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Logo of 2019 Adventist Agricultural Association Conference: True Success

Organic Blueberry Production - Part 4

Eric Pond

Recorded

  • January 16, 2019
    1:45 PM
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Going to talk to Saffron about management now as they are planted and harvesting. And what you see here in this picture is is that this is the large 1200 acre blueberry farm we developed a few years back. And these are 2. Over the row spray machines that will actually spray or in this case thermo ing there's a mower behind each track so. When you think about innovation in the fission see this is some of the work that we were doing this was not something you could just go down to the egg dealer and buy this was actually the platform was made by a company in Oregon for a different purpose and then the spray system was made by a different company which had a different track system we put it all together so we actually got both manufacturers to put together. And you'll see it a little later on actually doing its spring but it's electricity that Excel it sins of electrical charge of all of these things were brought about you're forced to do because you're trying to figure out how to run more efficiently efficiently to do more with less people that kind of thing but. You can pay those operators more because they are operating twice as much acreage so normally it would take $4.00 people. And now you can do it with 2 people that machine is used for more than just. Moeen. They're expensive though so you need a big farm that's there reached there $300000.00 each. They don't mulching blitz so it's going you can see last past the mulch is still there from the last. I'll show you the it will get to the A little later I just show you this because. This is the opportunity is there there are opportunities in agriculture and all levels all sizes so there's homesteading and there's market gardening and then there's large scale agriculture we had the head of our equipment management was an evidence guy him in his family he was it was a mechanic and worked out really well for us. But we had. You can be we were talking about this at lunch and I don't think people talk about this enough but there's a huge amount of opportunities in agriculture if you're interested in bugs in biology we were hiring agronomists out of college with a 4 year degree for 50000 a year get a pickup truck a computer a phone 2 weeks paid vacation full health care benefits and 3 or 4 years later they're making 80000 a year so it's not a bad pain job accounting you could do accounting to be in agriculture we had 5 staff accountants 2 of which were C.P.A.'s. H.R. We had 2 H.R. people so one gal was interested in human resources and she worked doing safety we had a person who's interested in food safety that all they did full time was manage a food safety program so. There's a lot of opportunity in agriculture and I don't really think we talk about it enough. One of the things that we felt like made a successful is what we were trying to modernize the culture around agriculture and how people treat each other in agriculture. The typical is better grandpa tells everybody what to do and is kind of grouchy about it right this is a kind of the classic egg scene at least one wire familiar with the families around here and everybody just does the. User have to go out on your own or go get a different job if you want to farm so we try to create. An atmosphere where everybody was learning we had English as a 2nd Language classes free to our staff we. Took them to every AG conference and we would show up with truckloads of guys that would go and ladies that would go to conferences so everybody was learning we also mandated 1st right early on that they agronomist could not be the only ones doing the job when you have 12 people on a farm team and you have one agronomist that's one set of eyeballs looking at things how often are you going to see those plants the guy on the mower should be the guy or the gal on the mower should be the person telling us there's a problem or scouting so we gave everybody i Phones. And they started texting pictures of the agronomists who I found this in block such and such I found this over here you won't believe that saving time savings when a harvester broke down they took a picture of the part takes it to the head of McCann the head mechanic person they ordered the part got the part and we were able to show up with what you needed info show up figured out and then go and have a full delay days delay so probably doesn't matter to most of you but I guess I wanted to share just a little bit that there's a huge room to advance the culture within agriculture agriculture and so what you see here is actually my wife on the left she was really great. Team developments him so she spent her time developing the teams we followed some similar. Thought processes that Google did with their teams and how they manage them so we made people peer accountable sort of accountable to one person they were accountable to each other so they were this is a general manager this was a regional manager These were farm managers and other regional the head of equipment is right behind here and we started you know Vision team so that they also had somebody from accounting so from H.R. people. The irrigator we had the you know the person driving the mower on this team and what they did is they were tasked with thinking about how to save money on the farm and make everyone's life better on the farm think about it you work more time on a on a job than you do in any other activity in your life over your lifetime at least except for sleeping I guess right but on farming it's a lifestyle and you're working. In excess of $33000.00 to $3200.00 hours a year doing something it needs to be enjoyable so this was one of those innovation team meetings that they were doing the education we brought in experts so each year we brought in experts from around the field and around the world to teach us about what they were learning about. Literary plants doesn't mean that you did what they were doing it just means that you had opportunities to learn how people are doing things in different regions so this is a bunch of farm managers regional manager regional manager and they're all learning about printing this was a printing. Education Day So anyway just to give you some aspects of what we were doing as well the. When investors we raised 2 private equity funds over the course of the last like 5 years and what. People are investing not in the land they're investing in the people it's my belief that we don't always know 10 years from now what will be growing but we have good water and good soil and if we're always thinking about innovating or changing the way we do things you'll be growing something but you may be a snob livers maybe people want. More cauliflower I don't know but anyway. You have the opportunity to grow something and you'll be able to stay relevant I guess is what I'm trying to. Get across here so OK we're going to jump into management irrigation blueberries need of uniform an adequate water supply from Blossom to the end of harvest It's great moisture demands are greatest during fruits so harvest time is are filling that fruit I've seen a lot of farmers not expand not increase their amount of. Water that they're applying during the. Fruit fill it starts to turn blue in their like they get you know was a buck fever they get like crazy and they forget to continue to manage the basics and the fruit bowl size. Or or doesn't have the water content and it can be as much as 25 to 25 percent by volume you'll decrease because you didn't fill throughout the season so it's really important that it's uniform. This is important to remember those plants need to not be stressed in late July and August even though the crop is coming off that's when your fruit Bud formation starts happening for the following season so everything I do this year is 1st feeding the plant is really growing the fruit for next year the fruit that's on there right now is really from my activities I did last year. So when we look at really have militating and old planting I look at a 3 year process to do that it takes a while to get things stimulated pruning and inputs. Plants need for one and a half to 3 inches of water a week you want to you don't want the tops of the wall of the soil to dry out but you also don't want to be too wet and you don't want to be creating this big puddle of water down below. So someone's going to probably ask me how you do that well. It's trial on air a big part of it is trial and error. How many of you ever. Know that like the plough test where you you take a handful of soil and squeeze it and it shiny or you can basically OK you take a handful of soil dig down about 3 to 6 inches take a handful of soil squeezing your hand if water comes out too much water if it is. And this is not always so accurate because if you have a clay soil this won't be quite as accurate if you have a Sandy so it won't be quite as accurate so there's a huge range in here a lot of this is done by trial and error and fuel but the basics are. If it if it holds together in this kind of shiny. You get really adequate water if it holds together but when you press it with your thumb and you break it up it breaks apart but it doesn't fold individual particles you're getting close to the. TIME When you need to start thinking about you're getting the gain. It's complicated because it is so it's really hard to explain it's not it's probably the easiest place to screw up because most of what we do is not really when you're growing a crop a lot of growing the crop is out of your control it's in your control are planted on time to fertilize it and apply minerals in the water it but the environment is taking care of so much of the rest of growing that crop that. Anyway. It's one of the challenging things I don't know a better way to describe it for you. Tensiometer tensing owners and then we use the system out of bias or tell that we could have on our phones and tablets that showed us exactly what was happening with then that's commercial scale that's what you need to do. They're expensive but. We had those and then we also had our original system set up on a global platform so that we could you could be anywhere in the world with an Internet connection log in and start and stop pumps and change or geishas schedules so we could match it with what was happening with the soil moisture sensors those were placed we think we had 3 sensors we had 2 on the width and we had 3 on debt so we had 5 total plus we had humidity and temperature at the crop height where the fruit is no you know every every block and then on that 1000 acre $1200.00 acre farm we had it on every block that had the same soil types so we moved across that farm and changed soil types we would change and haven't so there are fields with no sensor but there are the same soil type and in of course you had there was an irrigation crew of 5 people that managed the irrigation within that just that farm so. You really want to avoid overwatering that's the fastest way to kill your blueberries is over water and. One way to tell if you've over water it is if the roots are looking alive and healthy if they're just brown and break off then you've probably over water or under water them. Not per plant we use again we use 202.5 acre feet of water so that's 2 and a half feet of water across every acre so somebody could probably Google what an acre foot of water how many gallons of this it's a lot the 1200 acre farm had 3 River sites. To reserve our sights and I think it was 6 or 7 wells and we tied we tied the whole system the others we tied everything into the same main line and we tied all the valves going out of that main line that one had 58 different irrigation zones they were all 8 inch irrigation zones we filtered. We filtered 4500 gallons a minute on the one farm and 6500 on the other farm so as we were filtering was it 13000 gallons a minute to irrigate those farms. That farm had 5 and a half miles a 15 inch main line that tied it through like an artery right up the center of that form and then everything branched off of the case so on a sandy farm one of the farms was really sandy and we were watering 6 days a week 4 hours per block so every every site got 4 hours of irrigation and that was running each of those per acre that was running 330 gallons a minute per acre for 4 hours so that might tell you how many that could tell you in one year a Geisha and if you did the math on that would be $330.00 times 60 times for divided by the $13.20 points for a cure that would tell you how many gallons per point we were getting those are really sandy farm we had another 4 and it wasn't quite a say anymore what I call loam soil and we were good that farm $2.00 to $3.00 times a week for 2 hours in total we actually saw the system up to do a burst where it would do 30 minutes 30 minutes but it would be 4 hours each block throughout the day but it came around 30 minutes 30 minutes because it was that again we were trying to broaden that wetting pattern in drip irrigation so we're trying to spread the water under that we'd met farther out so we'd have more roof area for it to take up so. I don't feel like I'm not doing a great job here but this is the big hard part about farming is that it's instinct and it's fuel and it's time and it's it's killing a few things along the way and. Sorry there's a great article on the O.S.U. website for home delivery production that's a really great article I highly recommend reading that it's it is something that. They do a really good job so. You know that's an interesting question so people instantly want to like make it all an app on their phone write the best accounting I've seen was done by a little lady who had it on legal pads every year it was a legal pad and it was the she could tell you how much her husband had spilt spent on what size a bolt that he had bought that year and I was the best accounting I've ever seen so there's no excuse to not just getting out some paper and writing it to help. I mean other than that there's no like most special software that we use. Tinned for small farms I really like the software called tinned tea in D. and I don't I'm hoping they're still in business but they were at the they were at the organic. Farm conference in California last year and I really like that for small scale farming it was a great place to maybe keep all my records and stuff but. What a large skill we have time curves everybody feels out of time for one block they're working in what they were doing what farm the time all of that so that feeds into payroll which then gives us reports of how much it cost us to for weed control or how much it cost us to prune or spray or whatever and it all over him puts are tracked in bulk and then allocated on a block basis on a per acre basis so if you bought $100000.00 worth of fertilizer we knew we spread it across 100 acres that's that number so that's how we were tracking that and then. Every pallet the left the farm which we're going into and harvest is has a pellet tag on it that's the variety the time the block the crew that harvested it because you have to trace back so within 30 minutes anywhere in the world you have to build a traceback clamshell of berries to where it was picked who picked it so you know and then all the other lots that were it within that lot so you can destroy them or get them off the shelf that kind of the things. If I think that's what you're asking me. So fertilizer we did we had about half a dozen fertilizer trials going every year just because so many new fertilizer were coming out I told you guys earlier in the morning that story about the guy this is why his fertilizer was so special as he was mixing it based on the position of the moon or the cycle of the moon so any way you get that a lot of organic farming I'll tell you one more quick 20 stories because we were but we're running hundreds of thousands of dollars' worth of fertilizer every year and I was at a conference and I was speaking in this guy comes up he's got like a trench coat on and he comes up and he's like because see this I've got the latest greatest stuff here and he's pulls open his trenchcoat and there's literally like in I don't know how do you buy a coat like this there's vials test to vials in his pockets like this and they were like yellow like what in the world Eastlink he's like This is a. Amazon jungle back want to go. Great you know put it back in the box and come to the farm this is such this is a you know egg conference that we're talking about this but yeah. It gets crazy there. Dry fertilizer is your cheapest source we were trying to provide our plants based on our soil test is only based on a slow test in full production about $120.00 units of in each year. Make sure you judge the tests that units of in so it could be 10 percent let's say the 10 percent nitrogen fertilizer right if you 10 percent of every pound is the actual unit of in that's in that fertilizer so obviously 50 percent nitrogen fertilizer would be much could be cheaper but it's also got a lot more. Units of in per pound then a 10 percent right most are getting fertilizers like $32.00 and a half to 34 percent we're paying for all those bolts trucking it everywhere and getting this much in out of it and it's really expensive so something like Feather meal which is a dry fertilizer is 13 percent nitrogen most of it is that's a high nitrogen for an organic fertilizer it's going to be cheaper to apply that it's going to be to apply a 2 and a half percent nitrogen fertilizer that maybe is liquefied or something so. Animal compost is faulty. You need to figure out how you're applying it you know or you know apply with a machine you can put up by hand pellet sizing all those things factor into how easy it is to use and then we get into the liquids which you can inject through the drip irrigation but remember if you don't have good management of your vision so some you're going to plug it up and it was a nightmare that is irrigation system into the fabric plugged up in the middle of when you of course it's not going to plug up in the wintertime it's going to plug up in August when I'm trying to harvest and all that fruit is sitting there in these water. There's a corn. There's a corn they call a corn steeped in and it's a 3 I think it's 3 percent measured in corn soya and it literally smells like soy sauce and it's black and it's like a it's other we were joking one that all we needed was you know some fresh rolls you know because the because we had the fish for allies around the corner smelling liquid fish and we had the soya bean steep thing fermented soybeans here were all we were missing was the tofu in the cellar rolls but. Fish can also be. Salty and there's one variety does not like fish I think it's Duke didn't really like fish for allies or for some reason or might be it might have been. Here's another variety that wasn't on my list here and I've forgotten the name one or the other didn't really like it so we ended up using. The filler meal for the home garden get yourself some mushroom compost or. Some liquid fish for allies or some mushroom compost or something like that would be really ideal even on a 2 or 3 acre farm. If you could get yourself some crab show mushroom compost and some. Liquid fish fertilizer you could you could have a really. That would be a good fertilizer program. And again you're looking for about between $8120.00 units of nitrogen when they're mature so when they're not when they're young and you're only doing about $25.00 units so all this is dependent upon soil type so again to need to work assuming your local area but. One of the products we really liked was this program by Wiser G.E. is how we said it in the way they were out of Seattle it was a like a. Startup company and they built this little digester they put in the back of stores and eggs and meat and dairy and lettuce and zucchinis everything left over in the store got put into this little digester and then they took the liquid and concentrated and we put it on our plants it was the coolest thing ever because it would come from my local areas so imagine we're buying 4000 gallons of this every other week so we were a great offtake partner they called us for these kind of products it was expensive but really a great idea I really. Thought this was a really good program. If you can get a job some burner out of California where you can burn gypsum and mix it into the irrigation water to add that calcium throughout the growing season that's also a great idea for. You could even liquefy if you wanted to and out of the way yeah so combo says they talk about combos having a half life half of it's available this year half half of a half next year half of a half of a half and then pretty soon you run out of a half but but I think it's the same with organic fertilizer I think 3 years into it so we went through a J. curve we converted 160 acres of mature blueberries to organic certified organic so start transition yields come down come down to the bottom and then 3 years into it we started coming back up Year 5 we had 30000 pounds 32000 pounds the acre which in our area was not the normal production or it was like 15000 so once you get out of that and get the system working right get everything the biology going if there are some crops that I think can do more organically than they can conventionally and livers is one because they're really sensitive to fungicides herbicides. They require they require so much biology to happen to get fed and get watered Not all across are like that but that's one that is so OK let's talk briefly about Black Berries. Black Berries. So we're getting blackberries and so raspberries will be similar to bloopers they will be on your sandy soil they're going to want water more often and not these deep drenching So you're going to want to keep them on the drier side but so that's a lot closer water monitoring you're going to be doing Black Berries are pretty robust You can water Black Berries once a week twice a week for like 12 hours though so Black Berries is what we would water at night same with hazelnuts well water Molong deep set at night and it will water our blueberries during the day when when a problem with Goober irrigation we can see it during the day so. Just something we've done anyway and typically you're growing your Black Berries on heavier soil so they're going to hold water longer They'll also go down and we were we were growing in this river bottom area where we could you know 18 feet down was the water table they were going down to that and we had thought at one point you know these are 5 or 6 years old these Black Berries do we really need to water because they're going down to the water so that's one of the advantages with blackberries. Whatever is don't care about salts you could you could fertilize in with you know chicken manure chicken compost food safety regulations you can apply come combo's has 90 days I think before harvest so just keep that in mind and undertreated manure which I would never do regardless is $120.00 days I think so I just wouldn't ever do it you don't really want to be filling out your crusade to paperwork and put that you put raw animal manure on the foreign minister is. Not going to go well but. They're only typically about $75.00 units of A And so there are a lot less fertilizer than the blueberry is. Another person another a 0 S U professor is David Russell A B R Y L A I believe it is and he does all of the best very irrigation trial research so if you wanted to dig deep into that you could look at what he's done to which might have some of those numbers so this is the Electra So it's for one thing we found an organic so. Organic fungicides insecticides are kind of like spraying water. So many of them don't do anything but you don't know but then you feel stupid if you didn't do something or didn't apply them so. We were trying to figure this out early on and how to scale it. Very production and by the way that's just water so I wasn't getting applied on the committee that's what happened here but. The. The electrostatic spur technology so there's a. Electrical charge right here in this boom really small booms that pause positively charges the spray molecule as it leaves the nozzle the plants are grounded there are negative so this just attracts to it and it creates this fog and surrounds it so if you've ever seen a helicopter spray stuff it creates this spray pattern it's like this circles and so it's covering the top of the leaf and the bottom of the leaf a lot of the organic materials are not systemic so they have no lasting effect they have to contact with something to get it to work and then we found that a lot of these were using our biological so work around to create a food source an environment where they will latch on to the plant and then grow like this protective covering over the plant to keep it from bad pathogens from coming in and attaching to that leaf surface. That electrical charge stimulated these bio logical products more so than a conventional sprayer that has no electricity no electrical charge so we were getting a higher efficacy rate using the sprayers than a traditional spray system. We. It's quite it was quite phenomenal to be able to go to this system and see that so we had better sputter winter saw full control then conventional fire were spraying organophosphates. It I think it was a number of factors and we'll get into that but. It's all I'm trying to say there is that it doesn't always require the biggest stick you have to to. Protect your crops so Sobeys are hugely important to delivery production. And that's actually a Black Berry And that's I got one black Rufo in here 4 years old even though we've been talking about him. These are disrupted by anything on the blossom even organic so we always sprayed at night we never spray during the day when they're out spraying water on a blossom during the day since these guys somewhere else so just be aware that we only sprayed at night. There and they're doing all the work I mean that without these guys you really have no crop you will honey bee is lazy in his tongue isn't long enough to find it goes right through the side here yeah and that creates a disease that can create a disease that puncture creates an infection site for. Fungus to get in here so this. So the bumble bee describes the whole of it and shakes the daylights out of it and that is the bees are the most effective ponies are out there for blueberries because of that problem right here so these honeybees are definitely. When you have to have them we had 4 hives per acre so we had we had hundreds of hives but. Every year that we saw more bold bees in the fields we had higher yields it's anecdotal but that's how it was working and so this is the spur folded up on a truck to try for transport. On a home or on a homestead system. You're looking at a limited to a solo backpacks prayer is kind of probably what you're limited to organ vendors supply has these they put these out every year for growers that use their services this is an organic spray program and because. And we'll talk a little bit about some of these things because there are some of those we did and some of this we didn't do but again I'm not prescribing anything. This is just want to be very clear I'm not an agronomist and I'm not a certified crop advisor so this we put these programs together but I'm not advising you on anything. OK So when Fed February we were doing a copper treatment and an oil. Horticultural oil treatment for scale so if you haven't used we were spraying for these things if you don't have it and this is where we get into We'll talk a little bit about money Barrie which is a big problem in the these what are climates here and you have let me very OK everybody is moving very I've seen 75 percent crop loss with let me very basic terms of liver into well it's like a little blue pumpkin. I put extra in on in the earlier the 1st year of landing if a quite a bit extra and after that it's kind of just creating its own little composting system down there. And you wouldn't have to use sawdust you could like use a 5050 sawdust and compost blend if you know I. Mean use what you have around you well within reason that. You know cedar or wall and. Grass printings if you compostable work you know because you've got to get them there are so green they're so hot they'll burn stuff too so but yeah if you grass cuttings all were Black Berries actually love alfalfa meal you can you can grow a whole black berry crop which just alfalfa meal that's what I was sure that earlier one of the researchers at O.S.U. was doing it with Alpha hay he was just laying the flakes like 4 inches down along the bottom of the blackberries and his Black Berries like looking you know the row there was less canes but there was the same amount of fruit. So less work pruning and tired of canes same amount of fruit. Blackberries are in the Rose family and one of the best fertilizers for roses best blooms I've ever seen comes from came from just fertilising with alfalfa meal that's a pellet it let's go to the feed store and buy pellet alfalfa pellets for a horse and throw around the roses and it was the best Roselands I've ever seen so. In fact that came from a horticulturist who worked at some big like Public Garden and said that to me and blackberries are in the same family OK wintertime pseudomonas which is a fungal disease were spraying copper or no mixes. I don't worry about these things on a small scale like on a homestead scale I don't really worry about most of these things the only thing I would worry about on a homestead would be this but I mean just awful because that's really not fun to bite into and see that little tiny maggot going around so the blueberry you know the best thing you do there is freeze imminent Roman smoothies and this is how it's healthy. Vegans get protein. And you can taste it in the way you put it of ginger in with your smoothie What will it is that. March is another pseudomonas application soil fertility starts in April and your course your weed control starts there. For mummy Berry money Berry gets you to waste. The money Berry goes on into the ground and then the next spring forms this pus jewel or what do they call it spore elate comes up and then that shoots up and gets on the new green growing tip. And then that has another release which gets on the fruit and that's all the money you know shrinks down so what we're what we try to do was and it was pretty effective we had a field that got me very pretty badly we sprayed lime sulphur to burn off those festivals error those. Spores that come up those fruiting bodies that come up in the spring the other way you can do is you could on a small scale you could bury They said it only takes I think 2 or 3 inches to bury all of them and they can't come through got to do it but it takes one of those free bodies to like infect the whole place so you only need one that comes through and it can come through in the crown of the bluer plant so you could mount sawdust up. 434 inches deep and you probably suffocate and they will come through but you've got to do it in a big enough area you know wherever they've been because they're kind of they come up there for this when born the 2nd. Time to protect them is that green shoots tip and so we were using biologicals to to do that. After cleaning it up with like a Bordeaux like a lime sulphur or copper spray just prior to shoot a long geisha in which is where the bud comes out breaks out of there so we would be spraying those to make sure they're clean nothing's out there hanging around and then we would keep them coated with. This. New film P. which is actually like a pine pitch product and it's just coating it so that when that thing fruits you can attach to it you know it's got a barrier the other one was Syrian aid is an organic fungicide and. I'm forgetting the other name here. This regalia was was a plant growth regular later that was also for fungal diseases and jet lag so jet AG is a peroxides actually like a 3 or 4 percent might be higher maybe is 20 percent peroxide hydrogen peroxide. We also found in. Sponger software Chris awful of control there was this theory this guy thought about thought up that they could smell the fruit or they could sense there was fruit in this field and the 100 peroxide killed that smell and there's no there was very I think it's only like it has to dry before you can preorder so there's no perverse interval and it's it will kill the bugs on contact but it doesn't have any lasting effect on anything else so they're using that after a rain event to kill any fungus that might have come in with that rain or be moving around in the field and it will also work later in the season for sputtering drifts off controls so. The other thing for insect control was we were doing was. In trust and that's a spend most of it so it's a budget biological and it worked really well but you can only use so many ounces a year and the study or spotting self-will is around forever so it's it's a huge long spree season we found the most effective is the scouting so above I think it's 92 degrees they can't reproduce they can't lay eggs so above that temperature we're not having any new. Impact or infection so they will they sting the blueberry and lay their eggs inside and in this little tiny white maggot crawls around and ruins inside your blueberry. And above like $92.00 they they don't do that and then if it's freezing out in the wintertime so you're killing them in the wintertime they'll come out in the spring you're really only trying to protect the blueberries when they're turning blue this is they turn blue they become susceptible they become soft enough that they can penetrate them just before that so they're just blushing that's when you're out there are starting to protect. Summertime So we're doing the scouting programs and cut our spring programs in half so it's really you can also mass trap on a small scale you can mass trap with. Apple cider vinegar and there's a trap if you go on his website there was a lady that did the home burning homesteading kind of course and she developed this design for traps out of red Solo cups or something like that either punch holes in them but apple cider in there they fill them with bugs you go through your field dump him out it was so many traps per feed of row but that was a really effective way if you're a hot dry climate you probably won't have near the issues that we have in humid or you know wet climates like we have here so if you're on the east side here in eastern Oregon Washington parts of Idaho it's so cold in winter time you just will have the same problems. Spotted when just awful really loves rasboras 3rd like high on their list so it's like cherries redress various blackberries and blueberries and then you get into like well you still have like peaches and things like that they really get into that stuff they don't so much get into apples around here but they can. Blackberrys 1st breweries we spray them just prior to bloom with our Bordeaux mix which is a copper and sulphur I think lime sulphur to clean them up make sure there isn't anything out there then we say we did the same thing with we kind of almost have the same spray program through the bloom season as we do with blueberries to prevent any diseases getting to the blueberries there's not red red spider mite Red Berry might is the big problem in. Black Berries and Crown bore and I think the East scopes are the in your area you've got a couple more you've got some more pests. And disease the more humid their client gets but the red spider mite is killed by so for and also killed by taking out the Canes right after the boring. Book you can take them out of the cane if you're looking at the Canes you can cut those out and burn them and kill those it's a pretty decent way to eradicate them. Prone to think goals Reza or Black River the bloom spray program for disease is all about the same so the next section we're going to. Weed Control so that the edge of the fabric strip was a big problem for weeds growing up you can kind of see in the back corner there right behind this tire those weeds are growing up the edge of the fabric. So any any foreign body in blueberries when you pick those is a that's a problem so there's a so we had one year we had a hatch of ladybugs ladybugs are great right we had hundreds of thousands of ladybug larva left hatch and latch on to the Calix of the blueberry in that was pupa stage or whatever it was they look like a little dragon and they were like this. So I don't wait 5 days to harvest those blueberries and I feel for them to leave them with spiders we got a call that we had a problem with your picking juice stuck in the goes in the 55 gallon drums when they cracked out the next where they found this bowl of spiders in the middle of it because organic form spiders are run in a crazy killing bugs and but yeah so weed seeds are an issue like you can't you know be nice to let the weeds grow but go to seed but those getting into or floating on to the blueberries is a problem so. We built this as a way to take care of the edges of the fabric and mow the center of that row and one pass you could easily do this with a John Deere let riding lawn mower and actually now because this thing this has a it has a hydraulic P.T.O. driven exhilarate pump in the back to run the hydraulic motors on these heads. And it has a center drive P.T.O. for this deck mower in the middle but the whole system cost $45.00 cells and we found out we could buys 0 turn commercial grade lawn mowers for 10000 dollars and then just run the daylights out of them before they just run them until they wear out and we buy another one and we can use one on $100.00 acre farm so. You just drawn your riding lawn mower here it has a side discharge you just go get a mulching blade kit for it so just pushes it straight down and then ride that other side on the fabric on this side bump it on that edge and then come around and mow to ice down the same row 2 acres in overall 5 acres you could do with a riding lawn mower to wear it out but yeah the landscape supply company in Keizer Oregon sold me like 12 we bought like 12 of these things over the last few years like we used to or Michael. We mowed every week we mowed almost every acre every week so I figured out the heaters we were covering like with the largest landscaper in Oregon but. Anyway. The other way you can do it is weed or but that will tend to cut the fabric I like the still came out with a weed like grass size and it's basically like a hedge trimmer sickle bar. But like this and you can get him for the combination like. We did or you can take the tach what's on and off and then you can tilt the blade like this and use stand here go right along the ferritin just scissors you know it's a civil war so it just cuts everything off it things aren't flying all over the place it works really well and you can still use it like a tractor so you if you already have a tractor if you just use your mower go down there mow it and then take that circle learn go down to mow the edge of the fabric Yes So if you don't have the time you know the machines to do that well we did it if you go to coding tractor anything to dig a small trench put the edge of the fabric in it and push the dirt back into that trench and then we actually use the R T V or one of these tractors with a softer tire run on that edge of the pack that down so it stays in the edge of the thing this media was brought to you by audiophiles a Web site dedicated to spreading God's word through free sermon audio and much more if you would like to know more about audio over if you would like to listen to more sermon leave the W.W.W. audio verse or.

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