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Advanced Soil Science - Part 4

Michael Trevizo

Presenter

Farmer, Agricultural Reformer, Production Manager at Five College Farms, & Soil Scientist with a focus on Soil Science and Agronomy; Education: Bacherlor of Science in Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State University.

Recorded

  • January 16, 2019
    1:45 PM
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Our Heavenly Father we thank you for once again for the time that we get to spend here we thank you for the food that we were able to enjoy the fellowship that we were able to enjoy this past meal we pray that you would please be with us now as we get ready to talk about the. Subjects Lord and creation and we ask that you will please. Have the spirit abide with us and that you would bless you efforts of everyone that's here and it would help us all to learn from each other pretty asking all this in Jesus name in. Kid A So I wanted to get into movement of ions from soils to the roots so I shared with you guys earlier how we have carry on exchange capacity here both from the C.C. and carloads in the soil as well as the humus which exchanges nutrients in and out of the soil solution which exchanges nutrients in to and from the roots in the soil and of course those roots transpiration will take those nutrients up into the plant into their various parts of the plants where those nutrients are needed now how are roots adapted for nutrient uptake so if we look at the actual epidermal cells and the root you see that they have these root hairs and all that is actually an extension of the epidermal cells to increase the surface area of the root and as you increase your surface area you increase your ability your rate of diffusion and your nutrients can move in and out of these cells. Then there's multi. See here. So here's an example of a normal cell with the actual root hair that stretches out quite some distance and has a capacity to absorb moisture from here bring it all the way to the actual root of the plant and in that moisture you tend to have different nutrients as well and you see this is a cutaway image as we look deep into the actual plant. So that's lengths as well you know this length as well as you realize this is usually round and there's some surface area and there is or this link is what increases that surface area. The now how do minerals Interplast there's a lot of different ways that minerals into a plant Now remember I told you that those root hairs were epidermal. Cells So these are biological cells that means that they do have a nucleus they do have a mitochondria they do have different proteins on the on the membrane are used for exchanging and nutrients and pushing hydrogen ions out of the actual plant system and against the gradient to bring other nutrients in but. Sometimes some of this water for example enters through through Apple plastic flow this is one of the ways that moisture moved through the plant is through the actual exterior of the cell as opposed to through the cell through which is a pathway through the simplest which is referred to as the C. of a possible this is epidermal cells here. Some plastic route which is actually going through the cells and you see through the plasma does mater which is what is called these areas right here where 2 cells can actually exchange. Voice your other nutrients and and as well as different enzymes that are reduced by the cell and then that can ultimately make it into the xylem which is actually were the basket or system of the plant. The xylem is the only portion of the plant of course that moves. Moisture upwards that's where your water absorption actually comes in and this is associated with this tomato cells in the lead so when those tomato cells open up the differences in those a lot of pressure from the atmospheric air and the moisture in the soil is what actually pushes like a straw sucks that moisture out of the soil through the plant and then out of the leaves so this is what actually moves and of course moisture or that movement of nutrients is always in one direction from the ground. And those nutrients that are not mobile in a plant like calcium for example will come in using the Apple simply the apple plastic flow which means the exterior the cells into the xylem and then move up into the plant the only way they can move is through that means and then of course once it's in this area there are different exchanges and ways to get inside the cell however it is critical that that concentration of calcium that in those cells when it comes interest the plant in comes through here you see how it goes to these places right where those fungus is I talked about that yesterday where these fungus like like to put their high seas and actually break apart those cells and begin to establish their own little fungal colonies so if you're deficient in your calcium you know this is the number one place where calcium goes you've got to have that calcium there for root health. Here here's another way so we were looking at surface area a lot of people always ask about Mica rising so on the left we have endo Mike arise A which is a micro riser that actually penetrates into the cells forming these symbiotic relationships with that cell and then the hifi will come out further or drastically increasing the surface area and allowing it to actually get nutrients that the hairs and cells cannot actually. They're not available to the root here is because they can and excrete enzymes break down bonds release nutrients trapped those nutrients into their hifi and then bring them into the cell which ultimately interest the plant here with Eco Mike arise A which is the type this is a make quick statement here so the endo Mike arises usually associated more with trees and shrubs and perennials while the eco Mike arrives A is associated more with annual Zor vegetable production and most of your garden plants are looking for a rise in forest and trees in orchards etc looking for my to rise and this is not a solid rule this is just a general application so that there are some mix exact exceptions so. Generally this is what what it is now when you have Mike arise a colonies well developed around the root hairs or really the root cells of your crop you can see it becomes very difficult for another colony to come in and actually attack those roots and establish itself in other words it's already somebody there so there's no room for it to come in this is why some of these products are excellent for nutrient or for fungal protection but but their best benefits are felt when. We are looking at nutrient absorption which I have a slide in here I think it's not the next one but I think I take a step back here and go back to looking at active and passive transport like I talked about earlier so. Passive transport is how calcium interest the system but active transport actually requires some sort of protein in the cell membrane and energy usually energy which is A.T.P. to move different nutrients in and out of the cells simple diffusion is like water it will just suck right in no problem and potassium is another nutrient that though it can enter to a certain extent right through the fusion it's usually requires some sort of. Protein on the cell membranes and if your potassium gets too high you get too much potassium into the cells and it starts to block out other nutrients but the important thing that I really want you guys to focus on is not all the fancy chemistry or biology it's simply that in order to have all of this going on you need to have mineral balances if you have mineral imbalances these proteins on the cell membranes are not able to function the way they're designed to do so I'll give you an example in this case right here you have what is referred to artfully as the A.T.P. pump so A.T.P. is. If I remember amino triphosphate adenosine triphosphate I'm sorry and then that is energy essentially that is created through the metabolizing of simple sugars and such a classic cycle eccentric cetera but this is energy that is consumed by the plant so it cost the plant something it's not free and this will run this will run and push hydrogen ions outside of the cell and it pushes it against the hydrogen ion concentration so you have these hydrogen ions in. Being excluded by your root cells which then these hydrogen ions will bond with other carry on and go to in order to go through certain proteins and bring those nutrients into the cell make sense. This is just one example now there's much more complicated proteins and I mean I can go into that but I think it's just too much and it's not really the purpose or the scope of this class but what I want you to understand is that this requires active transport this requires active transport in other words it doesn't just come in there checks and balances on this so if we have a PH That's too high what does that tend to mean that means you're probably slow and think out of whack a little bit you get too acidic you have way too many way too much hydrogen ion concentration but if you're too alkalinity then it has to push more hydrogen ions out of the soil however the issue is you know they come out and they say you should have this ph or you should have that ph for your crops I'll give you an example I live there is a usually always say you need a Ph of 4 and a half for. You know what tomatoes for example a 6 and a half that's a pretty big difference now the reason why they tend to suggest that you need such a low ph or such an acid soil for blueberries is because blueberries like most other berries as you already know are high in antioxidants those antioxidants require a lot of iron and manganese absorption iron and manganese are difficult to break loose in the soil unless the PH is very low but most soils are not properly amended with iron in the knees and some of these soils are even have extremely high levels of iron and magnesium but the problem is not that they can't get into the plant because the PH isn't low enough which is general rule of thumb it's usually because there's some sort of the valance or microbial activity is not releasing those nutrients and making them available to the crop many people that I have talked with have followed Alberich system of mineral balancing and have grown. Blueberries very successfully in ph is that are 77 and a half 8 even. And it seems crazy but in order to do that like I said these berries are very hungry for iron and magnesium so you balance everything out but then you also got to really increase the iron and magnesium in the soil because they're very hungry for those crops as the spirit of the distro I told this ever the science of every store the needs of every single variety needs to be studied they're not all the same you have your general rule of thumb which we talked about earlier different based saturations but sometimes you have to play in push certain numbers a different way based off of what you're trying to grow so you wouldn't want to amend necessarily your soils or manager soils for blueberries the same way you would for tomatoes or watermelons or other puker but there are some changes that you have to make but for the the bulk of it the most important part which I talk about the macronutrients tent the state of saying I talked about what caused the upward flow within the xylem which is the transpiration the opening of the Leafs the modest and this water of course moves up and then it evaporates. You have another portion of the vascular system which is the flow and the flow and that's what usually moves other nutrients that are mobile in the plant from the top down to the bottom in the fall when you're just before you start to lose your leaves all the nutrients leaves the leaves to go down to the root system of the plants or the trees and those nutrition that's in those leaves the majority of it goes down to the root systems the only one that really is an exemption is all their trees and all their trees are famous because all the trees don't really take translocate the nitrogen the nitrogen from the leaves down to the roots. They tend to just drop the leaves and not worry about it because they're so good at fixing nitrogen so there are some exceptions so that's why all their trees are oftentimes planted in desert regions in order to try to get those nitrate levels increased in the surrounding area and try to use that leaf litter for composting or bulging or whatever you might have. So basic soil plant relationships in the switch gears here a little bit now talk about nitrogen here so. The take up of my plants it's OK I talked about this earlier the uptake of nitrogen by plants is usually in 2 forms which nitrate or ammonium and of course I think I spoke about nitrogen I kind of jump the gun earlier today I guess if you weren't here you. You would have missed it but most of you I think every heard me speak about this nitrate Will Leitch easily ammonia does not and it also drives acidity there phosphorous is the same way phosphorous uptake is through ortho phosphate which is H 2 P O 4 or H P o 4 and these are very important for different cellular processes especially A.T.P.. And energy production and cell membrane production and you're some visual. Some things including overall stunting of the plant darker dark green discoloration of the leaves or the stems sometimes in some crops purple color to seen a deficiency should be amended with or corrected with using a variety of different rock phosphate I personally I like to actually use rock phosphate But before I apply it I inoculate it with different bacteria that are known for actually mineralize in phosphorus and I've actually managed to get very successfully get my phosphorus levels amended in areas where the phosphorus is deficient using simply rock phosphate not just the streets and that it form of phosphorous fertilizers. Here's an example of Mike arise a mike arises another one I like to use the product Michael apply which is 4 different varieties of Gump and one were my seeds that are Mica rises that will form associations with vegetable crops and here's a look at the foster the change in phosphorus uptake and some of these things you know the real popular for their ability to trap phosphorus but we really need to take a I really want to show this to take a moment to show you that it's not just phosphorous that they're good at up taking But you see how we have here in this particular study done in back in 1979. Effects of inoculation of. On phosphorus and nutrient contents in corn shoots so phosphorus here with no might arise E. was 750. Lb you know micrograms for you know. Yes $750.00 parts per 1000000 and then. With the micro rise it went up to $1340.00 parts per 1000000. This was in a scenario where no phosphorus was added to the soil or simply going out and taking phosphorous that's already in the soil making it available to the crop and then when they added $25.00 parts per 1000000 you saw an even higher increase so you saw it go from 2170 with no micro rise a to 5110 with Micah rise they still somehow that what's that one to about 4 times more than $25.00 parts per 1000000 and I don't even know what the math is over this huge difference but what's also interested here to note is that the potassium went from 621-9900 parts per 1000000 with no addition to frost of potassium and then you look at all the nutrients you see the same with calcium you see the same with magnesium with zinc with copper with manganese with iron huge increases with Mike arising So this is definitely. A way to try to reach nutrients that are in your soils that are locked up in forms that are not available to the plant question well in this particular example they use corn and. I felt to mention when I went back to the endo Mike arrises are actually usually better for grasses Monell cuts like corn so in this past year they used. For your perennial sorry your model caught their die Cotts you would prefer and I'm sorry. And of course it also varies with trees as well because those are perennials But your question was. Sorry repeat your question oh yes I remember your question. Sorry So yes usually with Perot if the annual crops it is best to re an ocular every time you planted Well see that's the thing let's go back and look at this picture where is this colony formed on the roots so you go in there and you kill the plant you destroy the host the spores that are produced on these Mica rise ace usually to get spore production you need to actually stress the fungus oftentimes you need to stress it desiccated dry it out and then reintroduce moisture that encourages spore relation However it varies a lot from soil to soil in condition to condition and even if you do get good spores you may not get as good of an inoculation of that path. But also. When you're transplanting plants it's always best to inoculate it I think in this case they probably inoculated the seed so whether you're not late to seed or you're not too late the transplant. Or the media that the seed was planted into and ultimately transplanted so that you get this information when the plant is really young because when you think of a crop like corn it's only out there for 120 days maybe and then it's done micro apply and why C.E.O. apply is this the company that I use and they sell variety of different Mike arises and right now I think that they're pretty much leave the market so with credibility and with quality. So that would be my source for my derives inoculates OK so let's see here yes so it's just interesting as interesting to note how you know the increase in nutritional levels in each scenario with with the mike arise A and you could see that there was on the mean this was obviously a phosphorus deficient flow without really knowing anything else because when we look at it you can see drastic increases in the nutrient uptake just by adding 25 parts for 1000000 of phosphorus So that also kind of puts I'm hoping that that will put a picture in your or visual image in your mind as to what one nutrient deficiency could do to other nutrients actually entering into the plant so even if you had maybe you had sufficient levels of potassium but you were so deficient in phosphorus that the crop was just not going to take it so imbalances again oftentimes have to do with issues like this and why you'd be so deficient so. And we look at potassium is the 7th most abundant element on the earth it's about 2.5 percent of the earth's crust generally absorbed by plants in amounts larger than any other nutrient except nitrogen so when we look at the impi K on the on the. On the fertilizer bag or when you look at the in P.K. approach and you start trying to guess your nutrient use or consumption with any crop it's generally a. Except it's a general rule of thumb it's not a hard rule of thumb but that you're going to use one part I'm sorry 2 parts nitrogen to one part phosphorus to 2 parts potassium so this is just a way of thinking so if you're adding a lot of what So when you're using these. When you're amending your soil and you and you start trying to account for what you're adding every year if there's an imbalance in that equation then you know that you're going to ultimately throw it off so maybe you could do it intentionally if you have a potassium deficiency for example perhaps you want to put twice as much potassium as nitrogen but also it doesn't account for nitrogen that you can expect to Miller mineralize and become available from the organic matter that's in your soil so you have to kind of think about what might already be there both of nitrogen phosphorus and potassium when you used that theory the 2 to one to 2 but anyhow that means it really is it used most crops especially fruiting crops suck up a lot of potassium. Calcium of course is a 2 plus 2 plus or a recall it has 2 plus charger and it ranges it it ranges in plants from point 2 to one percent which is about a 1000 parts per 1000000. You know this folks is really taken right out of the literature I actually have ran my Could calcium as high as 6000 parts per 1000000 which is 6 percent which is really really high you don't really need to run it that high on vegetable crops but I think you know 33 percent is really a better number but it's amazing to me that the industry excepts these kinds of numbers but when you get out and you start looking at. John Frank is one of the international cultural labs he pushes for 3 percent. Noble crop pushes for 3 percent which is out of the Netherlands. Has a number of others I can't think of that the moment but a lot of growers that really push for nutrition push for 3 percent but the literature oftentimes tells you point 2 to one percent. Yes So you know that's one of the that was kind of in the video he talked about that if you're C.D.C. is really short then if you have a low C. C. then perhaps and you're trying to grow nutrient hungry crop then perhaps you need to do multiple applications through the growing season and that's where for the geisha systems get real popular and you start injecting certain nutrients into the crop because you tend to suck them up and potassium is definitely one of them calcium is something you've got to come in and do some sort of top brass or line that if you're going to use a synthetic forms you know you know like I mentioned you can use the stuff that's in a bag calcium nitrate is happy a common one calcium chloride is another one but anyhow these nutrients are taken up oftentimes when you start growing in greenhouses now I mean when you throw up a greenhouse and you extend your growing season to year around or even 10 months or something that's of much longer period of time where you're really demanding from your soil you're really asking at the put out and when you do that you know if you have a low C. C. you have a smaller bank to draw from you're going to have to come in and apply something you've got to start looking at top dressing and he's got to start looking out for the gate and these other things have to all of a sudden become a you know something you really need to think about because you're removing more than what's in that soil which means that you're going to throw nutrient imbalance. Pretty pretty quickly so calcium also regulates potassium up taken a lot the uptake of a lot of other nutrients as well sodium and. There's a lot of other things up to ask him also doesn't want to so for now also plant a verbal foot so for is usually in the form of sulphate talked about that earlier most so if it is associated with organic matter decay as well as. That C acid rain which I don't know if I put it in there but so for a magnesium are taken up by plants and similar quantities as a phosphorus but a lower quantities and definitely lower quantities in calcium So again it's probably about half or so but you can manage to take up quite a bit of salt for arid regions of your an arid region they tend to be very deficient in sulfur. Elemental so fur is often times used to acidify soils and that has to be broken down the tap in the using through metabolic more bacterial processes to form a so fate and that's the process that actually lowers the P. H. magnesium like other carry ons is available as magnesium 2 plus and should represent 10 to 20 percent of the source base saturation I forgot to mention that about the rationing calcium that should be about 60 to 70 percent. Of course everybody knows is needed for chlorophyll. In the human body there's a lot of different things that it's used for but we're really going to stick to plants here so deficient deficient plants will see protein nitrogen decrease. Non-protein nitrogen increases inviting flown feeding insects make sense so anything that feeds likes to feed on simple sugars which is usually these all these insects are very simple justice systems if you got any type of neutrino balance it's going to cause a high nitrogen level in your crop to expect those those paths those those paths to show up. It's very important for plant metabolism the Krebs cycle does anybody know that is photosynthesis so the respiration and glycolysis. So the micronutrients irons being copper manganese Boron chloride molybdenum nickel etc All of these are needed in your soils. To a greater or lesser extent molybdenum is a fine example of so I didn't put global that I really should have a global phone there OK So molybdenum is needed in a really tiny amount Coble is also just a tiny amount I mean I talked these great numbers you know I mean I'm sucking up Just 1000 and pallid after pallet of fertilizers but you know when I buy molybdenum it comes in the regular mail in about a 2 pound box very little and just takes a little bit but it's got to be in there. Boron it takes I use a little bit more Boron but yeah I mean. I only go through a couple pounds a year and the thing is more on tends to leach and the crop doesn't really take it up but it needs to be there so if you're in an area with a lot of high rainfall you're going to leach that Boron and you may need to be adding it not because the crop is using it but because it's leeching from the soil Well I have to take to how do I spread 2 pounds over an acre well. Molybdenum as you get your bite in the form of sodium eliminates and I put it in water and I and I cut it obviously and I put in the for the gauge and system and then I don't put any for a while. Boron the same way I put. 6 pounds of. Sodium bori and that usually last of their long time for me because I'm a research relating to nutrients but. And the desert you know even desert soils low pursued the patient can also be low on Boron most oils are low on Boron you really need to have it tested and boron is an important nutrient because Boron actually really controls a lot of your nutrient uptake particularly calcium a lot of people think of boron you know if calcium is the truck that takes everything into town Boron's the driver if you don't have that Boron there there's a lot of metabolic processes that won't happen and you just again you just need a small amount manganese and iron so when you're balancing soils when you're balancing soils. You'll notice that a lot of nutrients work together copper and I'm sorry calcium and magnesium work together so a lot of times when you really got to focus a big focus is copper and magnesium sorry calcium and magnesium need to be balanced sodium and potassium need to be balanced iron and manganese need to be balanced together and zinc and copper need to be balanced together. What are some of the other ones those are the main ones so if you have too much of one in left of the other and with respect to each one of those pairs you tend to really throw things out oh yes phosphorous and sulfur is the other one and when you're balancing your soils you tend to really look at your iron content and your manganese content so. Iron should be twice of manganese zinc should be twice of copper. Calcium should be about 5 to 7 times more than Cal then magnesium and these are all real rough numbers that I'm throwing out there so for Suppose behalf of phosphorus in the form of fossil in the form of elemental phosphorus but I'll get into that a little bit more now OK if you make a mistake well OK if you apply by accident too much Boron it can become an issue yes I think I showed yesterday some pictures of boron toxicity which looks a lot like salt burn. Again Boron is a nutrient that if I go back what Boron used for. OK so one there's a product called 20 mule team borax commonly used for mending soils but also commonly used for washing clothes as a detergent Why is it uses the Turgeon is because Boron has the ability to go in and break these fats which these are fats that formed of the membrane of the cell and get passed get past that membrane and bring things into the into the cell so as a detergent has the ability to break Greece's and other things and other fats off of your clothes and down the drain and away from your you know dishes or your clothes of whatever you're washing because it breaks those of limpid as a referred to but in the soil excessive Boron will take whatever's in the sole solution and shove it into the cell so I have actually amended an excessive amounts of boron but because a sort of solution was balanced I didn't have Boron toxicity Yes Why because I'm forcing a good wholesome diet into the plant now if you're forcing something into the plant the plant doesn't want you'll have a bore on toxicity. So that's an interesting thing to note so again if you balance that chemistry even if you whether it's natural or by accident you have excess of moron in your soil you'll be all right and I've seen it over and over again guys folks I would look at my tank again I have a researcher lighting system I look at my tank it looks like you know tea real brownish color. One pound of sodium bori in there just one pound is 20 percent Boron if I did that at 8 o'clock in the morning by 2 o'clock in the afternoon to clean water where it all go and went into the plant but then $48.00 hours later the plant dumps it. And the water's dirty again. Happens every time it's really interesting. So let's see I think I was going to start getting into talking about balancing soils now. I know but it's a high bred system that was hydroponics and I converted it to a media because you can't do organic hydroponics and the reason why you can't do organic hydroponics is because in the world of organics you can't use synthetic fertilizers right so how do you get the calcium in the phosphorous into the crop unless you use synthetic calcium and phosphorus you can't do that so anything you buy that is organic and was grown hydroponically is going to be deficient in calcium calcium is not water soluble neither is phosphorous calcium and phosphorus are best friends at they happen to be moving in the water they will bond to each other in bonds of matrimony that death cannot do part. They do not want to come apart they have a serious affinity for each other Thank you that's it that's all we got that's all we got all right so you know the problem they had. We had with far with when they were trying to do organic hydroponic he could not get any calcium into the crop because. You don't realize you've got to use so much calcium failure sprays just can't make up for it way too expensive. In the world of organic lettuce and baby greens etc etc that are hydroponically grown they just grown deficient in calcium and that's why. 25 percent of the food safety outbreaks where people get sick with different pathogens in the salmonella or whatever it's always lettuce. Because lettuce will grow quite happily in the fish and soils it doesn't fruit just need to grow plantations but phosphorous like I went back and I can go back and show you guys some of these you know complex processes you know nitrogen we figured out ways to get nitrogen in organic production without. Well depending on synthetic fertilizers right you have a lot of these fish fertilizers you have. P. P. P. proteins you have different things you can use you can put. Pellets down you can do a lot of different things to make up for your nitrogen deficiencies in an organic system without using synthetic nitrogen but when it comes to phosphorous in the soil it is it's stored in a form that's not plant available it's very dependent on on microbial biology breaking that down and making it available to the plant whether it's a micro rise a doing it or bacillus. Or bacillus. These mega mega callouses I think is what is called I forget the name anyway it's a product called. Terra growth product called Terra grow as a lot of that will sell this in another product that is sold out of Florida. Nutra tech has the syllabus fall in Iraq so both of those are bacillus is that are actually capable of mineralize in phosphorus So when you take your phosphorus preferably a rock phosphate. You mix it with those microorganisms and you can expect that phosphorous to become available to the crops. That that you actually need that phosphorous All right so this is not an entomologist course but that's OK So all right so this time this will represent time right so well so you have this period of time what you want to see what you want to see is nitrogen in your crop. Or maybe you have something like there is with TIME In other words this represents the the Y. axis here is your nitrogen so here it is this time now say you start over here I don't know you're just transplanted or whatever here you call a transplant date. That's your transplant date will say. The flower date over here so here we are we're transplant here we are we're flowering. So we just transplanted we need to start consuming nitrogen right we need to build the factory that's going to build the fruit right or the barrier whatever you're growing if you are if you have a nitrogen level where you have some sort of slow release like that relatively stable it doesn't assuming that everything else you're talking about a healthy plant here. You typically won't see these excesses of nitrogen in the crop when you use synthetic fertilizers what you do is decide dress it. You have summoned sanely high nitrogen level followed by nitrogen deficiency. And tell your next nitrogen application which maybe you decide to make over here another huge spike in nitrogen followed by another deficiency these pulses in nitrogen are what invite Peston disease because when you have these huge spikes Now this is probably too exaggerated Maybe I should have it down here somewhere but you're essentially putting a whole bunch of nitrate into the crop. Like I mentioned earlier you end up with a lot of nitrogen into the plant tissues that the plant doesn't know what to do with and then it has to do something with it and it uses it but the sad thing is that so you put 100 pounds over here and that's a lot but let's just say you put a 100 pounds of nitrogen. What the plant actually consume from this time to this time. Is usually only 25 percent which means the rest of it probably leached and did this right here bleached right out of the water table and is gone and that is usually caused by excessive moisture rain so if you make these heavy applications at 1st it you know the plant can't take up but so much and whatever it takes up is usually excessive and causes does not trigger pulse or spike in the crop and then which invites pests and then of course the other 75 percent you know you lose about 25 percent I'm sorry you lose a good portion of it I say as much as 50 percent to leeching the other the other 25 percent goes through what is referred to as Dean cation which pseudomonas bacillus. Dynamics of the columns and teeth on us are all these different fancy name for all these different bacterial organisms that will take your nitrate and turn it into nitrogen gas put it right back into the atmosphere. So these are reasons why you really don't want to and then heavily with. The type of nitrogen sources instead you want to raise that instead you would rather have some sort of slow release and because of that that's why they came out with slow release fertilizers or controlled release fertilizers and there's so many I mean there's. All kinds of energy and money has gone into trying to figure out how to design these fertilizers normal that are whole for coated or pelletised and some sort of way and put into something where as water comes down on it it slowly releases it so you don't have these huge spikes but even with those what you end up with and say you want nitrogen I was down here somewhere and up with. The pending on what the product is some of them will release maybe. A 3rd of the nitrogen so you still end up with a nitrogen spike and it may not be. Out here but some period of time later we don't know what that is. It will have another spike and then it will drop down and then we'll have another spike and drop down again you're just kind of painting it a little bit but there really is no technology in these new synthetic. Fertilizers to give you a nice smooth even curve that you get out of this like you would. Actually it's not even true that you would get that in this because in an actual If all your nitrogen is coming from organic matter decomposing in your soil what you're going to have is a curve that looks something more like this will say this is again your nitrate concentration and this is your time end up with. We'll call this s.o.b here spring we'll call this over here other S.O.B. here some are end up usually with. A rise in available nitrogen because this follows a rise in temperature which means an increase in microbial activity in your soil so your nitrogen available nitrogen goes up and then as it burns off that nitrogen it starts to drop and comes down a healthy soil should have this sort of a trend where you have your nitrogen about when you need it so you may plant your seed here but you don't need your nitrogen when you put your seed in the ground you don't really need your nitrogen until about to about the point where you're forming the 1st true leaf that makes sense so you pass germination usually takes a couple of weeks and then you start to actually get your 1st chute goes down it goes down into the soil then you get your cattle Eden's and then you start to get to release it's about that point where the nitrogen starts to take up to be taken up by the crop so one of the tricks that folks like to push for is that when you're going to use the synthetic forms of nitrogen that they you know again with controlled release that say your plant over here on your plant they well you do some sort of controlled release so it doesn't go you know maybe it becomes available 2 weeks later then you have a huge spike and a drop and you come down so here you are planting now you're at the cattle eating stage truly stage I'm sorry truly stage here so now you begin to actually suck up that nitrogen but the thing is that that nitrogen you know it needs it over a period of time it doesn't need it all right away and with corn it actually corn is one of the interesting ones because with corn by the time it gets to about 3 feet high it sucked up all the nitrogen it needs. It does after that point don't matter how much nitrogen you put down you don't want any more. You know that's with corn in a lot of other grasses so every crop is different but that's just corn so the nice thing about having a healthy soil system is that when your organic matter is decaying it's a slow process you know it's it's kind of like taking the meat out of the freezer and putting it on the table and you know what happens with it that's about out 1st right and then once the dogs out well then the bacteria that then it wakes up you know it's not going to something that's just been asleep because it's been in the freezer that's our soils you know winter time is sleepy time the soil is frozen but when once that soil thought out everything wakes up and that usually happens around 40 degrees when the soil actually reaches 40 degrees so when you talk to the old time farmers they'll tell you hey they walk out in the spring and they go out there and put a temperature probe in the soil want to slow it down pictures right let's get on the tractors time get to work that was old school farm talk to the old timers and they'll tell you that nowadays you know what for of chemical fertilizers weather looks about right we've got so many degree days let's go farm. Very very very I mean some kinds of old old ways or old wisdom old conventional wisdom is better than what we do today but again this is all microbial based that's oil thaws those microorganisms wake up they start working on those that plant tissues they start releasing those nutrients This is the same for phosphorus as it is for soul for as it is for nitrogen and any other nutrients that are in the soil that are being released or mineralized as tissues are broken down. So the best way to manage your nitrogen again is through organic matter cover crops and all these other things that I really didn't want to get into today but that's what it comes down to. All right so most of the actionable. OK Most fruits. Need a little bit more potassium most vegetables now we're talking about the leafy So one fruit is something where you're pulling the fruit off so like tomatoes eggplant bell peppers beans except for your taking the edible portion or taking a fruit off of that so it's a multi harvest versus growing kale or lettuce or color greens or Swiss chard except for actually the year after the leafy portion of the fruit that the edible portion that you're looking to consume. I would probably push him a little bit different like I would never you know after balancing the soil if I balance and I was happy with what I saw in the past and I was growing greens I would not add anything because I know it's not really going to pull that much out of it but when I start to push heavy and greenhouses and who passes or whatever and you're taking a crop like tomatoes which is a very hungry crop nutrient hungry crop for those of you that aren't aware that. Comparison the strawberries that are maybe half as hungry and then you can go to curb it's like watermelon and all the other you cover crops to governments they just want water I mean soil like this sandy soil is why they say that that's because it's like sandy soils. They'll grow anywhere but anyway they say this because. They really don't pull that nutrition out. When I group when I grow cucumbers. I'll go through 15000 gallons of water on the same day that I what I maybe have gone through 6000 gallons of water on tomatoes for the same square square footage however tomatoes clean tank the water comes back clean it's fuck everything up it's ridiculous you gotta keep feeding them that you curve us are coming to New Jersey just keep coming back to Harley add anything to it. I mean the difference in nutrient consumption between the different varieties of crops is huge it's drastic So I mean that's I could that I could talk about that for hours in itself but I'm going to try to focus on balancing that that nutrition and then you know if you if you can do that for the probably 99 percent of you you never have to worry about it you get the money to throw up a greenhouse you're going to grow on year round then your allies that. I am going to run into problems towards the end of the season I need to be amending multiple times throughout the year this media was brought to you by audio 1st a website dedicated to spreading God's word through free sermon audio and much more if you would like to know more about audio verse if you would like to listen to more sermons lead to visit W W W audio or.

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