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The Racial Divides, Part 3

David Williams


David Williams

Professor of African and African American Studies and Sociology at the University of Michigan



  • December 31, 2009
    2:30 PM
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okay you spent time with and get started I've gotten my technology up and running one of their welcome to those of you who after lunch is the have come out to this seminar this is a AAA the second major seminar in the series this morning we looked at the nature of of stereotypes no society and how all of us as human beings process information categorize them and if we develop network negative categories which is pretty normal in all society that some groups that are positive with you some group 's negative review it has implications for how we relate to others automatically and unconsciously so we talk a lot about unconscious and on thinking discrimination by the subsequent evidence showing that that happens when it happens to all of us in the something we need to be aware of we look to the example of Jesus and how it is at the individual level and multiple examples of how he related to people he rose above the normal socials stereotypes and categorize Asian of his society to treat each individual as a child of God and our session this afternoon we will be taken up a more historical low less of how we as individual Christians relate and more I've how as an institution we evaporated I say that at the beginning because I think it's important to emphasize that as we will look at the history that moments of brilliance and in moments of leadership and moments when the church and its institutions rose above the normally when the normal routine and then well but they are actually great moments of tragedy when we terribly feel the Lord in terms of what we did I say that not because we want to be pointing fingers and looking backwards it's important to understand where we've come from and if we don't understand all history we are likely to repeat it so my presentation this afternoon race separate conference in the gospel it is heavily historical although I begin with many contemporary examples suggesting that will happen in the US is not unique and then we we have examples around the world when as a church we are faced to have faith in our place and I'm similar crises but the burden on my heart is really to inspire us as as young people do I see to we need a new generation of young people we need a new vision of both what court wants us to be in a new that are rich to do that which is right because of this right and I hope that that my petition can play role in and inspire new along those lines am at least anyone help me that is a handout I may have for each of you would send article that I wrote for the review it and Ashley Fordyce said submitted it to them published that decade ago but I think it is encapsulate some of the points I'm going to raise in this presentation on in the one tomorrow morning so tomorrow morning we look much more on in-depth view a John seventeen and the challenge of unity in the church what are the barriers what the average you somewhat promised immunity because everything that we doing today is really heavily based on the need for unity as as God is calling us to be on the woman began with a word of prayer am so why not bow your heads with me and is a great fun and have moved this afternoon as we review some of where we have been we pray that you would be with us that the Holy Spirit would give us wisdom and enlightenment but most of all Lord I pray that your Holy Spirit will convict us not so much about the way we have been but where you want us to go and that he will give us the grace the courage and strength so that we can be part of the movement that takes your word seriously takes your challenges seriously knowing that in your strength all things are possible with access to this and we pray in Jesus name amen that emphasize that this is a seminar and sold it it can be interactive if you have questions of inflammation questions of clarification bomb don't hesitate to stop me I get excited sometimes and I will going if you don't stop me and moved in with the questions and raise their hand at any point in which you might have a question I began all of the my sessions with John seventeen twenty one and twenty three of this business what this series is all about is this about talking about unity and the unity that Christ is calling us all of his children to this is the prayer of Jesus Jesus 's face and go about this hail and he praised this is a truly random Bible is the print Jesus before he died and in this foray comes the burden of his high as he looks at a future of his father with new things and regularly neither do I pray for these alone but for all them also that so come to believe and in the prayer three times he prays that the ball may be one evening as you father are in me and I knew that they also may be one with us the point I'm emphasizing in my seminars that today and tomorrow is Christ's prayer of unity explicitly in this prayer is that the oneness of his believer that of his father was the one that of his father was is an evangelistic strategy this is not the reason we been wanting on it's when others would be one because that's what God is transforming us to be one but that's sort of been one is a powerful evangelistic witness that demonstrates to the world something that the world does not otherwise see we talked about this morning and we reviewed some of the scientific evidence that shows that prejudice and discrimination is not for the human agent has no group that have a monopoly on it all humans as soon as we can identify those cells at the group visiting from another group developed in group favoritism attitudes and outgroup discrimination also leads with others is a normal human profit it happens to everyone scientist can produce it I talk about this one as simply and if I get half of you in this room who T-shirts the way and the other half Ricky says with in minutes he was states that feel better and more comfortable I'm a positive towards people witnessing color T-shirt as you and develop more you can do with people with the other the first of the phenomenal process and Jesus is saying that the unity of his father was demonstrated in development and is showing the world something that doesn't normally happen is going to be the acid test of its authenticity and the most convincing proof that he has come he says when we are one the world may believe that you have sent me and when we have developed a perfect unity the world will know that he has been sent to one of the most effective ways one of the reasons why know about this more tomorrow why we are marking time and not accomplishing the work we've done you can go to the nonsense in the conference website and look at what we're doing especially the North American division over the last five years and over the last exactly the last fifty years we have baptized that on average in the last fifty of three to five members of her church per year we are not moving the world we are not accomplishing all that we could be on him Saint suggesting to you very clearly but one of the reasons is the lack of unity in the church insists light-sensitive deathless insurance love you a page two forty two commonly and union existed among men of every dispositions is the strongest witness the strongest witness that can be born that the court has sent his son into the world to save sinners so all apps of the community just like all the lunacy of one oh one the message literacy as it is written you folks are lukewarm you are guilty of sins that you don't perceive a friend you don't even recognize their problem an insane one of this symptom than the things is the only thing is the absence of unity it is our privilege to bear that witness that's will that will convince the world but in order to build that without conditions we must free ourselves on the Christ's command à la carte says must be molded need with his car to all wheels must be surrendered to his will then we shall work together without the salt of collision and emphasize that it will say we work together without collision is the working leave the slot of collision when we have the common need and that unity that Gordon wants us to have another quotation from the spirit of prophecy volume nine page one eighty nine is again shows the enormous promise and the enormous witness that we will have when we follow Christ develop the community and that's Lucy tomorrow that unity requires love if we humble ourselves before board and become kind and courteous tenderhearted and pitiful it will be one hundred conversions it shows when now there was one one that is wonderful in your church you can change to everyone conversion it will be in fact one hundred that is our opportunity that's what we're talking about being in harmony with God allowing them to use this in a powerful way so that we can be the witnesses that he calls us to be so let's get into a message the Gospel versus prejudice I would argue that the gospel contradicts everything different indispensable but Christians historically have not always practice what they preach sometimes the first semi because method at UIC and entitlement is God dead because sometimes Christians have acted as the in other times we've acted a bit on word life some Christians historically in the United States than in an informal front of concern for racial justice and harmony on the Christians have invoked the name of price included Scripture to justify the inhumanity of man-to-man secrecy successes and failures on both sides many times we have simply reflected the opinions and practices of the community to which we have been long we have followed the world instead of obeying Jesus no denomination is in a sense of the think and talk about the day on the question of raised Adventist churches have great achievements we've also had some tragic failures and seldom discuss problem of racial and ethnic division is a current listing on the administration day I'm not just talking about the United States so let me give you a few examples most of my tallest Eminem will be on the US I want to show this is not just an American problem that will open tensions in the early nineteen nineties between Croatian and Serbian seven-day Adventist in nineteen ninety two and the weight of the violent breakup of the former Yugoslavia conflict between Croatian and Serbian FDA's lead to the creation of separate conferences for Croatians the brethren could not get along it was not the national tension that spilt over into the church and in order to continue the church organized into two separate groups of the way the unit Yugoslavian union official reported the facts of the war was one of the contentious issues among Adventists back then so many some felt that the way the official union was even reported the political events of work RN it was biased and that led to tensions within the church in another example in Zimbabwe Zimbabwe a British colony of Rhodesia that was renamed Zimbabwe when it became independent German Zimbabwe practice apartheid very similar to South Africa dead with Ms. blacks whites and collards are called it's a mixed racial group and city administrators in Zimbabwe was organized into black conferences in the college conference in the early nineteen nineties when the walls of apartheid sale and Zimbabwe the General conference pressure to encourage the college seven Adventists to merge with the black seven events so that instead of having separate conferences based on race it would all come together in one conference the college seven that event is resisted it I have been to Zimbabwe have talked to some of them some of the leaders and they felt that the GC was pressuring them to do something that they had on average that meant as a wealthy Memphis they felt they had invested a lot into their institutions they felt that they were a big march with the black Adventist conference it will be a small minority within about ten percent of the membership of the administration in Zimbabwe and that they would lose everything they had worked all of their life the buildup because being such a small minority it would have no control I know site so they resisted efforts of the General conference to March and there was and see when what I'm calling public and legal wrangling went back and forth until eventually the college seven that Venice refused to march and because they were violating high organization they are even today will the part of the Seventh-day Adventist church worldwide fellowship of them that venison still exists still have their searches on a quarterly and use them when they're not technically sound that Venice can't have been not technically part of the worldwide church of seven events they are the only group out there doing their own thing and it was enormous lump lawsuits unstoppable who own the property and who should have the property and I'm not sure how all of that got settled I'm just saying that these are not new not just talking about ancient history issues we are talking about issues that continue to play you administer South Africa moved the seven administration South Africa reflected the apartheid of his society on the apartheid virtually everything in South Africa was lengthier raise I know the South African society well have been the fifteen times in the last seven or eight years I directed the first national mental health study in sub Sahara Africa and South Africa as I've spent a lot of time in South Africa gotten to know many of all church leaders and I'll talk about one experience I had was quite striking just happened to be in South Africa the right time so that history is the administered reflected the pop side of the society in South Africa on apartheid everything was lengthy a race if you visit Cape Town today they can taken a toll on show you what were the colored beaches no wetlands that it would the white beaches which were the nicest beaches in the colored beaches with it not quite as nice as the white beaches and then there were the black beaches were not as nice as the colored beaches so that was Iraq the of races everything he fell sick on the street it will block the ambulance is a lifetime and call an ambulance is so which arguments you got was dependent on your race everything in South Africa was puzzling to raise and I think the Sheridan reflected that in the seven ministers in South Africa they will block conferences it will call the conferences that will why conferences all of the black conferences for organizing the event of black union conference that was not a part of many worthy vision with attached directly to General conference conferences in the white conferences or in a separate union it were not part of many organizations that were attached directly to the General conference in nineteen ninety four apartheid fell and the church came together and instantly the caller the two unions of black union in the white and colored union merged together into one South African union that was one union in South Africa all of the churches coming together as I was in one of the union level at a conference that will live in more challenges in South Africa the college conference most of the college population is in the Western Cape province that it really Cape Town is the call conferences quickly merge with the black conference the white conference didn't in the South NY Congressman not been merged there were multiple attempts to March I just wanted to say if it's complicated but let me give you an example insists to understand that the difference between it will really practical issues involved on such not just about race this is really good with complexity linked to the race in South Africa so to put it in the context in the United States even today blacks earned about sixty five cents of every dollar white sign that the racial gap in income in the US today in South Africa back in the mid- nineteen nineties blacks earned ten cents of every dollar Whiteside so there's a huge racial gap in income anything to imagine conferences of all the knife along racial lines all strawberry history from the time given his work started in South Africa during about and the way they were only nine then you could only imagine that the conferences differed dramatically in resources it meant the passive salary vapor dramatically in the white conference in the black conference and if you say that marriage the white minutes is that okay and whose salary out while the what's out with the UK if you bring the two together and you have the bypass is making a module without written what that signifies salary that would happily violate the Constitution of South Africa so that the problem and then the whites and blacks don't have enough wealth to pay the salary of the white minutes of the get in and Whitefield one reduction in their salary than just going to say this this is one simple general conference step in leadership general conference that then we provided additional resources with all the minutes of the state of things benefits the same salary the same Mister Blake solicited but eventually the so that argument the ways it was no longer an argument of differences in salary and benefits the question is can we come together I said both the white conference in the file whom I comes in the North had constituency meetings where the sentiment needed to go to abandon the Constitution to join a combined conference in both of those holds failed then in the north there was a group considerable pressure from the DC do to make sure the initial that this happens there was a group that came together from both conferences both comments is nominated of the delegation and these delegation met together for many months and work couple of the details came up with a model Constitution it was beautiful we had wonderful provisions such as if the conference would now have a president and a vice president President of the conference theme from the department blackberry device but not the company is darkly like it will vice versa suit within Charman at the legal limit be differences in the size of the two communities both will be represented in both would be working together consistently example of the detail it was impressive the details they had developed I happen to be in South Africa for my research at that time it was a striking contrast I was there over the weekend in South Africa this is around the year two thousand and four by I don't remember exactly think it's from two thousand and four it was we can probably find a good-looking Nelson Mandela 's eighty fifth birthday so I'm from my hotel room on Saturday night I was just beautiful program that was televised internationally to Clinton's LeBaron all these superstars from the US for their attendant the eighty fifth birthday celebration of Nelson Mandela and the next morning a friend of mine local South African friend picked me up at my hotel Sunday morning I had nothing to do definitely fit the Transvaal conference was as the Wyckoff of the feminist constituency meeting and their bulletin whether the conference will abandon the Constitution and accept his new plan that the two conferences that come up with so of course wonderful opportunity am looking the delegates I couldn't speak but I could sit in the meeting unobservant except there all day I'm listening to my brothers and sisters discuss whether or not they would come together as one it was sad it really was a sad experience I have I was hoping what they needed was seventy five percent onto the Constitution essentially want to dissolve the conference to form this new union on the Constitution and needed a seventy five percent majority vote it was clear from the discussion it was know it would get a seventy five percent majority vote but I was hoping just symbolically they would get sixty percent in August they want to come together actually when the vote without a big up forty two percent voted for the two conferences attempted in the didn't happen in the South Eva so eventually the General conference voted a working policy instructor the division and the South Africa Union and the union had a constituency meeting then leave it up to the conference and the union had confidence in me and forwarded to realign all of the conference in South Africa and essentially forced the white conferences at constituency refused to march the union phase we will make you March guess what happened but two years ago members of six congregations in the Transvaal conference that the white conference in the north until congregations in the conference of the white problems in the South brought a lawsuit in the High Court of South Africa against the South African Union conference and division which is a southern Africa engine division so Seventh-day Adventist as so when the seventy seven a search because the charge is making them come together as one this was public information Friday I was in South Africa again a half ago my friends told me the legal rules on the constitutional South African is no way you can maintain a racial specific organization they will lose the case but just think of the publicity for the church advent the filling unmanned global weather this church is going to be united as one in October of this year the high court in South Africa rule example of side something one of the things that church and South African argued in his lawsuit was that the lawsuit had no merit because there these churches and single most churches even the title slated indeed the church is owned by the conference of the agony the church was not sufficiently legal entity the game will bring the Lawson and court ruled because the code they could bring it to have the right to do it but the court dismissed the lawsuit and said a union and division how do we the authority to restructure so that the realignment therefore since all of the conferences to come together in South Africa will happen now it's legally been supported but can you imagine what it means to the charge to members our witness to the world that this in fact even occurred I want to share with you something the judge said the judge who provided a High Court ruling what he said at the beginning of the case when he visited his judgment is a direct quote from the judge ICC did before mean men of God who are going very and I think you should go and see if you can't resolve this matter without have been without me having to rule on it in other words the Jetta thing I don't even know why two groups of Christians in front of me over this matter why you can't figure it out themselves if however you feel that you cannot resolve this matter by ourselves I will be forced to room one audio the way that South Africa on this earth happiness was reported and reviewed reviewed and give the context the interview if you rented it look like a very innocuous move situation and didn't get the kind that the one really has been driving the issue in that context okay now where are we in the United States only will span multiple time talking about the United States and United States not only have we had separate conferences in the North American division since the nineteen forties we have become so comfortable I would say with elevated CM condition that I would sit by and large most of all leadership black-and-white do not view this problematic it was interested in the end the when I sat in the meeting of the South African constituency meeting the one thing that got the biggest remembrance on from the audience was when a speaker got up and said why is the general conference trying to force us to do this window separate conferences in the United States and that is not perceived as a problem and the South African audience resonated to that why you pushing us around I knew that the Americans get away with it with a point not only do we not see this problematic and likely same we celebrated I'm constantly that calls for even more division for example in the Pacific Union there have been rumblings over the last several years of why don't we have a black conference in the Pacific Union one of the things to be honest with you I used to live in the Pacific Union many of the oh I was afraid coming from the East Coast at Pacific union they weren't regional conferences that but it was the same level of the exactly good out there in the vicinity again then the vision without power what I mean by that is the is a regional department in the Pacific Union at a conference level is obvious in California conference of the Southern California conference as the personal ministries of property Department and the regional department original talk with the regional secretary the result is essentially the black conference I was struck that what I was up with the union they would have been in have company in the publication and the college application and be the conference convocation and and and a black convocation the videoconference use them in the black Irfan said to be a lot of separation but one that the members there I did is we have separately don't have the authority to make own decisions but it still rumblings about that you know another sign of further disunity is in the year two thousand December five two thousand the presidents of all nine black conferences North American division signed documents to create a new separate system of retirement for the regional employer conference employees what that means is that if you work for a regional conference in the United States you're not a part of the retirement system of the North American division you have your own separate retirement system now again what is the context for twenty years I remember attending the meeting back in the early nineteen eighties and battered Michigan which was part of the lake region conference problems with the retirement system the retirement system was unfair not to black conferences but that many small conference confluence of the did not have life institutions there were workgroups that will study groups that work on this issue they had been you know panels that had committees that have been put to look at it and nothing happened until the twenty and the brethren feel the church is not in time no progress is being made within the metaphor system and it is true the system the regional conferences have developed provides great money in retirement than the traditional tort system so they went ahead and develop their own thing I say that only to say is that it's not only that we are divided but we are not moving in the right direction in many ways how did we get to be this way what has been the problem what has been the history let me begin by talking about the myth the myth is the belief that is widely shared but is not sure that I was even told us within South Africa when I first met my first visit to South Africa I was told that since the Wi-Fi South Africa and that since the white was an advocate of racial segregation in the church was that in fact she will the white advocate racial segregation a church snow amid scenes of something that is why they believe it is in truth I would submit to you that is in fact not true at all if you look at the history of blacks in the church in eighteen eighty six are we low upon the Baptist preacher phoned the first black seven Dedman 's allegation at the racial tensions arose in the biracial church in Edgefield Junction so from very early on there was some tension in eighteen eighty nine CM Kenney born a slave in Richmond Virginia is the first black feminine menace of the ordained as a minister however on the day of his ordination some white satin that vendors attempted to segregate him and his members on the campground when it ordination was taken place because of the treatment he had received where his members than themselves England and the other domination were not allowed to mingle freely on the campground CM Kenney said you know if we can't work together maybe to practical solution is to have separate organizations what the white say in response of that she says in a consultant work you have no license from God and white phase to exclude the call the people from your places of worship treat them as Christ property which they are just fancy ourselves they should hold membership in the church with the white brethren I would submit to you since the white fact that I think God was alive she in the face of a call to move discrimination system white said absolutely we shouldn't do this the someone will quickly say but little on systemwide talk about have been separate services and I would say to you okay what was the context what happened at that time of war and what was the context in which the light called for separate services well times change in the United States in the late eighteen nineties is what historians call the Jim Crow era segregation laws one of the results of the late nineteenth century changes Jim Crow laws begun in eighteen seventy five which abandoned than and interracial marriages new followed by the construction of separate schools required by eighteen eighty five will indicate the nineteenth new Jim Crow laws spread rapidly the transferring of employment and hospital that everything have to be separate at a height of the eighteen nineties that the height of the time when Americans becoming much more separate of the society on race at a height of the eighteen nineties that's like the son of an white letters of Motherwell in Australia with the final letters that she had written for the review which had not been published in review yet I wish he talked about how burden of a work to the colored people at flulike decided that he would implement a comprehensive plan for the south that have been proposed by his mother is at the light developed this steamboat called the MorningStar ninety sales are down the Mississippi River and its steamboat with a floating headquarters complete with chapel in a print shop and publishing it happen for example public indication of material he was doing agricultural work he was doing a enormous work among blacks in Mississippi at school I was clearly testifying to go on with life he was doing leadership he was doing much lithic outreach he was descended blacks out to grow crops of the group foods insulin it was an amazing work that gets you like was engaged in however many whites in the South remember the Jim Crow era and the society is going separate did not appreciate what Batson was doing on May twenty five eighteen ninety nine it's soon rolled a letter to his mother explained in what had happened the recent incident that had occurred in a little read this letter to you on the screen but I'm not if you can read from we walked two weeks ago tonight a mob of about twenty five white men came to alternative at about they brought out by the Stephenson coworker and then wrote to the church burning books maps charts they hunted for brother Casey I will need in common front of that place when he edited in times that it did not we can do then went to the house and got out then called them out and working with the Kauai I think they would've killed him had it not been for friendly white man who ordered them to stop within after they had struck up the blooms they did not pay any attention at first but he truly does revolve and said the next man who struck the blow would hear from him and then they stopped during this time during this time they shop above Albans Whiteman struck a delay within the heart has seriously picked up for the Stephenson to the narrowness realization put them on the cars and sent them out in the country they posted a notice on the church forbidden me to return on forbidden the steam of the morning anywhere between Yahoo safety in Vicksburg the whole difficulty at the next frame explain arose from our efforts to be the colored people we have given them to open where in the current food to those who were hungry and taught them some good ideas about plumbing adventures in different scenes such as the nuts beans etc. that bring a high price and the whites could not stand so this is a letter from Ethel I describing a recent incident that he and his team have been conquered by the results of their work among blacks down the Mississippi River the letter was written on May twenty five eighteen ninety nine it had a profound influence on his mother only a few days after receiving Hassan 's letter from Mississippi she wrote on June five eighteen ninety nine August bring she said among other things and let the past five possible everything that moves interrupt the race prejudice of the white people should be avoided there is danger in widespread in closing the door 's old white liberals will not be able to work in some places in the South so again the context is at the light the team of white satin that vendors have the team on the motor stopped working this out with being shot at they live the rest of the white community without the resistant the work that they're doing and end-of-life phase if we continue this way we will not be able to continue to work in the amount of blacks in the South among whites in the South and she says we may have to work separately for time and I wanted to redirect code from NY she said referring to the black believers who have been all insurgency said that them understand that this plan this plan of separation because of the hostility when countrymen needs to be followed until the Lord shows us a better way that's in testimonies to the church volume seven page volume nine page two hundred and seven until the Lord shows us a better way was a key point this is the wife's concern that the points that I can't over emphasize is that in and of wife's agreement that we may need to work separately just so that we can continue to function that we can reach both groups in the South she didn't see it as a permanent position she says we have to do this because of the crisis we ran until the Lord shows us a better way I do think that the in one manuals by church leadership for the next fifty years as the reason for installing separation in the church it was used to justify segregation I'm thinking you are personally even when I first visited South Africa South Africans told me they are doing this because this is what is the white ones that the segregation and separation was what systemwide wants that means digital welcome from NY that gives you some context that was official into this doable I am burdened she says heavily burdened for the work among the colored people the gospel is the beast presented in a downtrodden Negro race with great caution will have to be shown in the efforts put forth public than the speed was one zero this have to the absolute letter among the white people in many places that exist a strong prejudice against the Negro race we may desire to ignore this prejudice but we cannot the fact that the workers that actually live the dream threatens us as we cannot ignore it if we were to act as the discredit is it not exists we could not get the light before the white people we must meet the situation as it is convenient with it wisely and intelligently this is not a racist weekend I think it was said that she was just ignoring the realities you what she was trying to do with the realities of the workplace and what the best thing will be to provide a colored people what's that the truth with the places of worship update in which entirely on the services by themselves this is particularly necessary and it's out and bought another work for the white people may be carried on without serious hindrance than a couple of believers that's what I mention be provided with the tasteful houses of worship let them be shown that this is done not to exclude them from worshiping with white people because they are black with an audit by the what will you be advanced led them understand that this plan needs to be followed until the Lord shows us a bit of weight unfortunately I mention this statement has been used by many to justify segregation any questions so far as I think my position would be admitted that away for a long time I think she was talking about the place and if you don't understand the context because it contradicted the red lead of the understand exactly what she 's sole and she says we will not be successful we can anybody in the South we would like to add the doubling fifth but this is the reality we got to adapt to wait until we find a better way so I'm thing it was a specific advised I would say it was wide advice to the specifics of distance of the things that may come before I do with the second myth the second myth is that regional conference of the fifth because blacks wanted separation that is widely believed by both black and white that I've encountered a problem of American division which is not true regional conferences do not exist because blacks want to separate conferences but I'll go into the history and a minute let me say a couple other things that I think are important in terms of understanding the history of race in Adventism in nineteen hundred and nine the nineteen nineties a session LC shaping he was a former Baptist preacher at that time he was the most prominent black Adventists reach up the past that an integrated but predominantly black for us as the church in Washington DC the daughter of Frederick Douglass for example was one of the members of his obligation BJ Daniels was the new president of the General conference the General conference has just moved Washington DC from Battle Creek Michigan at this time and age and I know this is a president wants to organize a church in the same way blacks and whites in worship separately at the New Jersey officials moving to DC sixty requests a white hats to assist him in an evangelistic campaign to that advent of them and leave the black-and-white together we working unitedly in this campaign joined together as one the GC committee refuses the request to it how would a black physician at a time in the first session roll cage and I know the DC president it is difficult to see why it is necessary to make the rate of line in the Adventist denomination in the face of the fact that it shows involves optical protests against any such thing in the church certificates how would a black physician at a time is certainly at the thought of the live event there is no necessity that is the conference didn't want so much wanted separation that it didn't want a black and white minister to work together in an evangelistic outreach by the time of the DC session the black leaders then since the church leadership is not a lot when unity of all integration in terms of working together the man representation is that we have no representation at that time the GC had a department called the foreign department which coordinated foreign missionary outreach and they said we should have a Negro department that would coordinate the development of the black work the first secretary most of the party secretaries of the Negro department with UTC established in nineteen oh nine were in fact white W H Green is the first black Adventist to head the department and that happened in nineteen eighteen eventually LC shaping the most prominent than that in the church in nineteen oh nine left the denomination over this is these out if you're not phenomenal work together as brethren did not want to be part of the church after World War I occurs black veterans came back lots of things happen in the US then nineteen twenties as a time of enormous racial strife in America and then answers another chapter that became beside Captain of Venice history taking Humphrey he was a black advertisement is a New York City he was a former Baptist preacher from Jamaica it was the past of the Adventists first Church of Hollywood with the largest administration New York City by the time Humphrey at the GC to abolish the neighbor department and replace in black conferences needed at the black opposite Leslie what happened to him heal why did he do it he didn't because he was unhappy for the neighbor department had done absolutely nothing since then informed that much what happened to really coordinate the bunch was the conflict of the church and he was developing a much bigger plan he he had the vision for developed and what he calls the utopia are it would be a black long community which would've established an alternate to establish simple would have been found to succeed in school of college it would have an industrial theory were true would be trained in jobs that would have private residences because at the Utopia Park he wanted to move forward with this he felt the region the Negro department wasn't doing much to develop evangelism in this utopia pop be an effective evangelism outreach Humphrey told his conference president and when the black conferences that at times latest Elvis Presley was white above the black project president told him he should not develop the project Humphrey decided if he was in fact going to develop the project so he was insubordinate to church leadership I and they met with some free in a five Alameda and by the way this meeting if you can go back to therapy you can read about it in the New York Times this week and is published in the report of this meeting was in the New York Times by Wilmington the entire congregation of the largest church in New York City for four bit faster than your news in times of need and bring forth the Dominican what would have been out of control and become a riot discomfort had quieted the people that General conference president and present of North American division wrote a twenty eight page document that you can find in the cc archives defending the church and its action in terms of the with Humphrey Humphrey was kicked out of the church and he and his entire membership let the church over the question of racial division the undesignated example of what interest rate we have had cases when some of the most prominent black Adventist leadership left over the divisions within the church Humphrey 's charts was called the night that Sabbath day Adventist church and this denomination I'm continue I want to look at a more positive and this is what happened around the time of the second world war Roosevelt 's presidential border of June twenty five nineteen forty one there shall be no discrimination in employment of workers in the defense industry the government because of race creed or national origin for the first time in the US since World War II blacks were integrated into the Navy and rings okay and it is that time when the society is moving towards integration that black conferences performed but to understand the formation of black conferences let me say a word within a break for that they can break let's understand what it meant the search was like in nineteen forty three because advances in the treatment it occurred in nineteen forty three the only black person in general conference of the secretary of the Labor Department he and other within likeliness of what could happen entities he was in Washington DC it didn't direct the Labor Department on the black ministers met at internal conference for me ten right next door to the teleconference was the review and Herald cafeteria white Adventist leaders could go through you and Carol cafeteria to have lunch black Adventist leaders couldn't they would not be served and adjacent cafeteria in the review and Herald cafeteria cause they were black they would have to go down the street to others only restaurant to find a place to eat back in nineteen forty three to year that the actions of labor trigger the formation of regional conferences that you see the local Adventist school on Washington's undetermined hospital did not admit blacks most Adventist schools in the United States at the time did not cut colleges and universes is not a admit blacks Andrews had a coat of the blacks of twenty one students this is one of the progress of students and how to court that was only twenty one and was accepted black sense of the missionary college was the last college to accept life wasn't until nineteen sixty eight that blacks could be accepted seven so I think the context you have to understand the context of the church follow when society society was very segregated on the administration 's very segregated so for example and most of all campgrounds in the United States in nineteen forty three timeframe black satin that the members could not go on the camera because of their race so that the context of the formation of the conferences have to be understood in the context of systematic discrimination when the church followed the lead in Institute then there was little seen fire and then weights bench regard activity that led to the formation about opposites but I think we have an hour I'm going to begin laughter we have a break with losing by incident the specific factors that led to the creation of black conferences and then I wanted to really talk about that was nineteen forty four we are now in two thousand and nine and what is going us to do in two thousand and nine but many questions before we take a break he questions on the fifth I am so glad you asked the question thank you but had a excellent job I am so glad you had a question you can actually argue that the response of the Adventist church in terms of forming separate conferences along racial lines which in the overall denominator to was a progressive step compared to what happened to most denominations in America at the time most denominations at a time around from the end and in the nineteenth century divided into two separate denominations based on race so that is some of the Baptist minister of the Methodist they are separate denominations completely based on race so that they the US is not unique Martin Luther King made this statement this statement is true today he said the what I will be between twelve o'clock on a Sunday morning eleven twelve and Sunday morning is the most segregated hour in American life with Americans of different races praying to God in a separate churches and he was true so it's not only that Adventism 's social science research suggest that eighty percent of all black people in the United States for the predominant the black churches and then many of them are in Congregational types such as Mexico additional that structures if they don't follow the conical structure that we have with all of the authority method rest of the local level most doctors find that marble so you write weekly and not that out of step I would say and I might talk more about this tomorrow morning is that there has been in wellness conference in their lives especially the last ten years and is more action activity and interest in other denominations out there in addressing this is even real we thought I don't think the denominations of March with a been a lot of meetings of a lot of activity even a group like promise keepers which is a nondenominational group has had enormous interest one update six she areas about Reese 's racial reconciliation promise because the group that a condominium in terms of their responsibilities to their homes but but that has been a dramatic example of incident of a lot of activity I would say in more activity in the other churches and in the administration right now on this question limited to have a break and we'll come back and look at what really happened this time the regional conference and then when we go from here this is all universe in place generations for Christ like to learn more about G Y C please visit www. she was well or or if you like this more free online service please visit www. audio verse got more


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