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Market Gardening Part 3

Matthew Dealy Deidre Dealy

Description

There’s more to growing than meets the eye! During this class the Delays will share knowledge they have gained over their last nine years of gardening for market. They will cover topics such as planting, seeding, weed management, irrigation, etc. 

Recorded

  • January 15, 2020
    11:00 AM
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So when I just think that it's having far. More. So if you guys you guys have all probably or how many people have seen John were team and stuff. How many have seen like. Conor Kirk or stuff. You guys know this do you notice the difference. Or a difference. So John Martino's way more. Artistic are free flowing I don't know what you want to say but and that's how I used to be so I take the cedar and I'd walk down the row and I would try to keep it straight but if it wasn't perfect. It wasn't that big of a deal. And I started doing those strings last year the year before and I thought this is really going to slow me down it's going to be annoying but once I start using them I love it because everything goes perfectly straight and when you go to cultivate or we you know you can just walk down the row so go see our Christmas trees that are on the right. Folks who live there. So basically for direct seeing you can't see it. So we use string and then we use a gritter how many guys have seen a greater. Few So this is the coolest thing sense strings. So you basically get different sizes and. You just pull it down the row and as it goes it makes a grid so this one we have 2 on there so basically you can just walk right and it makes a line. Let me walk down the aisle. So this one here is. It's not very wide so we have them that are up to 26 inches wide. And. So on the side has a thing that sticks out and that lines up with the string so when I'm dragging it down the row I just look at the string and then it stays straight. Yeah so the main purpose of this is to spacer clamps links a lot of this and across the bed so. You know it's the wheel makes the line the circle and then the cross piece makes a line so we have some of these they have 6 rows and 5 rows and 4 rows 3 rows 2 rows and this one here is my homemade version and. Basically I just figured out what I need it I want to talk to a metal shop that had a c.n.c. and they cut all the pieces for me and I welded together so it saves an amazing amount of time and is worth the money so I can get like. 3 or 4 for like $400.00 or something and mind I put a hand on it I just well the handle the other ones they have entered changeable handles so you take the handle often and on mine I put that I just put it in angles so I can just walk down the walkway and it's follow me in the bed so that's helped a lot. But that thing helps. With so that the alternative to the cheaper alternative to that is a rake like a 30 inch bed rake that you can put little pieces of like Pex pipe on there you know and then you can put 3 on there or 4 and drag it down the bed straight and then you change the spacing and then you come back and you go this way. And it works but the trenches get bigger and then as they dry out they're harder to see with this one you just go down it's crisp and clean and. I think it's changed our farm a lot. So and we have we've got pictures if you want to come up and local later we can show you what the actual grid looks like but it's just a square grid. So far Cedar is we use the drawing cedar primarily and when we bought this thing it was. So the one on the right and there are about 5 or $600.00 and we got this somewhere in Seattle and before this we were doing everything by hand and now it's excruciating and by the time you get like a quarter down the row of one row you've gone through all your salad because you put them into thicken the same way that thing helps a ton you can get different rollers for it so basically you make them make a roller for each size of seed and then it will have 12 rows or $24.00 rows on it and then on the cedar itself it has sprockets on the front and back and different side of sprockets that fit right on there so you know if you want salad mix you can do it where drops it every inch if you want green beans that will do a 6 inches and you can just change the sprockets out the main downside to this one is for every crop that you want to do that's different you have to buy a roller and the rollers are $20.00 to $24.00 a piece so there is some. Costs there. But it's very accurate save on seed cost and it's fast so you know you can walk down to bed it not quite walking speed but pretty fast. Broke. I guess. And we also have in the middle here we had was an old farm and it was 12 rows wide and went behind the tractor and then I think about that was we had 12 offers So if we're doing beets or carrots or whatever my wife could be there just changing out seeds and basically as fast as I was driving down and turn around and whatever she could have the next set of seeds ready for the next set of hoppers and then you can just pop a man but that unit there is probably $5000.00 by the time you get all the rollers and now they have ones that are like j.p. 5 where you know has 5 rows and 15 inches wide so you can walk down and then come back. So really good Cedar that does well was soil that isn't super claims there's also the 6 row cedar which is 15 inches wide so you can go down and back and then you get 12 rows in a 30 inch bed there's also the earth away which is good for something and some horrible for others so. There's a lot of options and you can always use your finger seems crazy but there are people that do that and I actually did that this year for some things I was kind of experimenting with and I used to Grettir and I went down and like with a long trial and some other things and I just went stuck on that each grid in the grid was deep enough to where I could just put the seed Mary and then I came out of the right correct and everything was there space so you can do it. So for directly we try and keep all our saving supplies together keep frequently planted varieties together so we do a lot of grain salad a regular spend some things so we basically keep them. In a total like this we just kind of keep all our varieties together and then when I'm ready to go out and plant I just grab the whole totes I'm not going and rifling through all my watermelon seeds and everything in October right. By the way these are pretty good totes that we use that you can't buy anymore so. I don't know. It's a great size but they quite make you know don't know why but you can get em for like 7 dollars but. Keep a list wreckers of cedar settings and use this this is more helpful you know when you're 1st starting out I don't necessarily look at the list every time what I'm doing I look at what I'm doing and I know that we have like 5 or 6 rollers that I use I know the seed goes with this one you know so I'm not looking at the list every time but when you're 1st starting out it definitely helps and you can always seed before and after and the main benefit to this as. You know there's nothing worse than walking down planting a whole bed to realize 3 weeks later you don't actually get to see in the ground. So you know you can just simply wave them out and see what 14 ounces and then when you got done you have 10 ounces so you know that for answers got out and we have actually done it when we did it and something got stuck or it didn't work right so. You can do that you don't have to but it might help. You when I'm sure the seeds are properly covered. Sometimes with the seed or you know there might be a few pop in that she just kind of walked down. You can also use a better all or and there's different ones I have a lawn roller you know that I got from a rental company. And we will see it and then we'll roll it roll it down the road with water in it and it just kind of helps firm up the soil so you have good soil the seed contact and a quick start on that if you can find one with which I could. Talk to the rental company and they said ask me if I could buy it and they said no and I said well what happens if I don't bring it back how much will that cost me and filets like are you talking about say Well finally bring it back I'm going to charge me right well yeah I guess I'm. She said Well let me talk to my manager so she got a manager and he got a phone and he's like oh you want to buy it and like he's like well sure I'll sell it to you so he he's like I want to get a new one anyway so he sold to me for like $60.00 so I was going to pay like $30.00 to rent it so I just get creative and you can always ask me things like that. So we also use row cover and 2nd adding. And the thing with this is if you're planting a roof. And July you know and you wait 3 days to row coverage or 4 days it's probably going to be too late so basically as soon as you plan to you want to put the row cover down so that nothing can get in there right there's nothing worse than coming back a week later and trapping everything in there. And then obviously you want to water it and. Yes on the road yes we planted it and then we put road cover which basically to keep insects out right away. You can ask me later so we used different row covers but I can give you the names I think it might be on the we don't use hoops we do some but for the most part we don't because we have such a large greenhouse it's easier just to keep We don't have wind anything like that so. Hey there is a greater picture and so you can see where the grads right so that's a 3 row grid. So those are I believe those are 10 inches apart so you have 10 row with this way and are 10 inches that's where in 10 inches this way. So you can see how. Nice and orderly it looks right. And it's simple all I did was cut up the strength and then I drove the greater down and everything is straight. Which is very important for things developing uniformly if you put had led us that 4 inches apart and 8 inches apart 10 inches apart which I've seen plenty of. Things get stressed out whatever so the helps a lot. So a greater greater and greater can recommend. And then a nice hand trial is a finger saver. I prefer just to use my fingers to plant but. To transplant. If it's hard or crusty or anything just a nice full garden trial I find work fine you can buy a more expensive ones and fancier ones but it's. And to people is ideal so generally if I can wrangle up somebody I have somebody plopping which is you know you get the thing out and you plop it ideally close to where supposed to be and then I come behind you know I'm straddling the bed and I'm planting as fast as I can. So the big thing with this is you don't want to lay out more than you can plant quickly you have to have the whole bed these are in the shade so we can put a bunch out there but if you're doing it in July and the wrong time of day and he put them all out there they're going to get toasted pretty quick. And then you want to ensure that roots are fully covered with soil so some of the stuff seems basic and fairly advanced at the same time in all my talks about every. Where you say I can't reject me now but I should gently put them in like this is a critical stage so if you're just slamming him in there and they're getting covered with soil and you're being careful it's not good at the same time you know if you're. Sitting there you know when you plant it and you're like you know been super careful and like you know. What we've seen in plenty you know you have in terms come on to the farm and maybe they had a little garden or some flower pots and then you say you know we're going to transplant right and they start caressing and gently talk into it and so you know so there's a happy medium there's a balance right so for example. If you're plant Insall Nova and you've got 105 bed and you've got 4 rows that are 6 inches apart you've got 800 plants right so if you have a 100 plants and takes you 5 seconds per plant it can take you over an hour to plant $100.00 for a bed so you know you don't want to be out there bent over all day planting if you can help it. And basically what I try and do is I stick to show one with my left hand and then as I just push it forward and I put the plant in there and then I go like this you know so it's like 3 movements I'm not you know open it up put it in there and then you know 4 or 5 things so you got to get cork out it and not all crops transplant well so no you're right it is although we've tried about all of them you know people always say don't transplant carrots but we try to still doesn't work although there are some people there are some people that are using the paper pot with some success so. Here's a quick video of our paper and this is the 1st time we use it. And you can actually do this without the paper pot you can dig a trench and put it in there by hand and cover it you can do without the transplant area. But this kind of shows how easy it is. So it makes a little Ferraro and then puts it on there and then covers it up. Yeah these are green means. Like our black soil. We do have pretty amazing soil but the trick of making your looks your soil look better is to use a dark screen. To see how we use the strength we're actually using them. And then I think as there is no motors there is no. Anything the downside of the whole system is a cost probably you know about $3000.00 to get going by the time you buy the paper Pod transplant or the tray is the spreaders the. Pot the doubler is $225.00 That's why we didn't buy it we probably should have. So I guess that you can pay for a pot head lettuce Greens are bunch of onions we do a lot of and that's helped tremendously. So this account talking about like the green band they're pretty quick but sometimes we get. Like this here we got 18 inches of snow May 21st. So you know if we had them like. We can have like this in the greenhouse multiple plantings and then as soon as the weather is good we discuss them out and they're growing and so. Yeah so the paper the paper the whole thing goes in the ground and they're biodegradable that we never basically assumes the crop is done we pull the whole paper back out. We rake it out just because it doesn't degrade fast enough. And right Currently there are still Ok for organic certification but there's some debate on the glue so they're coming up with better methods. So we need control in cultivation. How many people love weed control. Actually. The joy Yeah it's one of my favorite things to do because it's like mowing a lawn you know you can go out there and make it like beautiful and the better you get at the easier it gets. So we use a decent amount Lask a fabric and we're probably going to use a lot more this year just because we don't have a lot of help. But it reduces a huge amount of time and labor for waiting and. Great for beginning transitioning farms one thing that it does really well for us as we have our bigger house the roof is getting older and we have a lot of holes in it so in a big rainstorm you know water sliding down the roof and then it goes through a hole and we get like all these little waterfalls and water splashing up everywhere making a mass so this helps a lot with that because it doesn't make a mess so you can and this helps out side too you can go out there and you can harvest your head let us and it's clay and there's no dirt on it so it helps a time with post-harvest. And. As long lasting so the stuff you know you can at the end of the year you can pack it up put it away in a barn and you can probably get. 12 to 30 years out of it to pay higher use and. There's guys that I've talked to that have been using it for over 20 years and it's still going strong. On the left of the 2 cars here so you can see we have it going outside of the House and these areas used to be one of the hardest areas and they would often get neglected because they're hard to cultivate and basically. The things that are hard to do you don't do. I've found you do the things that are the most pressing and that are going to make you money and that are right before you so the more these things you can do. It just makes things more enjoyable so they're pretty space that we burn holes and all our fabric and we've got a different way but we find the best as just rolled out in the grass and make a template and go through and burn them. And once they're done they're done so don't try cutting them because they'll does for a and make a mess. So we get ours and Denver you can get them all over the place but they're pretty reasonable you can get like this role as 30 by $300.00 and they can cost by $22.00 and then this or burning it was just a small propane torch. But the Coleman gas bottle was also used. 3 inch propane fittings plumbing fittings. And we make a fire and we get him in there and get him glowing hot and run around and burn holes that's more fun doing it that way but. This way as you know you can just grab any anger out there and you can do it you don't have to build a fire and. We've also put fittings on the end of this you can also buy them now they're kind of expensive but. I'm burning one layer to time there are people that do multiple layers and I've tried it and I've got the best success of. My temple it's just a plywood template. I just. Sizes marked it out it's completely safe just do it I do it when it's got a slight breeze so blow all the plastic into the neighbor's yard. Just get it. But. Last you have a huge bust and so you can see right there in the left of me we have all our strawberries the landscape fabric watch. And see right next to it that spot this kind of the beds that we had were kind of pretty done before we got there were never so it's kind of this awkward space between our growing beds and the strawberry bed. Which we don't have landscape fabric down and we didn't cultivate other so we had dandelions growing but. I was going to have a growing health of strawberries because the runners go out and they can't establish themselves and then you can just go through and clip them off. The flame winter. Is a great tool if you use it. And if you use it at the right time so. The good thing with flame wait a minute you can do stay healthy and betting which means you know how I'm going to grow a crop a month from now I can germinate stuff I can take to find water down kill everything on the surface let it grow up again and then I can. Water it and basically treat it like it's a crop my weeds and then flame we'd all again and then I have pretty much everything in the surface is dead and then I can plant a carrot and. Some people there's all kinds of things you can do you can transplant or you can put beets and carry seeds together and the bee should pop up you know a day or 2 before the carrots so when the bee pops out you take the fly and later down you kill any waves that are just coming out and you might not even see them and then the next day or the day after the carrots pop up and they get going for. Weeks or so before else other we'd start like I said it only works if you use it and if you miss your window then it's. That's no good and so. The cultivation does not equal weeding and timing of cultivation of everything so I'm saying cultivation. It's like using a hoe or. Something some kind of mechanical device. And big tractors have a has all kinds have a right we're going in there basically disturbing the soil you're pulling up the small roots anything like that and you're exposing it to the to the sunlight and preventing wage from the beginning. Is 9 tenths of the battle so there's also like this that in time saves 9 or those kinds of things if you can get it when they're this small or when you don't even see it. Is so much different than when they're you know this tall and when you get in a small It's enjoyable because you can just walk down the bed back and forth and that's part of your exercise program so we try and start roughly a week after a transplant. And you've got to use your best judgment and if your judgment isn't good it will get better. So if you're cultivating something that you planted yesterday and you move it you know or 3 or 4 days from around you move it when you kill it next time you'll know I need to be a little bit more careful and this is my one the biggest thing is when you when you weed you want to weed all 4 sides you know so we're usually people are pretty good if they're good about weeding in the bad but then the walkways were not so good or especially the ends where the headers are and if you don't weed those areas then your weeds just beginning protein. Yeah it's on the slide here but. So yeah so we basically. Was gone so and landscape landscape fabric areas that are not easily manageable so this is a perfect example. And I think I once dealt with this to some degree you know where you have the header for your drip. You know for me to go through there and cultivate I have to have somebody you know basically picking it up as I go so that I can get a home underneath or something. And you know the area behind it was one of the hard areas we put landscape fabric down and then we put landscape fabric there were planting Let us and. We didn't put it under the header so it's an area that we never cultivate. And. It's hard so we should have put you know we could've just cut a 2 foot strip put underneath there and it would have looked way nicer. So this is a mutineer how many people have seen this device let me in there heard about it. So here you would hold. This. Thing. That it is all of. This. And social it's the mutineer and it you can buy all it's different and so either I or Peter it's different. And you know it's different purposes for those and they also. Want their characters. So instead of carrying around 10 hose I was carrying one and I'm out there I just swap it out. And I have one that didn't make it in here that comes up and there's a hole in the middle. Which I don't think this is a video but so basically goes around both sides of the crop. So you can walk down there wriggle room on both sides you know basically as fast as you can walk and. Kind of you know. It was nice to look at this is the one on one. Right. Over. Here. And if those were straight you could not do that so. You didn't have doubts. When you use something like this. And these basically you just pop it out like under drill and you pop it and. So it doesn't get much simpler than most. Of all this. I'm going to show you real quick how to just a couple different methods and kind of the different. Ways that you would use different ones. Wrist and that's so basically that you know the goal is to not bend over as much as possible so when I'm doing this I'm just an upright position and I'm walking down the bed right and watch when I'm down and I basically trying to go this fast because you have a lot to do so. That's with like The Wire readers if you use. A cold in your home. Which is developed by. Elliot Coleman. There are different types of tool right so there are bases there like you use the more upright and these are great because they have it goes out on both sides so this is more use for like let us know how things where you want to get underneath the crop you know so you can go right around your lettuce head without disturbing the leaves. And these again. But these are like a hula hole you know you're not like reaching out you can but that's not what they're designed for they're designed for again like walking you know. Yeah those are. Are so little the hellos are probably the greatest design a one point but not so much anymore you know because you're constantly you know they're reaching to all right so you're always reaching which puts a lot of strain on your back and. You know so I had it I made a one that I feel like a 10 foot handle on years ago so I didn't have to reach you and then I could just like go way out there but you can get creative but these are these are so much nicer. This is called a co-linear ho. So this. Here and there. And hers. And hers. I. You know. I would highly recommend these. So this runs roughly I don't know $200.00 to $50.00. What the HAs I think it's been awhile since I bought them but they are they're worth every penny so. So this is how we cultivate it we started with our black soil and we basically just walk down here with us. So you go down right. And and this is what you don't want to do you don't want to go down like this and then like walk around and go this way right. Because God gives multiple arms and things so you want to go down. And then change your position right because we're we can be ambidextrous different if we practice. That. It takes a little bit of practice but it's really not that bad you should go get it pretty quick to where you're just walking speed both directions so you go down there really fast so then you go down back and then you go that way right if you're if you're going down the bad you're like this you know you're kind of like reaching everywhere. It's not nearly as fast as just walking and walking. So. Yes I'm just walking you know. I'm just looking you know trying to keep my feet on the walkway whatever become dirtier sand. And then coming back this way. Right and then I get to the end of the row and then I start coming this way and I just go like this. Right. Makes sense. All. Right. Right. Now. And then we depart you know this is where hand-waving is fun right because our kids can come back behind us and they can go through we need a whole bed and you know 3 or 4 minutes at all it's beautiful and they enjoy it if they're doing everything by hand it takes a long time so then we use a we'll go in for some reason it didn't make it in here but how many know what a wheel who was. So Will how you know there's a wheel when it comes up with handles and then you can put different some of them you can put different attachments on so then you're using the wheel and your arms to push so it's like a stir poem but with some technology built in so you can get different. Stir posing a different way it's basically you can just kind of walk down the walkway espouses you can go turn around and walk back the other way. So the process we why are we the better or whatever and then we hand wave and then we do the parameters what that will hold and the reason we do the Premier is the last is because you want those things you want any weeds that are there up on the surface so that the sun comes up and bake some so if you do that 1st and then you're cultivating you know the weed that was up on the surface you might step in and push it back down in the soil so. That's what we do for that. The other willows an amazing device that I just bought this last year and I don't know why but. You can you can almost start a farm with a real hoe and until 3rd in a broad fork. And you know there's different Tasman as you can put you can put like Tynes on the back to where you can rip up the soil and we've actually had areas where we had sod that was like 10 feet long that we need to increase our beds so I took the stirrup Oh and I cut off all the sod and then I brought a forked it and use that little thing and kind of ripped it up and then tilt it so you can do it but. It's just more work. It's a lot of back labor but there are you know you can also if you have a weedy area that you were trying to turn over quick with that we'll go and just and the blade on it you know you can probably do an area this big and in our warehouse and I have killers you know we plant our potatoes with them but you can access more about well hose. So irrigation there's many different ways to irrigate. And obviously this depends upon your farm you know some of the bigger farms use flood irrigation where they just they flood out and there's so many different ways as we've used pivots at least our side rolls overhead. But spends on your water source and availability if you have a hose and that's all you have to start then that's probably why you very able to use your i Phone bill use a lot of overhead irrigation it takes more pressure. When we 1st started and we were building the greenhouse I don't think we got a picture in here but we had one of those lawn sprinklers you know which is it's fairly uniform where it is but it's not uniform it doesn't move itself so you know we let it run for time adds and then we become a whole host of the other end and pull it down 20 feet let it go not ideal but that's what we had so we use. It depends if it's end or outdoor you know if you're outdoor you're probably not going to be using. Overhead irrigation for obvious reasons you'd have to have a structure to hold this up you might as well build something else. The climate time of year the frequency how you know how much you need to water water rights so we actually didn't realise that we had were supposed to have water rights and we were just farming it and somebody. Turned it on or reported it as which is really good because now we have water rights and we don't have to worry about it but the water rights one thing I'd recommend of water rights is if you're planning on doing a farm to start that process before you actually do the farm right because the process is basically you you felt the things and then I think it's pretty much the same in most states they have to put things in the paper like in the legal section and then people can contest it and you know it can go on an up and up and up so for us it was a little nerve racking being that somebody you know reported to us and then it's gone in the paper and. So the better if you just did all that before even did anything. Got you water right if you need them and then moved on. How much acreage you have to irrigate and you want to plan for the future so you don't want to dig a ditch that's 300 feet long and say wow I made you know 10 gallons a minute right now and put a small waterline and you know and then go back 5 years later 2 years later and dig a bigger debts and put a bigger waterline in and you also need to think about it to go in 300 feet and you have a one inch line by the time it gets to the other end you might not have enough volume or pressure to do what you want to do so that's a big one and if you don't know what you're doing talk to somebody who does. So we utilize 3 main types of irrigation which is an improvement from last year which is only 2. We use drip type primarily for tomatoes Cumbers all kinds of things strawberries the don't like overhead water and then we use a wobbler which. We talk about more and then overhead and this is probably the most important thing is if you don't have it set up the plantings or direct fittings probably are going to happen because if I think I need to go some you know seed some salad mix and I think well if I do that I have to drag a hose or whatever from the side of the farm to the side of the farm and start up and he's like well we have an hour I'm not going to do it I'll do this instead so I think irrigation is probably one of the most important things you can do front to have it everywhere. So drip. We use primarily on crops under landscape fabric. We also use on crops that don't have you don't want to water overhead and. I think that if you can invest and. If possible it's better it last way longer Right now we have a couple roles that are 7000 feet of the fence stuff and when the water is gone they just you know the sun takes them wherever they want to go in the wind comes and they blow around and then you're untangle everything and then by the time you know the next year comes they've got holes and and you're fixin and you're. On so you have money or you get the nicer and you have to if you like it and on the drip tape you know they have different flow mounts you can get spacing you know 8 inch 12 and 16 inch 24 inch depend on your crop so. Minimizes water usage. So this is the wobbler how many guys have used Wobblers. While there are great for certain things. They're used primarily for outdoor crops we use them in our greenhouses as well they're fairly affordable they're easier to move around than other systems. So we have these that we made. So they're similar to the ones that never sank was making and you can make them cheaper than us using p.v.c.. And we bought these and just well they don't cut them whatever he leaves you just stick in the ground every 10 feet and this is a many wobbler they have a larger wall there but basically as a water shoots up ahead the Senate goes in a circle and kind of just goes like this and it shoots out water droplets and the nice thing with these is they have a bigger water droplet So if it's like a windy area the water travels farther than if it was a mist. So. The biggest thing with these is figured out you uniformity you know so these go in a circle right so if you have one of these every 30 feet the circles don't overlap very much you know this might shoot 30 feet the whole way crossed. So for me we decided to do them at 10 feet so that this circle is overlapping this circle which is overlapping the circle. And you have higher uniformity So then you basically have a round circle and you get enough round circles and it makes a rectangle right that covers your beds. And then we have so on the bottom we've got these cam locks and this is just a cap it's full of dirt but so have these on hoses poly pipes or you can get not the caps but. So they have to have all kinds of different fittings right so these would go on maybe the end of a p.v.c. or. Garden hose you can connect to this to get adapter and then. You know it just goes on here if you push on there are these things don't need to be on there. And you lock it on there right this is way faster than turning a garden hose those kind of things and these really aren't that expensive these are you know a buck 50 apiece or something. Yeah. So it's a lot quicker and I think when I build more I'm just going to use 10 foot pieces of p.v.c. we were using polypipe but then it bends and you have to lift them all up and drag them around you know you don't want to get dirt and the ends because then they can clog up but these don't clog up too bad because they got a good size jet. But they had the best thing is if you have these everywhere and you don't move them. You know and you can use p.v.c. cheaper we built these to move them because we didn't have enough money for everything but the ideal thing is you have them everywhere and you just turn it on. So these can be used for germination and propagation so that's the thing with germination if you have them there you can turn them on you know once or twice a day usually if you have them across the farm and you got to bring them over for like carrots for the 1st week and germinate them 2 or 3 times a day sometimes it's way too much work. So if you can see and we've put an overhead irrigation which are these you know they're hanging from the greenhouse structure. And for $35.00 Bay We have 2 rows of those which are you know. These kind of things. And these put out a lot of water fairly quickly. And they're a fine mist So these are great for germination for any of that kind of stuff and these we put these every 3 feet so we talked about uniformity a 2nd to go with the other one and these are every 3 feet so the circles are really overlapping. But this is great for terminating carrots and those kind of things we use that. In the summer for head lettuce those kind of crops will turn it on for 2 or 3 minutes and it'll cool everything down so. The nice thing about it is it has high uniformity it's always there I can just turn it on it's easy to use it puts out a lot of water. It is a lot more costly up front but now it's just there. So for irrigation I would highly recommend open sprinkler and. This thing of we don't actually have it but we had it at her old farm that we worked on and we had 2 acres and we had lots of zones and we put this thing in and you can't find anything else on the market that comes close to this or that for the cost and the ease of use most estimates are $3.00 to $10000.00 and this one you can plug it in and you can get valves on all the or zones and you can tell it what to do for everything so you base as a running wire to each valve and you know you can say Ok This bed is carrots I want to come on you know every 3 hours for 30 seconds for the next 7 days and it'll do it and you can do multiple things at one time where if you get like a rain bird you know it just cycles through so you can do one zone in a time and this one here if you have multiple things that you need to do and you have the water pressure it can do anything you want. You know if you know that you're going to be harvesting carrots for market and your soil is dry you can have it come on it too in the morning and then you can go out there at 10 and harvest carrots and it's kind of moist so it's it's a beautiful thing and it's only a couple $100.00 and this thing as is great for. For Sabbath because everything's automated and you can get on your phone and you can change it so if you're a farmer's market and it's raining and you can get on there and turn it off it has some sensors but. I would definitely check it out. And also open your garage doors if you want to. And it's open source technology so if you guys know how to work on it and can improve it then everyone can get a blessing from it but you can have up to like 80 zones with infinite. Options for programming. Ok so we're going for you know trailing a printing plant so there are certain plans that we always try or prune because it helps to keep them more manageable and in their place. Allows us to have more intense the planting because we can plant them closer together because they're not growing as big they can help the fruit right faster because the dirt is direct all of that energy to one place instead of multiple directions and then. Help to keep the produce cleaner and away from tough because you're hauling it up and it's not laying on the ground so. So there are the crops that we routinely or we should routinely and always but trolls and current sometimes get busy and it doesn't happen like it should but mostly these are made of and cucumbers and so what we do is we remove the branching leaves or what people like to call the suckers from the plant to direct the energy into only one or 2 leaves the sometimes will try to listen to 2 leads and sometimes will be just one. So you know when you grow up you Cumbers or something like that it grows and grows and grows and you want to keep that all of that growth going in one place pretty much. So the tomatoes control on the streams that we can be in that can be lowered so as they grow up and they get too tall that we lower it down and keep going and we used to May don't like to secure them to the string and Thomas has to hang them because the time of the you can unroll the wire or the string off of and then the upgrade that we want to make down the road is a system called the clipper system and I wish I had a video that we didn't think to put it in. But. Great trellis and just plants really quickly then fine you know. So it's a great system to play. You know basically have like a 3 or 5 foot stainless steel rod with a hook on the top so you hook it on your rod your nose hanging down where you can work on it and they have 2 clips and it goes around the plant and then connects to the stainless rod so you have to have them and then when you want to lower it you take off the bottom one you pinch of this one and you lower it down the thing and you take the bottom one and you put it back up on top. And then you lower layer and so then you know if especially if you have warmer climates then you take the whole crop and you slide it down so then the vine just kind of Charles behind you. So. It's. Not. Grass or. Y.. And z. and. It's. So good it's like a clamp Yeah. It easier these so you're doing it you can release it you know. And. So really fast and you get down. Yes So that's the major difference is we've had a troll systems where the string is 12 feet up. 11 feet up and then around a lot are up there lowering the strength so this you can do it all from a working height and anybody can do it because the rod is like you know from the trolls a foot down to here it's like right here so you can just grab everything you're not upon a ladder which is way safer and faster so I must. Keep some but then we really want to upgrade to that because like I said we don't always have time to prune the tomatoes and especially if they're getting high they we tend to just kind of let them go we don't have time to walk the ladder drop them down move them all down etc So I think you. Know it's like a plastic mesh and it has squares and so you roll it out and gives me and they just throw up on to it and you'll see it in some of these pictures later. So this is ours I made it was actually really dark so this is like looking down at them so those are all the Tomahawks you see painting there are a string wrapped up on them and then this is kind of from the bottom so you can see the strings coming down and there's a closeup there there's one down here and it just kind of the close and just the stream that goes around the stomach. So you take it straight up that way. And think humor's our daughter's health tell us some of these ones we have on straight Tomahawks you can kind of see the Tomahawks on the top there and we've found that they do better on our just because well you know they have all of these. Girls. In the temporal So they're trying to grab on to things they want to find and when you have a hard over there's just more for them to climb on and they tend to trust themselves a little more whereas this year they're doing all the work to keep them to the one story when it really helps harvest because it keeps up off the ground they're clean they're not getting beat up on the ground and so we're fighting we have a lot of people comment farmer's market about how beautiful our cucumbers are because everyone else is they're all likely in the dirt so. Ok so then that was troublesome prune so then there's other routes that we only trouble is if you do not carry Salumi like he was unfolding before November all of those. Like I think you showed her in house layout where we usually just that you're going to strive for so it was time to. Go. So after initial training and getting the plants will usually just go for the interest fine so we have a little mini series about this are all the green beans mounds here use transplanting. And so you can see the greenhouse it's growing all the way a tremulous and starting to go up some of the other support wires there so. It is going to town on the farm and over. Who when he said we get an easy yield planting them like this and we use English bees and never did old beans because we want to have to deal with trellises and tearing them out and all that because it's so much work but you know when you're bending over and picking beans of from these little tiny bushes it is such a bad day and those are so fast you just go through them off and you know for us very structure in place and so it's very easy to do that when we grow now we're like why did we ever wish to be in this when you can tell us like this so you know how to structure like we have this is our here. Still and I have this picture of my daughter. And. My life. Right there we just drove to the post to the ground and then we like a few fitting. And then we. Kind of there so that really breaks down and then we worked on that. Probably no. Time. You know. Now that I was never really here and then off we just ran a train. Them up again when morning. And. Our 2 poster. And we just but. And then we use a connector and one time. Simple to do you know when we have 4 rows on there and with 4 rows 10 feet apart you get a lot of to post and you know if you're just kind of going through haphazardly pattern and then they're not straight they're not whatever so what I did on line on each and you know I put the to post and then try to get them to the height and then I just ran the strength down from the top of the to post the top of the 2 post in a straight line and then I just pounded all the key posts then on the straight line to the height it didn't take me any longer and when I was done you can see everything as a straight. It's way more enjoyable to lock up things that are orderly. Chaotic I don't think any longer it's actually a faster. Way to spam a lot in the summer. So there's one other thing I want to say oh so we've planned these we use a paper Buckhantz printer for the p.s. often because it's like really cold in the warm and we want to be able to get those on the ground right away we have issues we direct our weather so ironic there are so many waves in the paper pots by hand 3 keys per cell passed them in there and then we use that paper putting them on our to put up 2 rows and then we come back we're going to try to listen between the 2 rows and the 2 rows will then climb on one from her bed. Then there are other problems that we do not but we prune and those to be things like the sun strawberries and basically just to encourage it to like with the base a little branch out if you cut it and then you can get more of the you'll from that of a just having one long believe thing because I've seen people do that and just pick the least of it. And then pruning the runners from strawberry plants a little more of that energy going to the actually producing plant. So you can be creative and find works for you you know people who always try to live their summer squash and they have great successes that we try to even have great success so we've had some success the same with melons and winter squash we've tried in the u.s. because we have such fast Hill issues to plant them outside they usually get damaged and we can take it to market as well as the inside that way too much so you probably just are going to be growing many of the crop and. Maybe even the melons and. The long season crops so Ok so no talking about her. The supposed part of this is a lot to get through. So the biggest thing that I want to drive home is that when you harvest something you cannot improve upon the quality you can only maintain the quality so you start with the best quality produce that you have and you try to maintain that quality tell you give the end user make sense so the way we have a lot of what we harvest the Windy was that when you touch it you know we want to treat it kindly because we want to get a really nice product to the end user. So tools that we use for harvesting are things like harvest and this is lighted a mainstay on our farm something for an ox so Reaganite It's like a very in a quarter inch separated knife with a she use to get on there and we use this for like everything. And there are specific field knives machete as well as having knives and specialized equipment that you can get so if you're doing more one thing you find that you know a lot of life works great for your view and we find this to be really multi-purpose any time we have some of that comes to work on the farm we just get them one of the is our kids. One thing is you need to make sure that they stay clean with the sheep they can get dirty and stuff in there and if you you know you have to think about food safety if you don't want to use them on certain things and then use them on food so. That's where it is nice to have like dedicated harvest equipment and to sanitize your harvest equipment before you use the. Other thing I sort of talked about this and I was talking about this I may know early that we use the is to one of our training printing neutralising tomatoes so this is like a hands free. Unit that's like really. Ok so if it's like there are some here and so you can work and then you can prune and you can work with your hands and so it kind of keeps it out of the way so I can be interesting to made of plants and then running as I go. It's like a handsfree it's on a sheet and so I'm very like pretty good policy or something we just bought it Johnny's hands free. Probably around. To me and you know some symbols here or something like that. Works great. We also use what's called a quick us grand green harvester and I'm sure that a lot of you heard about this. So it can harness this likely change a lot of the greens because it can harvest stuff away faster than you can ever harvest it by hand it is you see that we just started with these knives and we take hours and hours and hours and now it's like a one person job and be done really fast by a true Johnny and we can oh you can't not anymore John and I think I recall the farmer's friends. Probably have a pair I don't know where they are those years they're coming Ok anyway great use of the quick man he's done a great job designing this school it runs with the drill and it doesn't go down the bed and it's thought of the lettuce off and puts it in the basket you just dump it in the So. And so we use that the only thing that is you need to have pretty Winfrey best because it doesn't differentiate you from a lot of Korea and they have to be pretty uniform but it works really good and then I have a partner a friend or a bucket or bag you know like they have the ones that are in suspenders like a belly bucket something so when your heart sings made of you can just be putting them then if you don't have that you kind of have to have 2 people you have one person building blocks and one person putting in effort to made a mess of things and then Gordon cards are so valuable and then the resource less we. We've just found plans to make a really great garden the cards are fairly cheap online and so there's the name of the place to go to find those plans but in regard to the part of the whole stuff around you don't have to carry. So part of I really wish I would have because more. Pictures and stuff in here but somehow I overlooked this little retaining from the so we saw a lot of baby creek. Cell it's a room full of those things and they can be time consuming to clean all the dirt and debris off and then to dry and then they have their whole Well you need to get a lot of the water off of so there is something that you can make very cheaply and you can find plans to do that online as well and basically you just take it like a stocking and want to use like 100 gallons when usually I think it is in there with all drilled in it and a blower and you turn on you fill with water and you put the greens in there and turn it on and basically just carry it's all of the greens and there and all of the sudden drugs down so it basically washes of the cell we have a triple basting we've been triple roasting our lettuce to try to get all of this all the stuff out of there we're going above of this year because it's just so much faster and so much more efficient and then you need a spanner to dry your greens So if you're doing any type of greens you definitely need some of these and those are great and. You can convert washing machines you can sanitize a washing machine drown them and use that really they have conversion kits that make them a little more sanitary than easier to clean or you can buy a commercial salad dryer but those run in the thousands of dollars but they do create a better in the products because they have less and so they don't damage the lettuce as much and they give you notice a lot of strain so. And then for other items like brew crops carrots premises need to be just a real sprayer so this is probably one of the best ones on the market it has a high pressure a low flow so you can get a lot of pressure with this thing. With not very much of your site and it's adjustable so the farther you pull the trigger the more experience out and that's going to get like root crops really clean because you can get the pressure on there and so we just spray them. And then you know when you sleep with them and you think of water the highs are cool and then let them dry off a little bit so there are some cool little ones for the so the goal is to clean and cool the produce quickly as possible so you want to get things in the water and all of them down and then get them all packaged up and get them in the coolers for the you know like maintaining that quality. And then you always want to label is that your produce bins before putting them in the cooler because there's nothing worse than coming in there and having like 10 of those a few summers of like was one of the room last week which we were going this week was noted at the time there was a label on it and it can be used in something as easy as using masking tape and writing down the day the crop you know where you harvested it if you track the stuff the putting on been and it just saves a lot of time. And. Some time getting is going to vary depending on if you're selling wholesale or retail and it's going to marry market to market so. You know sometimes people don't want to buy you know I know people who go to market and they just have to have a reason people use tongs and pull the Greens out of them in a bag and how much they want other people don't want to do that understandably so I guess in the back. So it's nice to have consistency you have to decide are going to charge your retailer wait versus quantity and then if you're going to Pakistan bag for clam shells or punches so here's my son punching up me for Marcus and then the peas the way you just end a minute late package those and a half pound bag and we just use sandwich bags and then slap a label on their own clothes that's really simple and easy and things like that save a lot of time a farmer's market because people they just want to know like I can get a bag of these for $3.00 versus you buy. If you sell something by the pound one sometimes you know they're not going to be like well I don't want to be $6.00 account for peace but the gravel $3.00 bag fees because I have found that a lot of times it's just. How do you sell them on things and they like to know what it's going to cost and and how things low faster when you're a part of it so you can get them souls that are biodegradable they're made from like tapioca starch or or corner things like that if you have issues with plastic they cost a lot more we've looked at it but. You know you paid for that and you can put that cost on the consumer you can put it on yourself or you can just buy cheap bags so what we do when we talk is are selling that we basically use bread bags from the grocery store we have ordered some different ones to test out different sizes. Connacht Mark never stinky by one I think they're like 9 by 18 or something because he likes that and he doesn't discuss it on the bottom it's just blood on the bottom so it forces the product up like this and it's narrower so it looks like a taller so it looks more full right above psychological So we tried the back and I didn't like I didn't I didn't like how they look just like the cheap bag better so we probably won't buy that size and shape again but you know try it out it really depends on the quantity that you're selling you sell it and have come back some people sell them in a 3rd of a pound or whatever so. Who are some of the things going to say think. Legally really out of the level of professionalism. And actually with the new procedures laws if even if you are exempt from approved use laws you have to follow some labeling practices and that may just be putting the name and address of your far end of the farmer's market but if you're going to individual leave package things. And just looks better if you have a label on them so you want to read it why isn't side the point of view that's there and your business name and location and then set everything harvested on more of us by doing so we would align ourselves next to and save harvested on July 7th and then we go to market July 8th and people be like whoa you just harvested this yesterday you know and so I can be a selling point if you intend to take things from one American to the next if they don't sell them maybe you don't want to do that but we try to only take we're going to sell it at one market to help maintain that quality. So you can use preprinted stickers or printable labels we have a label printer that's called a brother and he will be $800.00 and I think of this like $80.00 or something on Amazon and you buy it's like a sticker label and you design it it's really easy and then just prints out and cuts it and so you just mark I like it because if you buy a free printed sticker if you can't change anything on their fully habitable you get the printer and it's just looks really slick we've had people comments about how they really like for labels and the something so simple so you can also buy a principle labels like that if you bring you know nurse labels and stuff and so here is a picture from farmer's market my daughter basically runs Americans down she has 9 and then you can see we have labels on bread and salad and things and then everything is packaged illegal. So it is in your family ready to market projects you need to be thinking about food safety Ok so. Even if you're not covered by the rule in the Food Safety Modernization that you want to program you want to practice proper hygiene right do if you don't want someone else and an idea that you will come up to the farm and they think it's a farm and they will literally go and on the tree and come back and go to work and we're like no no no what are you doing the wash your hands you know and so I think that part of it is ignorance and so you really have to focus on if you're going to have other people on your property working you need to teach them proper hygiene and that they always need to wash their hands before they work with trying to. Do another. But also come back services like harvest tools like I was saying about a nice if it's a multipurpose knife containers packaging should be sound sizable or disposable and so before we harvest we sanitize all of our hardest of all of our packaging to anything that's reuse is getting cleaned and fantasised and then has a good idea like with us it's just the 2 of us but if you have employees that you want to create a fops standard operating procedures that people know what the procedure is going into and this is going to happen every time before we start harvesting for the day we're going to go is going to clean the pack should we're going to harvest or we're going to sanitize everything all the to and it's ready to go. So I want to talk just a little bit about God or good agricultural practices and my own which is the Food Safety Modernization Act So I have a lecture later I don't I think a bit on the run it is later. Later in the conference the song food safety and talking about this. The gap is basically a voluntary program. Came about because a lot of the. And buyers like stores and things wanted to see that a farm had good practices when it came to food safety and properly handling food and so it was so basically they said we want some kind of certification from you so the gas came from that and different private entities mostly would come in and inspect farms and say yes you're going to put a stamp on it and then they could show that there can purchase or it got a little confusing because then you had all these different companies that were giving out certification but they all have different requirements and they all have different inspections and then grocery stores that say well we want you to have a certification from this place when they already kind of on to other places and so it just really needed to be streamlined somehow and so eventually the u.s.d.a. came in and said this is. The inspection form that you should all you but then the Food Safety Modernization Act covers a whole spectrum of food safety issues not just farming and there is a rule that is a part of this month that is called the produce rule and that applies to producers so it's just approved for older working started about the only and for most cities the Department of Agriculture that oversees the science but there are like 5 or 6 states that the USA will come in and do a section so not everyone is required to comply with the produce rules and I handed out a handout that shows the flow she used to determine whether you are required to comply if it's honest or whether you are at present. Whether you. Are a senator and not I think you should take a few empty course anyone who handles food should take food safety course and so the best practice is to have systems in place regardless of enforcement because if they ever came to your car and said a are you doing what you should be then you can just say here's the documents. We comply even though we don't have to. Click Ok you know nothing to worry about. If somebody does go search firms that you gave them. Like you should have both employees. So it's not like I would have to comply or you know I'm off the hook. You know there's no saying that you have to do it all time but you should be doing a. Ok so that's like up there so the little sheet doesn't mean how I want to take a look at your smile. So I can go through this with you a little that it's hard to navigate some of the pretty old it's a lot of lottery. I think a couple resources and you know I get on with this community. And no idea of food safety course this afternoon. There's Cornell. University. Has the Food Safety Alliance and they think it's their job to frame farmers and. Properly handle it so they have it on a resource time and so there are great resource anyway so the 1st question is your farm grow harvest are all. Yes we do so if you don't then your pharmacy not covered by those rules so it would be a different type of farming Ok if your farm on average in the previous 3 years as it had 25 $1000.00 or less to produce sales if it if it was less than $25000.00 then you're exempt. If you don't bring in more than 20000 for the sales Ok so if you have to worry go beyond this the produce is your produce one of the qualities that it is a good buy is really soon. So if you think about the things you grow we grow cucumbers tomatoes carrots there are usually consumer problems so. Keep going is your only use for 1st time on our consumption you know we sell our Proteus. Is your truth intended for commercial processing that adequately reduces pathogens related as a kills and usually that it's like you're sending it to a processing facility that is then sanitizing your fridge and market again and so that doesn't apply to us and so then the last one there are now over it in the previous 3 years. And by a $1000.00 again all the sales and a majority of the food sold directly to a qualified and these are so less than $500000.00 in sales we would qualify for and. I wish to make more of them. And then a majority of the food which So that would be at least spending one percent of your food goes directly to a qualified in the user and now will be a restaurant or food retail Salish meant that is located in the same state or not more than 275 miles away or just direct to consumers so if you're selling a farmer's market and you know things like or give yourself a wholesale that is going direct to a restaurant or like we sell to some food co-ops type style and so that that's a poll of a user so. Full of it and user would not be useful to say to the hub where they're taking your food they're really happy doing it into containers for people and selling it to you know to the purpose because I understand that Ok so at least at the Commerce your sales. And $1000.00 and so that's something a lot of people probably a lot of people in this room rate so most of us are probably exempt from the Food Safety Modernization Act produce rule but they said best practices is to buy. There are certain things though that. I'm still not sure on the dates and things but you do have to have your water toasted. And you have to do multiple times a year to get to their roots so when you talk about that you think you know. There's a difference. Levels of science but as of this January everyone that is not exempt has come by and. We're. Not on the wire state so even if you're exempt you still have to keep certain records you still have to like the certain things on your legal and you have to test required so everyone is required guard all the passengers with irrigation water and post-harvest water and house of your life so I miss my mother this morning pretty sick so if you want to learn about that there but basically from the compliance date there's an additional 4 years so I would say that we have 4 years now to comply with the wire and basically all that is is testing your water source making sure it's not contaminated bacteria and keeping records about if you have. You know simple water you don't have to do very no such thing as they did the testing you just have records of if you have well either you have to test it like 4 times the 1st year and once every year or there after service one or because the fire of respect and sanitation it's alive is. 20 tasks over that. 24 year life you have to be testing a lot because there's something very a plot of land in your area on. Your water and you know when the a certain water or apartment without alteration and play like they did for irrigation and it's not like. This media was brought to you by audio person a Web site dedicated to spreading God's word through free sermon audio and much more if you would like to know more about audio verse or if you would like to listen to more sermon leave a visit w w w dot audio Verse dot org.

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