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Advanced Soil Science - Part 1

Michael Trevizo

Presenter

Farmer, Agricultural Reformer, Production Manager at Five College Farms, & Soil Scientist with a focus on Soil Science and Agronomy; Education: Bacherlor of Science in Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State University.

Conference

Recorded

  • January 16, 2019
    8:15 AM
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Our Heavenly Father we want to thank you once again for giving us the opportunity to be here and to be able to discuss and present these topics and father would pray that you would please be with us this morning and that you'd be with me you'd help me to convey this information in a way that would be beneficial to everyone the to your I thank you Father for this opportunity and pray asking this in Jesus name him in. All right so. Let's chance to meet some of you guys already today for a while not today but since yesterday and for those who don't normally Michael trivial. Will be presenting on source science today and I wanted to talk a little bit more on some I want to I know the subject has been discussed quite a bit already in previous agrah conventions and if any of you guys have actually gone on and heard any of the audio that's been put on audio verse from the last few years you know there's. A lot of what they said was kind of a repetition and. They're really trying to make certain points I didn't want to just repeat what has already been said so I will discuss some of those things but I wanted to kind of get into a new cat on a chip exchange capacity soils and what exactly they are and kind of give you guys an understanding of what that is and then we'll talk about balancing nutrition and how we may be able to manage it and now. You know the importance it plays when we actually look at doing soil tests and then of course when you get a soil test done maybe what type of soil test you want to look for and why you want to look for it so let's see there's a couple other things I want to discuss to think I talked about I on exchanges and soils I also want to talk about. That's the different nitrogen phosphorus and sulfur cycles when we start looking at some of the end ions and how we ought to consider what we have to consider when we want to manage those nutrients because those nutrients aren't held by coloreds there and ions which means that they cannot be there not cat ions in other words they have a negative charge instead of a positive charge therefore they're not going to be on your solar soil coeds or they're going to be very it will be there is some and I don't exchange capacity on your colleagues in your soil but it's very insignificant so we don't really want to focus or we don't usually focus on that and we don't really bother testing for that because the amount that's held is very insignificant so I'll start with the functions of agricultural soil so what is the purpose of the soil Besides you know walking on it and putting things on it. Some of the important parts that the plant plays is the fact that it anchors the roots so it's a physical structure a place to a foundation for the plant to be of course it supplies water to plants and roots provides air for plants and roots in 25 well the average poor spaces in any soil is 20 is a 50 percent and it's ideal to have 25 percent of your poor or 25 percent of that of that 50 percent which is half of that 50 percent more sure straight moisture so when we start thinking about more sure content we're talking about the poor space and soil so if we if I say that you're fully saturated that means that 100 percent of your poor space is full of water. So that means that that 50 percent is completely full of water that's full saturation and that that's essentially water logged that's not a condition you really want to have it's ideal to be a 25 percent air 25 percent water and then the other 50 percent being the actual mineralogy in the soil so that's C. OK of course releasing water with low levels of nutrient of nutrients Now I'm sure everybody in here is familiar with hydroponics right. Does anybody not know what hydroponics is OK we all got a pretty good grip on what that is so when they were growing in hydroponic soils what they do not hydroponics was and so when we were growing in a hydroponic production system well what they do is that they take the minerals that normally the soil provides for the plants and they flock for ways to put it into an equally as mature which means water solution that they can feed to the crop and essentially you're spoon feeding your crop Well when you're growing in soils what is referred to as a soil solution is similar to hydroponics in the sense that it is water that has nutrients available to the crop However the nutrients that are in that soil solution come from your colleagues and also come from your dick your organic matter that's been decomposed and worked on by microorganisms So those nutrients in the soil are are applied in a method that is very complex and different than the hydroponic system so when you're growing in the soils there are certain mineralogy in certain nutrients that can you can expect to be there that you cannot expect to find in a hydroponics Secondly the soil holds more sugar and hydroponics you don't usually have that because you're growing in Cocoa core or you're growing and be some other substrate that has no capacity to hold more secure because the poor spaces are too big. And compared to soils where you have kind of poor spaces that where the water can adhere to the forces of cohesion and adhesion on to the out on to these small particles of soil and are allowed to be available to the plant throughout different parts of the day to periods of dryness when there's no moisture coming in this is why in hydroponics at the pump break the crop is done. So it's a it's a challenge in hydroponics So I spoke about soil air being 25 percent water oh of course of the of the mineralogy in the soil that 50 percent you want 5 percent of that typically to be organic matter. And a desirable soil condition would look like this. There are a few instances. In coastal regions in Alaska as well where your organic matter is extremely high maybe 25 percent 50 percent even and these types of conditions. In fact the soils where they are harvested factum peat moss are typically about 50 percent to 60 percent organic matter and then is just a ton over of organic matter and that's usually found again it's oils that freeze where that organic matter is or the microbes cannot work on that organic matter and break it down so you grow and then you freeze and then you grow and you freeze you get into the deserts into the tropics and you have very low organic matter typically in a surface in the soil because you might have some in the surface but very little in the actual soil because it's always warm and micro micro activity is constantly working on that breaking that down so you don't have this ability to buffer it and then of course in organic production systems or agricultural production systems sometimes you don't even have 5 percent you're lucky if you have one percent or 2 percent because we plough and then we break that ground down and we push it so hard that we rip everything out of that organic matter and we lose it so when when they can haul in the term organic agriculture they're the reason why they went with the word organic and not some other things sustainable or whatever other word phrase perhaps hip phrase you could think of as simply because their focus was on keeping healthy organic matter they did this through composting and other methods that have become popular over the years but essentially really what they were looking at is how have we traditionally farm over the last multiple millenniums and how is that different from what we've been doing once machines got involved and as well as chemicals and other genetics. And they use an awful lot of organic matter and they really try to keep no less than 5 percent. So anyhow that's where that term came from. I won't really go off more into the sea for parts of Korea so when we start looking at soil texture you know a lot of times I'll talk with farmers and they'll tell me oh well you know alfalfa really likes to be grown in a so Loman this is a clay loam and that's why my alfalfa doesn't do very well well. That's not really a good practice to have a good idea because when you start talking about so loaning play Loman sandy loam. I didn't put a soil triangle in this thing but anyhow really you're just talking about different portions of the soil and how much of it is actually play still in sand and when we look at this you know Sandy's of the size of particles from point $1.00 to point $2.00 inches which is rather large so sand is actually a very large particle it's actually rather heavy The bigger the particle the bigger the pore space which means the bigger the poor space the lower the water retention the lower the most a retention capacity of that soil is so this is why sandy soils drain well and don't hold more sugar while if we look at still you see it's point 002 all the way 2.001 inches. This is considerably smaller but even smaller yet is quale which is point 001 inches and below so it's clay is very very very small and you know Clay is actually very light compared to sand the silt or sand I'm sorry so and sand but the reason why we tend to think this farmers that Clay is heavier is because it's so small has such tiny spores poor spaces that the most Your comes in there and it doesn't leave so the heaviness comes from the water that's in the clay and not the actual clay so that's how those clay soils are so sticky and heavy even though the clay is actually light so here's a soil structure and when we start looking at. When we start to look at. Organic matter and the role it plays now we talked about these 3 cent silt in clay and it doesn't really matter whether you have sand silt or clay. There's this thing called Soil aggregates in soil aggregates it the good stuff in your soil that holds it all together and gives your soil structure it gives it character when you pick that soil up and you feel it and it crumbles nicely on you or it stays together so it doesn't fall apart get blown by the wind or get washed off the erosion when the rain comes that is soil aggregates and soil aggregates comes from decomposing or decomposed organic matter and that organic matter can be anything from your old Dog Skip to you know your great great grandfather to you know deer that you may have killed or you know the weeds that were there or anything that was ever alive that has died is organic matter in the soil anything that's any organism whatsoever so when we look at the organic matter in the soil and. Everything that was ever alive that means that at some point it had the nutrients it needed to be alive had the amino acids a needed it had if it had bones or had the calcium in the phosphorous that needed whatever that organism had while it was alive it gives up when it dies ashes to ashes dust to dust from the dust we came to the dust we shall return says the Lord everything that has ever been alive will return to the soil so whatever it takes to make something when it dies mineralisation of nutrients is the fancy term so scientists used to say the building blocks that once made that living thing are now breaking coming apart and are being made available for the next generation of living organisms so that makes sense OK wonderful. So it's an organic matter where we really focus to control our. An eye on exchange capacity if you will we don't normally talk or refer to it that way but essentially with organic matter you have different cycles I'll get into that a little bit later but a lot of your nutrients nitrogen in the form of nitrate phosphorus in the form of ortho phosphate and so for in the form of sofa it tend to come from your organic matter and. So when you want to manage those nutrients you really got to pay attention to your get it matter and out not all organic matter is created equal or there's typically 3 different fractions of organic matter we refer to them as the stable fraction of the intermediate fraction and then the active fraction so I'll start with the active fraction the active fraction is something that recently died so that could be grass that you just mowed yesterday that's your active Fraction It's in the ground it's dead it's not the cane it's rapidly releasing nutrients that enter the intermediate fraction is in between of course the active and the stable and I'll talk about the stable 1st because you'll understand intermediate better if I do so the stable fraction is a portion of the organic matter that we typically refer to as humus humans sometimes referred to but humans particularly and that is or complex carbon structures that have been broken down by bacteria and fungus in other organisms in the soil such to the point where there's really nothing left of them and when they get to that point they develop both an ion and carry on exchange capacities much the same way the clay in the soil does as well. Now remember I talked to you about play being so small now the clay is actually how has the carry on exchange capacity I'll talk a little bit later about Clay and what exactly is built up in play but Clay is ultimately extremely weathered rock now what type of clay you have depends on what type of a rock it is that was there it originally was and what stage of weathering it currently is in now when we saw the signs of start to talk about rocks they tend to say. This rock is 10000000000 years old or 500000000 years old or whatever exaggerated number they come up with now what you have to understand is that those numbers are kind of like light years. If I told you a 1000000 light years you would say well the Earth hasn't existed for a 1000000 light years well no but it's a unit of measuring distance right so again he's units are really units of measuring weathering Now whether that weathering was caused through time and moisture. Really varies because if you live in the tropics you're going to get much more weathering than if you live in the desert. In less time so in the desert you hardly get any pursue petition in some places you may not get a single drop of rain in an entire year while other areas are getting $80.00 to $100.00 inches of of annual rainfall that means you're going to see excessive weathering right so if you get $100.00 inches of annual rainfall you're going to see 100 years worth of weathering where you would see one year in an area where you get one inch of annual rainfall does that make sense OK. So supplying plant nutrients Now I talked about macronutrients and micronutrients So again oxygen phosphorus potassium calcium magnesium and so for these are your macronutrient all of these guys right here are extremely important when we start talking about soil fertility sole nutrient cycling crop nutrient management these guys are the absolute most important you just bought a farm maybe you just started gardening maybe you want to know what to do the 1st place to start is get this right I would add sodium to this but they tend not to like to do that and I just took this lie from somewhere else but me personally I would add sodium to this especially in the Pacific Northwest where you have a lot of perspicacious why because sodium washes off quickly and sodium is a necessary plant nutrient micronutrients you have chlorine Coble copper of iron manganese molybdenum nickel and zinc all of those are very important in metabolic processes in a plant I get asked all the time I got this pest or I got that pest or got this disease or got this other disease and yesterday I talked a lot about plant pathology and diseases and folks hit me with questions like I have this fungus or I have that fungus and I was trying to really emphasize the importance of if a certain metabolic. Action cannot or metabolic process cannot happen inside of a plant because it's limited by some nutrient then you set up a condition where you have simple substrate essentially simple food for simple organisms to consume and most your pests and diseases are simple organisms if they're on your crop consuming your crop that means that some metabolic process is being held the due to some nutrient deficiency and usually it's in the micronutrients but surprisingly oftentimes it's in the macronutrients so get them both balance and you'll be all right. I'll continue so where to plant nutrients come from I talked about decaying matter I talked about the weathering of soil so that's the breaking down of minerals but also from the additions by humans commercial fertilizers manures limes and of course sometimes even industrial pollution so whatever's coming out of that smokestack down the road is most likely on your farm on your garden so it's good to understand what they're doing there what they're burning of their putting out a lot of sulfate then you probably don't need to amend wood so for so you don't know what they're doing I was just talking with another gentleman the suspect that there's a lot of aluminum coming out of a stack somewhere nearby so maybe end up with aluminum toxicity in the soil or talk about what aluminum toxicity this does to the soil a little bit later but anything can come out of that So recycling plant nutrients is what I refer to as the organic is what I was referring to when I talked about organic so these little you know creepy guys here they really exist they're intended to represent microorganisms So bacteria fungus whatever is in that soil breaking down that you know straw or corn that you grew last year or year before last year 10 years ago or maybe grappa grew 40 years ago or 50 years ago it's still in the ground to some extent and if you have a well balanced soil well balanced mineralogy you will have a healthy plant around for a healthy soil micro biome and our soil micro biome is a lot like our stomachs microbiome you see when we look at the biology of a plant you won't find digestive organs. That's the biggest difference between plants and animals species plant species do not have digestive organs organ in organs I'm sorry and plant species I'm sorry animal species do so what is the what are the digestive organs of the plant. The soil. And the and the micro organisms in your soil so if you have a soil that has a microbiology that is completely destroyed it's like having a digestive track that has a microbiome that is totally destroyed what do you expect to find in a human being with a digestive track that is absolutely destroyed could be bombarded through all whatever it is chemical intoxications or chemotherapy or whatever it is you find malnutrition and disease it's no different in the soil you fix the soil you fix the crop we fix our diets in our microbiomes we can repair a tremendous amount an overwhelming amount of the disease in our constitutional frames so of course the breaking down of soil minerals you can have acid rain and water there usually is some left there's always some level of acid in rain. I don't think I put that slide into this one but as that acid rain or that acid and that water rains down on these rocks it leaches out it weathers away takes a minute amount of nutrients that enter into the soil solution and ultimately become available to your crops so nutrient additions by and by a commercial fertilizers you have. Usually those forms though those nutrients are in some sort of form that is available to the crop but sometimes it's not it has to be broken down. Often times or do dissolve quickly particularly line dissolve slowly as it neutralizes soil acidity and neutralize the carbonate that usually associated with that line whether it's magnesium or calcium and as they neutralize that acidity as that carbonate is worked out of there you get calcium and magnesium in exchange for that organic nutrient sources Manoora compost sewage sludge biosolids decay in nutrient releases similar to crop litter very similar So those are some of the benefits you get from. Maneuvers. The soil solution again as I spoke about earlier is that moisture that we talk about being in the soil. Sometimes soil water is complex a solution that contains many types of nutrients other trace elements complex organic molecules you have anything from your main 3 that they like to give a lot of credit to as well as all your macro and micro nutrients are in that soil solution so I want to talk about absorption now because I'm going to try to get into carry on exchange capacity it's not the intent for me to really focus on organic matter I talked about quite a bit about that last year I think in. The Series title what our soils so I would like to really share with you what ads or passion is there for 1st absorption is essentially what carry ons in the soil and humus in the soil does it doesn't absorb it adds orbs is it is anybody not know the difference I'm going to guess there's a few you that do don't. Have heavy Most of the room so the difference between adsorption and other is absorption is when you actually consume something like I can sit next to this guy but I could never absorb them I would have to like or something to absorb them is to put him inside of me make them part of me is to absorb to ads or is to put next to me so if I come over here and I grab them and hold them on tight so he can't get away from me that's ads or it's right next to it so these nutrients are not in other words they don't become part of the of the colored or the humans they're just held like a magnet next to these nutrients are held like a magnet next to the coloreds and the humus in the soil but see so when we yes they're actually dipole bonds they're weak bonds weak ionic bonds that hold it together. OK the surface area of clay remember I talked about how small clay is so if we were to get a quarter cup of pure play this could be but not claim a really light Klaver Mickey light play whatever that is there's enough surface area in a quarter cup to equal the surface area of a football field that's how much surface area is on clay it is tremendous. So oftentimes you really underestimate how how how large that areas and because there's so much area around play that gives it to the properties of adds or passion to hold on to these nutrients as well as water so I think I have some pictures in here of what Clay looks like but these are actually cartoon images so when we look at clay they tend to be sheets put together with little gaps in between them and these sheets here are supposed to kind of like the sheets in a battery or something or something else that they're supposed to represent what Clay looks like and let's see and and they are you know like I said they are stacked together like sheets of paper and of course they all have negative charges on it sometimes you do get some and ionic some positive charges on the side but they tend to be very few and very little and that's where you would get a little bit of an eye on exchange capacity but again like I said it's not usually given any respect because it's so insignificant it's not enough to really nourish your crop these negative charges that are on this clay they absolutely have to be balanced by some positive charge. So in this example here we're pretending that these are all different Catalans nutrients that are adsorb to that place if you can imagine that this is your soil or a particle of clay in your garden or in your farm. What nutrients are abnormal to that play are represented here by calcium magnesium potassium ammonium is also another one Sodium copper aluminum hydrogen except. Well abs or bond to these clay call oids and neutralize that negative charge it has humus or organic matter like I spoke about a moment ago has the same property except it doesn't really look like this these scribbles you see it's just that they come in so many different complex shapes and sizes but they're all very small that the only way that we can really try to convey what it looks like is to just put a bunch of squiggles on there because it's just so complex and unlike the clay the clay is very uniform I mean you can you can tell one from the next but either way at the same way you have these charges on the side and in this example here with a low a PH or 4 to 5 the soil is very acidic you have a lot of hydrogen ions held on to that humans and in this example with the neutral PH You have the sensually almost no hydrogen very little hydrogen and you have a lot of plant nutrients on there which could be different carry ons like calcium magnesium except for us and of course this is on your organic matter he can have the same situation with your play and the combination of both of those and their ability to hold on to nutrients is what we refer to as carry on exchange capacity OK so in the past we've talked to other folks have talked about that but for you to really get an understanding of what that is I really wanted to show you this image so you can see that what your soil has some ability to hold nutrients no matter where you are and here in the Pacific in the well and valley soils around here tend to have anywhere from 25 all it to 40. Millimoles per 100 grams of soil that's a pretty high exchange capacity you go to other parts of eastern Oregon it. Maybe 10 maybe 5 you go down to some of the weathered soils in the south it could be as little as 3 or 4 they're very weathered and they have very little exchange capacity especially in sandy soils. So an important thing to note is that the way we number these or the way that we try to quantify how many how much or how many or how much nutrients can be held on to these colleagues and onto this humus is by. Counting the well I'm sorry yes by counting the the end ions of the negative sides on it so some very important plant nutrients are and ions OK I'm sorry I skipped ahead here so some very plant nutrient some plant nutrients are and ions Like I said nitrate phosphate sulphate of course chloride is also a plant nutrient and. These wells are able to retain the end. Berries and it's again it's very insignificant so phosphate retention oftentimes happens in the soil. You can here's another issue as well I cover this but phosphate oftentimes is excessively applied in soils and when we apply excessive amounts of phosphorus it can complex with aluminum which drives ph but also it reacts with these colors forming ionic bonds and essentially which can never be broken again and essentially it reduces your carry on exchange capacity in your soil and you can never get that back so it's very very interesting so some folks of rhythm farms have really beat up their soils by excessive phosphate for allies or I believe I spoke about this a little but when you do this you can also get aluminum reactions aluminum phosphate solids and aluminum all speak about really drives acidity even though it has a 3 plus charge. And you would think it's a carry on because it's such a small molecule with such a high charge it actually breaks the bonds of water and will take the hydroxide but break the hydrogen off take that hydroxide 2 of them and hold on to them real tight and releasing the hydrogen out that's how it increases the PH of your soil or I'm sorry decreases the PH of your soil increases the acidity in your soil so if you're getting a lot of aluminum in your soil that can drive your PH down big time and this particular example phosphate retention in soil absorption on oxide surfaces which in iron oxide this is typically only and heavily weathered soils. Oregon is unique in that it has all of the 12 soils different sources which means that it has everything from extremely weather all the way to frozen glacier soils that are frozen you're around and everything in between that has every type of soil series you could ever want to look at is in Oregon so if you go to the coast of Oregon you can find very very weathered soils that mimic the soils of the tropics or the soils of the south you can find very rich or very rich Molex soils are rich in humus that are very fertile in the valleys you can find rocks soils in the mountains and it's it's all here for the looking if you're from here I encourage you to look into that because you can find that just about anywhere in here but this types of iron oxides tend to be in in the coastal regions and in areas where you see excessive rain and that is where you can form phosphate retention and soil through these complexes on to your colleagues. So it's work about that so all right now. They have the capacity to hold these nutrients right. So I'll talk a little bit later on calculating exactly how you can try to figure out how much of this is in your soil and what these numbers mean when you take your soil to be tested into a laboratory they will usually tell you what your carry on exchange capacity is your C C You look at this number you don't know what it means it's a very important number of As long as well as the numbers associated with Bay saturation nutrient management and decisions that you should make on applying certain fertilizers and nutrients to your crop but for now what I want to talk about is these clays how how do they get to the plant root I'm sorry these nutrients on these plays and on this humans how do they exchange into the plant root and the intermediary between the 2 is what we refer to as the soil solution and remember I talked about this is something similar to like hydroponic growing where what you have is a number of nutrients in the soil here. That usually directly represent whatever is on your colleagues which is here and you're humus So when we look at the plant roots they can't I mean the plant root this is probably even too large for what a plant root actually is the actual size of the plant root even the root hairs in comparison to the clay but it's just for you know image or you know for give us an image of what it really looks like a visual image however that moisture that water that's in your soil that moisture represents or that soil solution rep and the nutrients in it represent what is on this color because there is diffusion and there is exchange of nutrient based upon what's there so I'll give you an example if you've got a base saturation of calcium of about 86 you should have about 120 part for 1000000 your sole solution with an electron conduct of the of one that's kind of thank you that's kind of. I guess if you don't know a lot of other information it's kind of useless information but what I'm trying to. Composed or the point I'm trying to get across is that it directly reflects that that potassium you only need about a 45 percent maybe even 6 percent base actuation at the highest to get that same 120 parts per 1000000 in this will solution in other words to get an equivalent amount of calcium to potassium in your sole solution you need an extremely higher portion of your base saturation to be calcium in order to achieve that and if you have if you don't have that you tend to develop these imbalances in your soil solution which ultimately will lead to imbalances in the nutrient in the plant and you get a sick plant so it makes sense but OK so I want you guys to understand that it's very important that we understand these balances Now you may not find literature that's going to tell you well you will but you'll go to some places and you won't however if you look at the literature that talks about growing in hydroponic solutions and this is not a new thing the Netherlands of pioneered this the Canadians are doing it they're growing tremendous amounts of products are sending it to us over here and my opinion it's a lousy crop but whatever they can grow they may send a lot of it here it's flavor listen taste listen we all eat it and we don't know the difference most of the time however they have done this so much that they can tell you exactly how to balance the nutrition and hydroponic solutions and what they're trying to do is to mimic the natural soil solution. And I'll tell you plain as day if you're Potassium the calcium calcium ratios go above one you start to develop blossom in Iraq if it goes above 3 every single tomato blossom and run on every single flower on every single tomato on every single bell pepper and watermelon or whatever you're growing you're not going to get the calcium in the crop it blocks it I could keep going and talking about magnesium if your magnesium gets too high again you end up with imbalances it's not. It's not complete conspiracy folks I mean it's out there the science is out there the problem is that it oftentimes gets lost in the translation folks just don't understand what they're reading very very few people who bother to go out and study the science of the soil it surprises me when I was attending Oregon State University they were every year they would add those in the survey into my e-mail inbox asking the students to answer these surveys to try to figure out why students were not in rolling in agricultural programs in the United States even our universities are secular universities are understanding that there is a serious problem where in our tire populace in the United States are not interested in agricultural endeavors so it's not that the information is not out there is that nobody is really bothering to go out there and the fact that you're here today trying to learn this you're already ahead of 99 percent of the population the United States and I could almost go as far as saying I had a 99 percent of the population the administrators who should know better so it's very very interesting that very few people are going down the road to understand the science what is their focus now if you don't excessive amounts of nutrients which does happen and this is actually the case in a lot of your area soils where you have salts built up now what do I mean by salts I'm not talking about sodium I'm not talking about table salt I'm talking about salt. That means exactly any metal bonded to a nonmetal. Salts it could be calcium CARR It could be calcium it could be mixed potassium it could be chlorine it could be carbonate sulfates it could be anything. Some of the more common ones of course are sodium and chlorine Yes we all know that's all other salts that can form in the soil or calcium sulfate which we also call gypsum and so you end up with gypsum in the surface of your soils if you're in the desert oftentimes it rains when the rain dries there's this white thing that kind of looks like snow hope it's not snow it's gypsum that precipitates out of the soil and comes up it's very interesting that comes from excessive salts in other words you have so many so many carry on's in your soil that has no color to get on to and it's just sit in the soil solution dissolved and when the temperature goes up or the sun comes out the most or goes away in this bonds form and you have these crystals on the surface. And when you have those types of salty end up getting. Thrown as moderate pressures get out of whack at your plant cannot really bring these nutrients in and you have problems so these are the challenges you see an arid soils OK to get towards the end of the 1st hour here so right of think I've opened the box here on carry on exchange capacity in soils and I think that covered all these topics OK of course another important subject that I did not say I do not speak on or touch on is absorb nutrients are not prone to loss in drainage water this is extremely important because if you are in an area like Oregon or the Pacific Northwest where you get a tremendous amount of pursue potations what keeps those nutrients in the soil is caught on a change to pass through the fact that they are abs or on to that code and that humus So if you add like I showed in this picture here you add excessive nutrients in an area where you have a lot of rainfall what you end up is what washing these guys off into your creeks and streams and rivers and water tables and contaminating those. So that's the that's one of the reasons why it's so important to understand what is your cat eye on exchange capacity and when you should add something and it essentially tells you what's too much and what's not enough how do you know. If your to cook if I ask you to cook a. Stew for potluck but I don't tell you how big the pot is how do you know how much water to put in there. How do you know when it's too much you don't know you could add too much water maybe don't put enough maybe you put too many potatoes in it maybe didn't put enough you've got to know how big the pot is then you can decide how much of each ingredient you need to put into the pot this is the same theory with balancing soils and carry on exchange capacity so I will take stop there and break for questions to get the question was are minerals. Absorbed through passive or active transport and it's both yes the question is both and I'll talk about the importance of mineral balancing because just like our bodies we have mineral imbalances we cannot absorb and we cannot as readily absorb or release we cannot absorb nutrients and release toxins the way we should the cell at the solar level right the ideal soil him but this is the book I'm going to go through some of the calculations that are in this book in the last couple hours this is the where I started this is a good start or if you really don't know what you're doing start with this one once you get this down then start picking up some of these because these are going to go above and beyond what this book talks about this is very introduction introductory level so if you're at that level start here. So I'll repeat the question for the sake of audio verse he said that he had a snow over the winter the snow melted down and then it left a pot hole that eventually froze. The lake that froze and then eventually that went away and you had a red powder on the surface I would jump to the can if I had to just jump to a conclusion I'd say is iron but I forget there's another mineral that oftentimes is red and I can't remember what it was all thought my head but typically it's iron and I don't know where you're from but it could be iron but it could also be it could be too if it's a salt it is probably iron but if it's not a salt then it could be a bacteria However it was a bacteria probably would die and then she just disappeared it's all going to stick around mostly unless the wind blows it away so the question is about hydroponics. You know you can seems to work for a lot of people's lives he doesn't believe in it so why do people do it. As a actual grower I can tell you it's easier they don't people do hydroponics because they don't know how to make that work right. Unfortunately we live in a world where Satan is largely under control and he's the ultimate conspirator it's very important to Satan to keep us sick and the way he does that is by keeping us ignorant. So. I know just. From my own experience that in a lot of the large secular university even Oregon State they have a lot of the funding comes from big corporations on one Sancho by a New York centric that are these big corporations are the one that shows up with big pocketbooks and drop millions of dollars on to the schools and tell them we want you to study this and we want you to study that So the moment they study something that could tell a farmer how not to buy their chemicals suddenly somebody shows up saying you're going to lose your funding elsewhere if you don't stop and I know for a fact that this happens I've seen it and I've heard about it and I talk with people who have professionals at that level that tell me I cannot I have to tell you William Albert doesn't work however when I use it. He says it looks good and healthy but looks are deceiving you know it's a health it's a healthy looking sick plant. It's really all it is was a lot of these hydroponic growers and I was saying yesterday they're some of these facilities are several 100 acres in size and you know something will break out in the plant have no way to defend themselves in the wipe out the whole crop I mean acres for acres after acres and that cost millions and millions of dollars However the reason why they practice that is largely because. It's it's a real. It's a science that is really I don't know I want to use a term that you probably don't understand I mean block and squared In other words they can produce enough soapy. Standard operating procedure give it to this guy you know you work for $15.00 an hour here's the S.L.P. go grow tomatoes. Well I get somebody that knows how to do a right you cannot you know what I've got a wife and kids I need to make a little bit more than $15.00 an hour well they don't want to hire those people and a lot of these farms that are big like that are actually big corporate farms you don't understand the name behind the name behind the name who owns that farm is another farmer another farm that got farms all over the world so that's what's taking over agriculture right now. Giant monopolies are being formed and every single industry in agriculture is no different we are a point in the Earth's history where the majority of our agriculture are our agricultural products that you go into the store and buy are being purchased by I'm sorry are being produced by corporations big conglomerate corporations that are buying out mom and pop farms all over the country that bought out a whole bunch of farms all over the gorge throughout the land of valleys throughout the Midwest and anywhere where there's fertile fertile land you know the old man gets old the kids don't want to farm they leave the runoff into the city as soon as Mom and dad die they sell the farm to the highest bidder the highest bidder is always going to be the corporate guy the guy that works for a living and what for a living can never afford to walk in there and buy this 1000000 or to a $5000000.00 farm whatever it is so what happens is that all your agriculture and all your big farms are going into big corporations and corporations are feeding us now. And farming for us now and developing the seeds and developing the chemicals and controlling the scientists it's not a conspiracy it's a fact all you have to do is just start looking at the stickers you notice no matter what grocery store you go to is this thing company making the same plant put me on the same dog food diet that you've been on for a long time and that's why you're sick if you're the only way to get around this you know is to start growing yourself you don't need a large not calling every single one of us to be a farmer maybe he's calling you I pray that he is but. He is he has asked us to get out of the city and to get areas where we can grow our own food over and over again we're told to do this and a large part of the reason why is because it's the only way we'll get nutritious food Secondly as the statement says that's not the quote I was looking for I gave you the wrong one I'm sorry I was looking for a quote manuscript releases volume 5 page $300.00 sods talking about the NA police being formed in the last states and then she goes pacifically will lead to starvation and civil war in the cities of America Russia China and India is essentially telling us you get to the point where monopolies are going to control your food they're going to tell you what you're going to pay for it and are going to tell you how much are going to get paid for growing it so right now $2000.00 January of 2001 teen our government is shut down because we want to build a wall to prohibit immigrants to come into this country to work on our farms or rounding up our farms. Farm hands I'm sorry deporting them Secondly putting terrorists that prohibit the export of the only 2 agricultural commodities we still have in this country that pay us anything which is the dairy and the corn and soybean except for those commodities are the only ones that pay us anymore there's only farmers that really survive anymore because the fashion vegetable farmer has been put out of business by the cheap labor coming out of Latin America which produces produce that comes into the United States with Duro tariffs should we be charging tariffs I believe we should but on the right products noticed they never brought up putting tariffs on produce right but tariffs on cars in the lunar month deal all this other stuff coming from China and Mexico but did they put tariffs on the produce that coming into this country do you realize that more than 50 percent of the food you eat is not grown in the United States it's grown in undeveloped nations with no regulations on labor that pay next to nothing what's going to happen when the. Cult banish spring or Latin spring kind of like the Arab Spring happens and they say you know what we're not growing food for a white man anymore what's going to happen what's going to happen at the new president of Mexico who is in the Socialist Party and making friends with. My daughter and then it's well or and Raul Castro in Cuba and Putin in Russia decides we're closing the border and you're not getting anything you realize half our food comes from Mexico what are you going to do or Peru or south of it what are we going to do. I hope you have taken heed here last event special 99. And moved and done what the Lord has asked you to do so you won't need partaking in the food riots that are coming this media was brought to you by audio verse a website dedicated to spreading God's word through free sermon audio and much more if you would like to know more about audio verse if you would like to listen to more sermons lead to visit W W W audio verse or.

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