new but no there's actually some study that has shown that Ross and other things you know the Romans were fighting at the Greeks were fighting it's about baloney in the New Addictions we're fighting with some of these problems and then. They opened up sarcophaguses recently and in the last 4510 years or so in Egypt that they discovered in the full these bodies that were very well mamma fied and if found that they had all the same disease as we have today. And I don't think that the plants were that different what has changed is us and send our agricultural practices the way we do things you know we're depending more. You know we are counting every farmer has every year has to feed more and more people. And more and more people the world is rapidly moving into the cities less and less people are actually trying to grow less people want to grow. I mean we're all as a planet we're really setting ourselves up for failure because we're pushing the soil for more and more and more whatever we get out of it we put it in a truck we send it off the some city somewhere and never comes back to the farm so you're constantly mining the foreign ground out of nutrients you farm that piece of ground for year after year after year because all your equipment works real nice in that terrain and you know it's just it's just not how it used to be done all the way around you know so there's so many things that are just not being done the way they used to be done even 400 years ago much less 4000 years ago that we're creating we humans I guess because of sin. We're destroying the planet we're destroying this planet in a way that. There's no sense in trying to fight to save the planet and I'm very thankful that God has promised to us a new planet that he has said that the meek shall inherit the earth because I have no desire to inherit this planet in its current state it doesn't have anything good to offer. The new earth is the only thing we really have a hope for OK So the question is he's in boarding a lot of horse manure and compost into his soils what you need to worry about by doing that. My answer is No to compost are created equal so I can't answer for you exactly what you're doing but just curious compartmentalizing it if we could You're looking at horse manure anyone who or is the excrement of an animal. So you have to ask yourself what are we putting in that animal now horses are more likely to not be bombarded with the type of chemicals that perhaps you know. Cows and chickens and swine goats except you might be hit with that or in a production system where we're trying to use them for milk or eggs or what have you. So it's not likely that you're really getting real heavy toxic levels of any particular thing that you really need to worry about however Yeah there's probably some an antibiotic say in there from time to time and if you're getting if you're located anywhere around here and those horses are in areas where the ground is waterlogged then they probably have hooks issues and they're probably given them you know antibiotics for what hope issue they may have. Told you might have to worry about the an idiotic scene in there. Which may be that's a concern they're probably most definitely being vaccinated so whatever's in the vaccination is going to come out of the tailpipe. So you may have to worry about that and then you have to worry about well they're being fed something to what's in the feed so. Around a Roundup Ready or alfalfa has gotten pretty popular in the Pacific Northwest I don't I still don't think it is I still think it's a small percentage of the overall amount of off Alpha that's grown up here but it's still out there so you know if it is then you've got to worry about the life of Satan you've got to worry about. Loading Trishna levels in mean there's a lot of things you can worry about because again you're taking a product that you don't know you really don't know 1st off there's the fee whatever it was oats rye off off etc It's belled package put in a drop sent off somewhere and it was processed and then ultimately it ends up on the shelf somebody come around buys it gives it to the horse in the horse each step plus maybe some pasture some grazing except for then you're taking that excrement from that horse and now you're going to haul it to yet another place so I mean think about how many times that particular those molecules have been put on a truck and hauled somewhere by the time it finally got to your farm you have no idea what you're putting on the ground. Well I mean it's complicated I don't know what else the favorite. Venue I guess I could talk about that Cassim and phosphorus you could definitely get too much but I think in the ground you can get too much phosphorus in the ground but that's not usually an issue in some places but I don't know where you are maybe it is maybe it isn't you know that again is a unique scenario because some people are very deficient in phosphorus and it might do them some good to a man with compost but. It's a different it's a different question I mean it's a difficult question to answer without knowing more information Yes Ellen White says she talks about particular termites and a couple of the things that we need to spray them. These things came up from the Lord but her statement is really more towards an attitude that people had about. All right I'll read this quote This is an ass 70 dash 1901. And this was a. Manuscript releases right no manuscripts OK The earth has been cursed because of sin and in these last days vermin of every kind will multiply these pests must be killed or they will annoy and torment and even kill us and destroy the work of our hands and the food of our land and places their ants parentheses termites which entirely destroyed the wood woodwork of houses should not these be destroyed fruit trees must be sprayed that the insects which would spoil the fruit may be killed God has given us a part to act and this part we must act with faithfulness then we can leave the rest with the Lord so like I mentioned earlier there is a price for spray but we can't always run to the spray. Secondly as the Bible says In our ignorance god winks But the more that we learn the more that God reveals to us about what we're doing wrong the more he expects from us so when you begin to learn how to deal with some of these diseases and you start to. Amend the soils and fix the soils and get to where it should be I can't tell you that I'm not going to have any diseases. I could give you an example even in my own production system Thank you John. And my own production system last year we thought I mean I had a fit I had russet my on almost every single plant. I had a fitted on a lot of plant of we had about $13000.00 tomato vines at that time I couldn't get it under control but I walked into the middle of the production system like that I took soil samples I looked at everything that was wrong and then did everything to the best was in the load and given me this year I had to break out of rough that mine they broke out in areas where the irrigation messed up with the trip wasn't dripping with the emitters were emitting when I fix those problems I thought that it was over when I 1st got them I thought it was going to be impossible because I could never knock them down and now I have no problem I had a little bit of caterpillars and I sprayed with Phyllis their engines a silicon caterpillars and now I've got nothing else just a few cabbage for the birds is all I had and I got to feel the cabbage right outside the greenhouse covered in cabbage ludicrous but I only have about a few dozen cabbage leaves in the greenhouse. I have almost no pests and diseases and a Harley overspray anything so that's just my experience. The Lord is going to teach you and lead you in a different path than he has led me but if you can learn the right principles and adapt them you can you can expect to be successful and you can turn to the Lord and say I have done all that you have taught me Father please do the rest that's all we can do. OK the questions about mulching organic knowledge normal plastic milk etc. The black plastic mulch I think is an excellent mulch in today's age in the United States for farming where you know labor is getting difficult to acquire and expensive the less you can do the better so to use the black plastic mulch for me is a huge blessing as well as increasing the soil temperatures which will help to increase the microbial activity in the soil. The the back to eating as some would like to take the dumping of large amounts of wood chips. You know which no 2 trees are created equal there's conifers of cities forest conifer forest eccentric cetera there's different types of trees they have different issues they have different crystal issues they break down differently they're not going to all break down and give you the same blessing Secondly many people don't understand what the guy actually did which was mostly just bulging with composted wood chips not what chips big difference huge difference if you're talking about going from 500 to one ratio of carbon to nitrogen 500 to one is about what the carbon nitrogen ratio is of a freshly wood chip. Freshly chip tree versus a deep already compost a tree that maybe $150.00 to $200.00 so the difference is massive you've cut your carbon in half by the time you put it down but then even then it's still too high so that can really get you in trouble depending on where you are and then there's solar solarization and there's a silent starts that people put down with all sorts of other things. Is something that I've I've tried and I've been very successful with in certain areas with certain crops because it's a mulch at 1st and then you just a little down but it's expensive so sometimes maybe grass were better. I don't know straw any type of straw hay you can get would be an excellent but. Oh the pathogens OK So the question what with respect to pathogens. It depends now on so in the wood chips I wouldn't worry too much about pathogens because 1st off wood chips are mostly the. Lignin is what needs to be broken down. And only fungus can do that so those fungal organisms are particularly the City of my seeds and they don't really bother. You and your crops however there are other things in other words in order for the fungus to do that it needs certain Christian that it's going to it's going to take from the soil to do it so you may get a few an octal of a different source but then it goes back even further to what I was saying where there is so much an ocular mouth there that it's really really scared that you're going to bring in some good thing into your farm it's highly improbable that it's not. This media was brought to you by audio 1st a website dedicated to spreading God's word through free sermon audio and much more if you would like to know more about audio verse if you would like to listen to more sermons leave a Visit W W W audio verse or.

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