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Advanced Soil Science - Part 5

Michael Trevizo


Farmer, Agricultural Reformer, Production Manager at Five College Farms, & Soil Scientist with a focus on Soil Science and Agronomy; Education: Bacherlor of Science in Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State University.



  • January 16, 2019
    3:00 PM
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OK So we talked a lot about C.C.'s in other things so really what we're going to focus on right now is on. The CAD ions and a slow sample that you might get back and how do you work with that what do you do with that soil sample How do you extract the late valuable information from essentially a document that's been emailed to you or mailed to you so in this particular example I'm using a soil. I pursue potations soil that's in an environment that rains a lot sees a lot of precipitation so you so you see that you have a high ph. Again like I mentioned earlier this is. I'm sorry that's the C C We have a low ph that's high base that ration of hydrogen but we have a C C A $6.00 and then of course they tell us how much how much they found the value found in the soil the desired value. Of calcium the magnesium desired value except except for potassium and sodium sodium they this particular lab typically typically doesn't give you the desired value of sodium because most people don't really care to put sodium down in their soils but and of course that really depends on your production to where you are so they don't just go off and assume that you're in an area where it's safe to use sodium because some people have water quality issues some people are in arid regions where you don't really want to be adding sodium to a soil that is probably never going to wash off so they don't make those assumptions other labs might some labs don't even bother testing for sodium so you know people ask me is this lab good enough or is that lab or the other lab good enough and the question that the answer that I always give is you need a laboratory where you know that for one preferably they're using the molecular extraction for phosphorus and for some of the other nutrients. Which is usually ammonium acetate extraction and then. You want to it's really important you get total count on exchange capacity not just carry on exchange capacity there's quite a difference with total carry on exchange the past is they actually tested and tried to figure out how many call it negative call it exchange sites or on that soil you really need to know that because if you don't know that. The really don't know everything else you don't know your base saturations if you don't know your base that your percent base saturations then how do you balance your skill. You just you know it's incomplete information fields it's all it really is. So then you look at you know things like organic matter pretty important as well so for is very important phosphorous is important calcium magnesium potassium and sodium are important and then you have their base that durations and then you have the boron iron manganese copper zinc and aluminum this is pretty much your major trace elements with the and your and your major nutrients and macronutrients So that's what you're really where you really really need to start so this what you're looking at is a basic test you've got to get things right with a basic test 1st and then start looking to get more expensive tests for micro-nutrients and trace and minerals like boron and copper and I'm sorry not bore on the Cobalt and I had I know and. Others that you can test for I can't I just hadn't my mind but I it slipped my mind but we're going to look at this and I'm going to walk you through what I would normally do with something like this and of course what we're going to actually be going through now is what this book talks about largely with this book talks about. So 1st our 1st goal is we saw all our different base saturations and they were not where we're at least I would like to see them so the goal for this example is I'm simply going to try to set up a base saturation of 65 percent of calcium 15 percent for magnesium 4 percent base that ratio for potassium 2 percent for sodium and then well and for 10 percent of hydrogen now and some examples of ours using something out in the desert where it's an alkaline a clinic soil ph is above 7 I have nothing I have no percent they've got traction for hydrogen would have to manage a little bit differently I wouldn't reserve this for hydrogen but I don't want it's not desirable for you to knock off all your hydrogen off of college and totally saturated it's really it's really not a condition you want to put your soil under. You really need that there for. Exchanging nutrients and of course there's 5 percent for all the other cattle and so a lot of labs don't test for this right here so if you go back this actually comes up. Exchange no other bases 7 percent so that's pretty much telling me that things other than out calcium magnesium potassium sodium and hydrogen are on your college so this could be all these other nutrients that are down here and others that perhaps you didn't even test for so now we know what our goal is so now I need to know total C C. Pounds of each cat ion needed to fully which is essentially how many counts how many pounds of a particular given cat ion it takes to fully saturate at C C one that makes sense. All right so are in manganese Center complex in the soils and are not necessarily occupying space in the college so sometimes they're not really refer you we don't really associate a base actuation with them because they're complex they're not really bonded they form to pursue potatoes into something that you need to break loose through microbial processes. Molybdenum is also taken up as a cat as an ion So again it's not on the colored Co but was not tested so we won't worry about it aluminum drives acidity so we don't really refer to as as a colored even though it can be on the colored but we saw that our aluminum was really not that high so that probably means I have a luminous that was driving the acidity in the soil. And on exchange capacity is negligible so again we won't take a look at that so what we know is a carry on exchange capacity or the C.E.C. of one Microvolt per 100 grams of soil is simply telling us that point $1.00 moles of negative ionic charges for every 100 grams of soil exists in that particular sample so a C.E.C. of one is telling us that you have point $1.00 molds for negative ionic charges of negative on the charges I'm sorry for every 100 grams of soil OK so 100 grams of soil can hold point $1.00 moles of negative ion charges that make sense now we make the assumption that one acre 6 inches deep weighs on average of 2000000 pounds or we can call it we can look at this as 107200 grams then we know that we have 107200 grams per the acre. So if we have a C.C. of one we would multiply this by point 00001 moles program of soil right. So that would give me ultimately $9072.00 moles of negative charges per acre 6 inches deep now if I were to go 12 inches deep I'd have to double that power to go even deeper than that 18 inches deep did I have to triple that So you see where the depth of the soil that you're working dictates really what your multipliers are going to be when you're trying to figure out your desired nutrient levels per acre so he's asking about taking a soil sample and what does the put that probe and so if you see on Logan labs they always ask in a paper the depth of the soil sample and you can write just about anything you want and this one I did 8 inches but I've I've kind of gotten to the point where well OK this is outdoor fields I'm sorry I won't say that I was going down the wrong road so in media I just use 6 inches even a 100 really don't go 6 inches I make a media and then I said that often I say it's 6 inches just for the purpose of or just for the purpose because it's uniform just for the purpose of calculations in other words I want easy numbers I want 6 inches but when I'm working with outdoors it's critical that you tested exactly what you work it so if you're working your saw all 8 inches deep you're better tested 8 inches deep if you're only doing 6 interest and test 6 inches don't go 10 inches deep and then send it off to be tested and then it comes back and you know some number that you would have expected because that's really incomplete information. A 2nd thing all that is when you're doing it when you're taking soil samples of you're doing it yourself it's him you know you're never going to get a real perfect representation of what's going on with your soil the best you can do is take the best possible number you can so when you're taking soil samples you really want to be you know to the best of your ability submitting a sample that properly represents the soil you're attempting to work with OK so. It's typically recommended that you take 15 sample 15 probes or core samples for every sample you submit to the lab so if you're going to say you're working a 1000 square feet well then you're probably out 1000 square feet 15 times if there were if you're testing 20 acres then you test is 20 acres 15 times and you distribute it randomly throughout those 20 acres you don't focus in one area otherwise you're going to get incomplete information now when we start looking at extremes OK some people asked some times what's you know what's the biggest area I should consider testing in other words. You know I have somebody perhaps somebody last I have a 100 acres of field that I work how should I tested Do I really need to be testing every acre or do I need to be testing every 1000 square feet or do I need to test the whole thing as one while it's generally believed that you should test you should break it down in quadrants no larger than 20 acres no matter how big your farm is that's a big chunk but the thing is the bigger the farm is. You know the more money it takes to really fix it so you have to think about what crops are growing and I don't think anybody in here is really farming that big large scale I don't know maybe somebody is but on that large scale of the farming you can't afford to be testing every acre or you know I mean just a sampling to going out there I mean if you're farming a 1000 acres just to go out and sample every single acre who's got time for that and then if you've got to pay for the labor the labor is going to eat you up the jug of cheap labor they're not going to take good samples and you going to get incomplete data it's not really going to mean it's just not useful so you have to do it in a means that's practical So if you're just got a little small family garden well then you just test a little small family garden and if you're growing different crops and maybe you want to test the garden differently maybe you've got a bed that you're growing you know one thing in a bed that you're going some of you might want to test them differently maybe you got one bed that's doing exceptionally well but the other bed is doing really sorry then you probably want to test them you know differently so with orchards I like to go as deep as practical. So the problem is that a lot of your activity tends to be in the top. 6 to 8 inches so when you start to test below that you're going below the a horizon down into the you know maybe to be arising and you're testing soil even you're testing something different so if you put your core in the ground and you put it in there 2 feet deep or whatever you pull it out and you look at the changes in characteristics each one of those is a horizon OK So as you have a change you need to change you need to test each horizon separately because if you try to mix all that up and send it off in one sample you don't know what you're getting you know it might be that the top is perfect the bottoms of mass. So you mix them all together you get this result now you say oh I needed though a bunch of this or the other thing and the reality is the top 8 inches are doing great and you probably have most of your activity going on there so you'll probably be OK You come and you dump a whole bunch of excess fertilisers that throw it out of whack and you may end up adding problems so I always would recommend to test it for horizon with perennials like that. Or big acreage crops a big field drops web soil survey is your best friend you go our website will survey your luck up your fields you look up the different soils series that you have at almost every single square foot in the United States has been mapped so the government did. Change the name on it where they call now National Conservation resources service through the U.S.D.A. has mapped almost all the soils in the United States there's only a few places where they haven't done it. The southeastern quadrant of Oregon hasn't been mapped yet nothing out there if you know Oregon. Most of Alaska hasn't been mapped yet a few parts of Idaho and a couple other places all mostly in the West you know you see build rural places up the middle nowhere where nobody's farming or nobody's doing anything so they put it off towards the end but I mean if you own it it's mapped that simple it's mostly government federal land that has and state lands that have been mapped so you go on to Web social survey Google that you had to launch survey to have you put your address in there and take it right to your garden your farm and you can pull out these maps and you can look at the different series fact you know what I got a little bit of extra time because let's do that I want you guys through this. All right so we're going to go to Google so I just type web soil survey like it comes up before I'm done type on web so surveyed and R.C.S. dot U.S.T.A. dot gov And here we go. Now this is the United States Canada's massive soils Mexico's mass most of its oil astrology is mapped about 80 or 30 or 40 percent of their soils. Most of elevations of math or soils most of Europe is math you just need to figure out who if you're not from the United States and figure out who your or how you get that data if that data is not available for you online then you need to go to a local get with your local. Agriculture Ministry of Agriculture or whatever it is you got wherever you're from and they'll tell you where your maps are if you happen to end up a missionary overseas somewhere that for the sake of us in the United States I think ever as anybody here not from the United States. And so you look now and you see how he has 3 different soil series and here you have the 9 be the 27 B. and the 9 C Well the 90 is often the road so you're probably not going to worry about that one so we'll assume that he's you know his interest is this field right here for the purpose of this demonstration now we're looking at this field here I'm not sure how big it is but anyhow you see how 27 B. to the north and 90 to the south these are 2 different soil series I can come over 9 B. over here is called Cad the dead 0 silty clay loans are a percent slopes except for A and then the other one is $27.00 B. which is Mercian silt loam So he's you know right away it doesn't these 2 are still loans or so clay loam and then the silt loam So you're going to see a difference just right there you know you have a difference in your sand you're still clay I can click on some of these and they can tell me other things like estimated get on exchange capacity the mineralogy can sit down to multiple horizons different other you know precipitation issues whether or not the soil water logged I mean there's a ton of information I can figure out about your farm I could probably figure out more about your farm the soils on your farm than you presently know about it now but ever even going there which is interesting that so much of that information is there however it is simply just math it's not that doesn't mean that 100 percent accurate but it's surprisingly accurate. The way that they collect this data is that they put different. Laser an X. ray technology on a on airplanes and they fly over and they daft everything and they figure out the mineralogy not so they draw the lines and they say OK well this is the problem that then they send a slew of scientists out to start taking samples of that area figure out what that soil is and then once he figures out what it is then he submitted that information and sintered into the map. So that's where they drew out these lines so this is they've been doing this they started matching soils in the United States in the in the 1000 you know 8 or 918 or something like that written I mean over a 100 years ago they started they started out in the northeast and eventually they made it all the way west and that's where we're finally got to the point where we've mapped most of the $48.00 states except for a few vague you know very rural Spartan you know sparsely populated areas so anyhow everybody in the United States has or soils mapped and you can figure out a tremendous amount of stuff so my suggestion was simply to go to your farm look and see what the different soil series are and test those different Ok so back to where we were another refresher we're looking at the top 6 inches only We're going to assume the top 6 inches weighs $2000.00 pounds. That's a pretty rough number but for the most part soils don't really change in weight that much they're practically all you know without any moisture in a more about point 46 grams per cent a metre cubed That's the average density of all soils globally and so that doesn't really change much so you can be pretty confident confident with the tooth out $2000000.00 pounds per acre 6 inch deep which is it which is referred to as an acre for a slice. That doesn't really change much so no matter your production system most likely that's going to be that way. OK so we figured out that it takes $1070.00 or. A soil that is 6 inches deep with the carry on exchange capacity of one has 9072 moles of negative ion sites between the callers and humus so will move forward OK that's great so we figured that out awesome Now how many pounds of a given nutrient does it take for example calcium or magnesium to fully saturate every single color and that top 6 inches of that acre with calcium. Well the way you figure that out is you take the atomic mass of calcium which is 40 grams from all you and then of course you got $9072.00 moles now calcium has a plus 2 ion which means you need half as much so you divide by 2 and then of course end up with 90720 grams of calcium that's not or kilograms you divide that number by 453 it gives you pounds to the acre which gives you about 400 that's where that number comes from. So you'll see that number in this book from Michael hysteria. And you know people ask where that number come from to just pull it out of a hat you know they didn't just pull it out of the hat this is the the math in the chemistry where these numbers come from so the $400.00 pounds to the acre is what it takes $400.00 pounds of the acre to fully saturate that calcium of magnesium here's all the math atomic mass is $24.00 It takes $243.00 pounds of magnesium elemental magnesium for the acre to accomplish the same thing. And we can look at a whole spread here of potassium is 39 grams now remember potassium only has a plus one charge so we don't divide it by 2 and this is why protests OK so that's about to be 780 Anyhow if you did the math you would not get that number nor that number of course the 453.6 days the same because that's what a pound ways but I guess for the sake of this experiment or this demonstration I can take the 39 and divide it by or actually multiply by. 9072 and that equals 353808 you divide that by 453.6 at 780 pounds right some right these numbers over here on the board because we're going to use them here in a minute so calcium is 400 magnesium. 243. Potassium is 780 and then sodium it is going to be 460 I believe of that with Chuck going off my memory I actually just put it all in expel Excel spreadsheet and let Excel do all the math so sometimes I forget so will go ahead and do it again 23 grams times 1072. Divide by 453.6 and I get 460 exactly right awesome OK so let's get to the next slide understanding the calculations now so these are the numbers just for those 4 main ones that we're looking at so C.C. is times pounds of the desired cut ion times the desired percent base saturation equals of pounds per acre of an element in cat ions desire to carry ons of an element desired or element of a certain cat on diet desired so we look at then at this example we have a C.C. of 10 we multiply that by 40 pounds to the acre for calcium and then you multiply that by 65 percent because we're shooting for a base saturation of 65 percent that should equal $2600.00 pounds to the acre of calcium right and then you subtract our value found say the soil sample says we have a 1000 pounds so if you subtract a 1000 pounds from 2600 pounds you know that that particular acre needs 1600 pounds to the acre of elemental calcium that makes sense that's just an example. It does happen but that's a lot of that's a lot of calcium right. Now this is just numbers now so again you go out that's just elemental calcium you go out and you by line in the line says it's only 32 percent calcium you got to take that 1600 pounds divided by point 32 you'll find out you're going to need. Bob out 3 times about 4500 pounds if you talk about a 2 over 2 tons to the acre of line just to satisfy the need of calcium and this particular example you asked a lot of calcium but that's how you calculate these numbers so looking at something like that versus give you an example one of the gentlemen I spoke with down by Albany Oregon. He no Salem used to say when he was he did green beans in Sweet Corn I think and sold to nor PAC And you know you just said you call out the extension or the consultant the member of you is from Boulder Ellis or C.P.S. where he came from but anyway I want to find out a so you know what should I do with my ground how do I farm it and the console and says oh well you want to put you know 2000 pounds of the acre of Lonmin you want to do this and what is it why do I need a line of my you know my Ph You know he looks ph and this is big just find what you want to put lime down well is just what everybody does. When you're getting that kind of advice. You know sets you up for failure and my book but really you need to know how to make you know how to kind of make these guesses guestimate and you know he had a really high I forget his soil is like a C.C. of 30 or 35 or something like that so you know that naturally. $65.00 or 68 percent base that aeration Well you know we'll do we'll do an example so say we got a soil out and Salem. You tell me it's got a base C C of 35 right C C. And then you want to know how much calcium the I need so you say well you multiply that by 400 pounds to the acre and then you tell me well and I don't know it's got a base saturation of 68 percent OK so we multiply that by 68 percent so what do we have well let's do the math it's going to be a lot of promise some around $12000.00 pounds or something like the. 1520 pounds to the acre or say 1520. Of calcium so you could see if you have a C.C.D. of 35 versus a C C A 5 you know I fact I'll do this example just for the sake you could see this is going to be what divided by 7 is the only thing that's going to be different now $1360.00. To achieve the same thing so you see how your bucket is a lot smaller You see how in the example of the C C O 5 versus the C C A 35 you have 7 times more calcium and that soil to achieve the same usually the same ph or the same percent base saturation that's where this balancing comes in so if you come in a soil like this oil here that 5 and you tell me well the extension agent says you should dump $2000.00 pounds of the acre of limes the beginning of season which is going to equate to what about $600.00 pounds of elemental calcium Well if you're looking for about 1360 to be happy and you dump that much calcium dinosaur things out of whack big time in a hurry you know in a hurry folks I'll get back to what I was talking about earlier now balancing it will get back on track here. We'll talk about this scenario this is a field out in. In western Massachusetts Thankfully I don't have these species of 35 sometimes people asking Hey well you know what should be you know the higher the C.C. the better right well yes this is not out of whack on this example if you've got a huge number that's really nice I guess but it's not. Balance then man you're going to pay good money to get that balance and all the sudden it's not really that practical so you're going to be fighting a lot of these issues until you finally get it right I know some of the farms in the Valley that have if they can maybe 10 to 15 years to get it right just because their species are so high but you know once they get it right then it produces great whether it's an orchard or vegetable production the person seeing farms is one of them they're out 11 or going to. Another one over in Peoria very producer in Peoria Oregon and same scenario another one over in just across the river the Willamette River in flow most Oregon I think is gathering together or better together one of the other I don't remember a similar scenario but you know the guy that manages that farm they got about 120 acres of vegetable production happen to go through all the same schooling I did and then I Anyway we got down to talking and he's another person that tells me you know what just like they told me they told him when I was in school this this Albert method doesn't work but we use it I use it it works. I mean it just it works folks but it just you've got to find ways to use this in. That it's practical You just can't jump to extremes I have done these major additions like that but usually only in greenhouses or something else where I'm pushing it hard I want to get it there overnight but the big acreage is like that with crops that just don't make money not yours you know get your money back you know it's not practical. But if you can learn how to do this little by little you can get that thing in the right direction. OK so here I did some math Now we took this sample we saw what our base saturation what values we found and then of course what our base actuations are we're going to calculate what we got in there and then we're going to calculate what we should have and then we're going to make changes except so. First thing I want to know is when I took this oil sample I said 8 inches OK so when I put that on the book on the paper. It came up with I came up with. I'm sorry I came up with 8 inches so now because I have 8 inches remember the numbers that we originally came up with was for. 6 inches so essentially I have to take that number that I submitted as my depth of my soil sample and divide it by 6 inches right so if you submit 12 then you divide by 12 by 6 I'm sorry so you'd have to have that multiplier in there to be to adjust for the depth of your soil sample so I have my C.C. of 6.248 divided times 8 divided by 6 times 400 pounds for the acre of calcium times 65 percent equals $2157.00 pounds to the acre of calcium the value that was actually found was $1404.00 what is needed is 1750 for. This field here and now we're going to look at magnesium we have all the same math except for multiplying it by $243.00 and a 15 percent base saturation that tells us we're looking for about 3 $302.00 pounds to the acre. We look at what value we actually found which was 184 we see that we need 118 pounds right you look at C C 6.24 it's a magic cetra 780 times for potassium and then a 4 percent you need 258 so even though these numbers are so big you really only need a small percentage so it works out to be quite small. And then of course on the I need $140.00 pounds so that he is a sodium again it's also deficient. Ends up working out to 53 pounds to the acre would be recommended in this particular soil and this filter I actually just lime that I just put 4000 pounds to the acre and it was a dogmatic line and now I. Forget what it was that now $68.18 or something like that definitely corrected itself within a year but like I said the C.C. is only $6.00 You can do that on a low C.C. soil like the video talked about that I played earlier today you know you have to just keep making more additions as they're necessary. With a bigger C.C. soil you can grow these crops and you can pull a lot of mineralogy out and you know if you pull it out and you take it away from the farm you should've got paid for it so if you grew a product and you sold it to show you got paid for it therefore you should have the money to put the nutrients back in it didn't do that then I mean you know you buy the property in you know it's already empty and it's like buying a brand new car with no engine and transmission and you know you've got. To feel like you got robbed right but yeah if you got a good deal on it I guess it's worth it I just get an engine put in there you'll be all right so. It's OK Good question what if something is an excess OK so if we have an excess. It depends on what it is so I don't pick one I let you choose the scenario maybe you have something in mind magnesium OK that's a that's a scenario that's a very common scenario or magnesium is in excess yet calcium is deficient and the reason is usually because they're using the wrong type of limestone usually Dometic instead of the cow tick or they just use Dometic always and it just builds up the magnesium after a while. So some some farmers tend to do that where they do it out of habit they just say you know I've always used all medical money used on me or they don't really understand that there's a difference between the 2 either scenario can give you a soil like that so when you come in and you look to amend this you need to when you add a pure Cal CITIC limestone it will begin to actually bump the magnesium off the Collatz. Allowing it to leach leave the system through some other means. But it will also do it also to knock the calcium and the sodium off if you dump it in it in excesses in this particular example we had a $36.00 or 39 percent base actuation of hydrogen and hydrogen is always going to be the 1st one to run off the college so when I add if I were to like in this example I saw that the PH was so low had such a high base actuation of calcium I felt very comfortable going in and dumping the amounts that would be necessary to balance the whole thing in one year I was able to correct it OK Well ph. If the PH is a low then you can you know that gives you room to get away with dumping these excessive amounts but if you have a high PH That means that the rest of it is something else is tied up you could be potassium something is out of whack right. I don't think I have a good test to show you but I'll just say that the PH in this soil is 8 or 7 even. Magnesium maybe is 39 actually I had that one from from the greenhouse in this example I have a P. H. of 8.8. Base actuation of calcium is 36 of Magnesium is 20 and of potassium is 38 sodium is 2.7 and of hydrogen of course 0 and other bases a stupid 6 so in this example if I were to dump a lot of calcium a lot of. Classic line which I actually used calcium carbonate food grade calcium carbonate in this system because it's finally ground reacts quickly so I use that what that's going to do is bump this potassium off and probably all see some of that magnesium knock off as well so what I'm going to do is in the putting a lot of those nutrients into the soil solution and because I have a crop in there that's currently hungry for potassium and magnesium I can expect that to actually take it up so what I did is I You have to rest your additions of potassium that normally you'd make. To swell up that fruit and just go ahead and let whatever gets bumped off the carload. It would. Be taken up by the crop but if it wasn't in a greenhouse you'd end up with high salts in the soil and. It gets real difficult when you do that because. With such high ph is oftentimes takes a long time for the carbonate to break down. If you don't. If you have bad water quality which is tends to be an issue when you have real serious imbalances in. Your soils in a arid environment where you would have such a high ph OK so so asking about what would happen with something like phosphorus has been building phosphorous now. What you phosphorous is not a cat ion it's an ion 2nd and so you're not you're any reactions you have with that phosphorus. What if it's if you're using synthetic forms of phosphorous What is it rock phosphate OK So Rock phosphate depending on what type of rock phosphate it is it's already bonded to calcium so it doesn't really want to bond to magnesium So it's kind of in the soil doing its own thing so when you come in with the line you're going to not you really are going to be affecting your magnesium your potassium and everything else is on the call it in phosphorous is not on the quality so it's not likely that you're going to affect phosphorus. Copper to trace the more trace ones yes there is but because there is such an insecure. Copper it's highly unlikely because copper actually stays on of the color with much stronger affinity than calcium and it's such a small allow that it's not likely I mean the 1st quitters are going to be your model they look at ions which is going to be sodium and potassium they're going to be the 1st ones to get bumped off the call to make way for something like calcium in that scenario especially in this scenario if you have an insane amount of hacienda that potassium going to get knocked off and if you're in a desert soil you're just going to be precipitating. Probably potassium sulphate what you might have to fight with is low sulfur and the event that you had this scenario in your type of production system outdoors in a desert environment that's probably what I would expect to find how you got your potassium this high heat how hot or no maybe you got a lot of passing and that sort of I don't know something like that but this is a greenhouse is kind of not a good example for what you're bringing up because there are so many different things that actually change and system this media was brought to you by audio for years a website dedicated to spreading God's word through free sermon audio and much more if you would like to know more about audio verse if you would like to listen to more sermons lead to visit W W W audio verse or.


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