Favorite Sermon Add to Playlist
Logo of AdAgrA 2021: Hidden Treasure

02 The Backyard Garden Blueprint

Edwin Dysinger Paul Dysinger



  • January 13, 2021
    9:30 AM
Logo of Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 (US)

Free sharing permitted under the Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 (US) license.

The ideas in this recording are those of its contributors and may not necessarily reflect the views of AudioVerse.


Audio Downloads


This transcript may be automatically generated

Ok We're going to be talking about soil health and this is something that's really exciting to me. We are we are and. In a real. Learning phase ourselves own on this topic and we're we're very excited about it so oil is something that it seems like it's an endless from tear like there is so much that you can learn with soil and so yeah like that said we're very excited Ok We're going to talk about the basics. Of soil and plant nutrition basics. And then fix soil health principles and. Were in this session we're going to get into those 6 soil health principles but we're not going to finish them we'll we'll finish them the following session after that so the basics Ok. What makes up a good soil and ideal soil is going to be roughly half. Minerals and organic matter you see what the other half is air and water would you have thought of that. You don't only think of their water when you think of soil right but but for a good soil to function it needs air and water. We're going to talk more about that coming up. So each each of these components plays a significant role so you know it's not like air and water are are just kind of ancillary they're just they're there they're needed in the soil. And soil health and fertility is a function of all of these components. As well as a lot more Ok So soil is not just dirt. And by the way this is kind of where conventional agriculture just kind of hones in and focuses on right yes conventional agriculture tends to focus on the composition of soil and. We're we're finding out that there's a lot more involved and than just yours what the composition is so your men are also. And again I think traditional agriculture tends to focus on the mineral and maybe the organic content of the soil. But. In your. Most also oils can can be divided into 3 components you have clay this is the smallest and finest component in soil there you have to use an electron microscope to see a clay particle they are there are very very small. Silt is larger but it's. It's still fine particles and then you have sand you know what sand looks like so sand are the the largest the largest particles in a good soil now. Your soil might have. Stuff that's bigger than sand you know there are some people are blessed with it with with gravel and rocks and boulders in their fields to. Can I give a quick them if you can on the sizes Yes Ok So just to this to you know wrap around the mines around the different size of the soil so let's say that Clay is the size of the seed the seats pretty small Who can guess how big c. and it would be watermelon. Someone else is on the Oprah so if if Clay is the size of a b. c. get this sand would be the size of a wheelbarrow does a pretty big difference there right another way to demonstrate it is if you take a teaspoon of c and then spread it out flat one layer think it would be about the space of a silver dollar or a quarter I forget which one a quarter or so I think is a quarter to be about the size of a quarter one Leo think if you spread a teaspoon of clay out one layer thick on the ground guess how how large an area would cover is pretty phenomenal it would cover an entire tennis court one layer thick of clay so it's just a fun little demonstration to to see that the different sizes that you're dealing with in your and you want you want to have a good mount balance and mix yes the your ideal soil would have a nice mix of these 3 components. If you're if you're heavy on one component and not on on another. Your soil you know for example as if you have a heavy clay soil you're going to have drainage issues. It's going to be harder to to work with if you have if you have a heavy sand soil you have drainage issues in the opposite way it just drains too easily doesn't hold a lot of visitor the farmer and Florida and he he had. He had drip lines in his garden but it wasn't working because the water only. Only whet just a small area around it it wouldn't spread out and so he finally said I I just got to change something he added clay to his to his garden and he said that made a big difference. But anyways this is this is where your men are rolls and and nutrients are is in the in these these components. Your organic matter is composed of dead plant debris leaves sticks roots etc It's also composed of dead soil creatures. Including the microbes that have died. Actually a an amazing amount of your your organic matter in your soil is microbial. Organic matter is also composed of living plant material that may be in the soil mostly roots and living creatures that are in the soil again. Mostly microbes but a better bet it would also include of course things like earthworms. We've mentioned the portents of air and water it's really important that your soil have core spaces. These are these the spaces are essential for the air and water to move through the soil and. Why why do you think the air and water are important to soil any any ideas Ok someone saying they're living creatures in the soil that is correct. The we have a lot of microbial life in the soil that is necessary for a healthy soil and. Those microbes need air and water right I mean they're they're living creatures. What creates these pore spaces in the soil you know not every soil has poured spaces. If you if you have sand and gravel you know larger material in your soil that that tends to help create pore spaces. Venue you have the activity of creatures in your soil like earthworms and even larger creatures you know as they're moving around in the soil they open the soil up and and. Keep it air rated I mean even malls will do that right. And ants and other other creatures but. We're going to talk quite a bit about this aggregates aggregates are our soil little little soil clusters that are that are kind of glued together and and those if you have a soil that has good aggregate you're going to have good pore spaces so think about it like this you have like one or 2 sand pieces that are kind of glued together with a bunch of silt and kind of some clay tacked on there as well and that kind of organic scenario Yeah you know in that material mixed in. And while that is clicking Here's a fun little thing with the life in the soil. If you at Can anyone guess how much life is in a teaspoon of healthy soil. If you were next if you were to put it under a microscope and count those microbes if you were to count them one every 2nd. So you just like 1234 and you so you're looking them under the microscope and you're counting all these microbes in a teaspoon of salt you know how long it would take you to count them well 1st of all let me tell you how many are in there there can be easily over a 1000000000 microbes in a teaspoon of soil that's a lot as a huge number I mean that's hard to my wrap around minds around so that's why I do it with an illustration of counting it would take 31 years to count all of those microbes in just a teaspoon of soil in healthy soil so you don't you don't think about it usually but you know when you're walking on the ground you're walking on life like it's a there's a ton of life in there there should be so aggregates are men or rolls and organic matter bound together in clumps that vary in size and shape. And soil aggregates are a key visible indicator of soil health I've got a picture I get it if I switch but now with 3 Ok injuries bases Ok. All right so you can see here this picture on the left. Hundreds of this center one here Ok. Really hard to see in the light here but this is a. Soil from the from the forest floor and I think most of you have have seen soil in the forest floor and it has it has good aggregates and good space there this is a soil that has been. Farmed until continuously do you do you see any pore space here. This is this is this so I'll looking up close with a microscope and this is the soil looking up close you can see there's there is space and there's there's clumps. Whereas here there's hardly anything so if you want a living soil you want this and unfortunately our and our common farming practices have actually produced this and so that we're we're we're going to talk about how can we how can we change that how can we get. This kind of soil in our garden in a natural way. So here's the. Soil basics Have you ever seen something like this tree growing out of the rock did you ever wonder how does that happen you know what where is it getting its life from from minerals I mean how come how can your garden won't do that. So. You know it we're talking about soil but our starting point with soil is going to be the sun we get to leave our solar system. But leave our planet I mean leave our planet and go out into the solar system. Light from the Sun is what drive plant nutrition and soil health and life on earth you know we really can't. We can't talk about the soil health separate from plants plants and soil go together. And what day was it was the soil created. Day 3 and what about plants day 3 they go together they were created together and they go together. You can't really separate one from the other. So light from the Sun is what drives plant nutrition soil health and life on Earth and. In photosynthesis the plant uses energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugars and we're going to call these sugars liquid carbon the plant uses this liquid carbon to grow itself but it has other uses for it as well for that relates to soil health and we're going to talk about what's called the liquid carbon pathway so plants take you on carbon dioxide and water. And then photosynthesis occurs using energy from the sun and. Oxygen from from that reaction that takes place and photosynthesis oxygen is produced and and then carbohydrates are produced these are the the liquid carbon and a portion of this liquid carbon. Is moved from the leaves down into the roots what's it doing down in the roots in the roots it's executed into the soil Ok why is the plant exiting carbon the sugars into the soil. Here's an ear is an actual picture of a room tipped exuding carbon these are we call the root exit dates. Into the into the soil and I want to just give credit real quick when you see these black side slides on the black background these are from a gentleman by the name of Gabe Brown and he gave us permission to use these slides my dad and I You recently went to a soil house Academy where he and several of his colleagues tots on soil so some of this is from their their presentation. Where they have connected with scientists that have gone into a lot more research on soil and soil life and how plants interact with with each other so I just want to give credit to him and the soil how it's Academy it's and it's a fantastic resource and understanding Ag is there is there are larger organizations So those are great resources to look up for more information on on soil and plant health so a large a large portion of of the exit 8 that the plant roots put out into the soil is consumed by who microbes this is their food source Ok and. In addition to that though part of these exit dates are combined with water to form carbonic acid and carbonic acid is a mild acid that breaks down rocks and organic matter can you can you see. Use in that and so in breaking down the rock or or soil part of the mineral soil particles. And organic matter this carbonic acid is freeing up nutrients. For the consumption of the microbes So in other words the those root ex a date are feeding microbes in 2 ways One is that they're making sugar available to them giving them the carbohydrates that they need Secondly they're helping to break down the the the mineral soil particles and the organic matter in the soil so that. It's in a form that the microbes can consume as well so there are 22 parts to this. So in the right next to the roots there's there is a thin film of of life. And that this is called The Rise of a sphere that's the you know rhizomes are that's the Latin name for root and so the rise of the sphere is this thin film of life that surrounds the root and that's where those extra days are are. The accidents are going out into that rise a sphere and the rise a sphere is is full of microbial life much more microbial life in the rise a sphere than in the surrounding soil there are microbes in the surrounding soil bed but the micro population is very heavy in the right as a sphere. And we're we're just going to talk about 3 different kinds of microbes you know and we don't want to get too technical and overwhelm you with with all of this but there are 3 general types of microbes that play a very important role in this rise most fear and the 1st one is micro rise all fun guy. These are the you're going to be hearing more about Michael Russell fun guy as we go on through this presentation they are star performers in the soil. They are very key players. And then the 2nd type is called die as a troth these are primarily bacteria but they die as a trophy are microbes that fix nitrogen from the air and so Paul talked earlier about the rise over the. Bacteria that that fix nitrogen in lagoons there they have a symbiotic real symbiotic relationship with with legumes and in the roots and they'll actually form nodules in the roots and they take nitrogen out of the air and make it available to the plant in exchange for the plant giving them liquid carbon. But there are. These rides o.b.o. and lagoons are not the only die as a trophy there are other die as a trophy that forms symbiotic relationship with other kinds of non-literal menace plants not a lot of them but there are a number and and then there are die as a trophy that are vague call them free free living they they don't require a symbiotic relationship with plants they just live free in the soil but they do the path that liquid carbon so the more liquid carbon you have in the soil you're encouraging. These these free living die as atrocious 11 species that has been there not these free living ones have not been well studied yet but one species that has probably received more attention then than most of the of these kind are called as though to back to are there are there are free living bacteria in the soil but they are the more liquid carbon that's available you can build up their population and they do fix nitrogen and make it available to the plant and then you have heterotrophic bacteria these are bacteria and it's not not just bacteria how tropes are are creatures that. Don't fix their own nitrogen they rely on nitrogen from from other sources. But they play an important role in in the health of the soil and in the health of plants as well so once again this start this might start sounding like real scientific you've got all these scientific my micro names and stuff like that's the main thing that we want you to you to grasp is that there's a lot of life in the soil and one of the biggest things that you can do is help promote that life in the soil right because that life plays an important role in making nutrients available to your flat pick to your plants and that's why you know when we go through we're going to shortly go through these 6 principles of soil health and this is creating a foundation so that you'll understand how those 6 principles create an environment for not only a plant life to grow but for the microbes in the soil to grow which create the foundation just a very basic principle here is that. The roots and those exit dates from the roots. Encourage and support these microbes That's the very simple summary. So Michael right is a fun guy form a symbiotic relationship with plant roots and. They extend the reach of the plant root so the micro rise will fungal I have hifi that are very filamentous strands that go out reach out into the soil around the root so they'll be they will enter into the room itself and then send out these hifi and these hifi source water and nutrients from the soil around them and. These micro rival fun guy actually. You can have 11 fun guy that is sending out high flee from one plant and connecting with another plant and you can have so the they actually form all way a means of communication from plant to plant in the field. And there's some amazing research that shows that this actually takes place so if you have this web of fungal strands in your soil What do you think happens when you pull out the rototiller. It's like putting putting on like thing that spot you know think of a spider web and putting in a blender a just completely completely destroys it so. A healthy population of Michael Rye is a fun guy in the soil has been shown to increase the availability of nutrients to plants it's also been shown to improve drought tolerant I'm going to show you some amazing pictures coming up on that. It's been shown to increased past and disease resistance in plants and a healthy micro rise all population in the soil has been shown to speed up development of plants and fruits do you want Michael Russell Fungo in your soil it also increases the quantity of flowers and fruit. So I mentioned I was atrocious briefly already I think I'm not going to go too much deep into that there there are the symbiotic ones and like the rise over the and the free living ones like the dodo back to her you know we always hear about about. The the rise o.b.o. and lagoons But if you if you want to do some fascinating research just look up. Nonda Glue Man leguminous nitrogen fixing plants there are a number out there that will fix nitrogen in your soil. Like I said they're not they're not super common but there are they do exist. So the die is a trove. If if you have a. If you want to encourage a population of die as atrocious in your soil. You don't want to add synthetic nitrogen if you add synthetic nitrogen to your soil that's basically a signal to the die as a trophy that we don't need to work you get that the nitrogen is already available so they just they just sat back down and go to sleep and then they made the population if you continue doing that the population of die is atrocious and your soil will decrease. Thawing all that contains excess levels of oxygen and it. Also will decrease your population of die as atrocious your nitrogen fixers So how how would you get access oxygen in your soil What's one quick easy way to do it Tell it Tell it I'll get out to rototiller and you know and that's that's one reason why. Why farmers have plowed and tailed is because it. Causes it brings nitrogen into the into the soil and it causes a quick flourishing of life and activity but. And so that that can be helpful for that 1st crop that's grown there but it's it's not healthful over the long term So what are trophy organisms that that cannot produce their own energy. This category includes many bacteria and fungus. As well as Nieman toads insects smallest earth Kerns and even animals were you know we are trophy according to that category. All her tropes require fuel that is already supplied by photosynthesis again the soil that hetero trove thrive best in is soil that is covered with plant materials and. So among how to trough there are there are both decomposers and predators and prey and air Raiders and. Mixers there are. There are a number of different functions that they play in the soil that is very important to the health of a good soil so you want a good population of head or a trophy. Sorry I'm wanting to Ok I want to show you this picture here this is called The Right is a phasey cycle and. Get my pointer out here this is something that I just learned about recently that is kind of blew my mind. Did you know that that plant is actually the. Microbes. As I as I told you in the rise of fear there's a heavy population of microbes and plant roots Well actually engulf those microbes and ingest them down at the at the root tip that's what the root tips are doing there they're ingesting microbes those microbes enter the root and and the plant to strip the microbes of its cell wall. It's very interesting it doesn't it doesn't kill the. It doesn't kill the microbes but it strips it of its of its cell membrane and it seems that that is a way that the plant gets nutrition is from that that cell membrane that it strips off the microbe. The microbes then go into the root hairs you know their their little fine hairs that come off the roots those microbes go into the root hairs and those root hairs expelled them back into the soil. And once they're expelled back into the soil the day they regrow their cell membrane and they eat and they get nutrition and then they're there. They're eaten again by the root and so you have the Sago the cycle of the Rouse So rise of stagey cycle. That's that's going on this is why you this is you know the the actual basis for how nutrients got from the soil into the plant. Is very very fascinating to me. Not only that but. There. This is also how plants uptake. There's a lot of bacteria microbes bacteria and fungi that live inside the plant just like we have them living inside of us and they play a significant role in the health of the plant in disease resistance and in nutrition for the plant and all of these things these microbes that live inside the plant are called and to fight fellow that's a whole a whole nother topic but it's a very very fascinating and. You want to have a good healthy population of end of fights in your plants so the plants that are raised and sterile conditions don't have and to fight and. If a plant has a good and a fight population it will transfer that population to its seed there or there will be end of fights in the seed and and so if you if you buy seed that has been raised in a in a way that encourages life in the soil you're going to have more and all fights in those seeds so the those seeds come to you and knock elated and. You'll have a healthier plant. Because they already have those in the fight built in the population growth in. So those that was the basics of plant nutrition the you know how plants actually get their nutrition and now we're going to. Transitioning to 6 principles that you can follow for soil health and like Paul said these principles are based on this information that I just that we just shared about how plants get their nutrition so the 1st principle for soil health is minimal disturbance and I think we should give credit again as well these 6 principles come from that understanding sag organization they have developed these 6 principles yes and I mean there they are not the sole owners slowdown of it I've heard them listed other places but that's where we were introduced to them and they have they have developed it further Ok so when we're talking about minimal disturbance of the soil we are talking about minimal disturbance mechanically and chemically Ok mechanically and chemically what tillage will do to soil structure. As we showed in that slide previously Telegin will destroy the soil structure tillage breaks up those those. Micro rival fun guy the hifi and and it breaks up the aggregates. Tillage will reduce the ability of water to infiltrate into your soil because the pores have have been. Destroyed the poor structure and. It reduces tillage reduces organic matter. You know earlier we had mentioned that tillage increases it makes oxygen more available in the soil and and that that process of making oxygen available to the soil burns up organic matter so it's kind of like. We have a wood stove at home that we use to heat our home and I have a damper on it that I can open to to let more oxygen in and I can close it down to to reduce oxygen so if I if I need to get a good hot fire going I open up the damper and it lets the oxygen and. Allows the fire to heat up but if I want to conserve my wood in the fire once it's once it's burning nicely I close the damper down and then and then the it just. Stays hot but it. Doesn't burn up the wood as fast and I have more heat coming out into my home instead of going up the chimney. Tillage is like like operating that damper on your soil is when you when you plow up your ground you you just open it wide open and it heats up and so especially if you live in a in a hot climate when you tell your soil. You're just it's really hard to keep enough organic matter in your soil because every time you tell it it just evaporates. More or less. Tillage also increases weeds. You know and in your soil you have what we call oh we need seed bank. These are weed seeds that have been deposited and every time the soil is turned you know those those seeds are are plowed in and and then also when you when the soil is turned seeds that have been there are brought to the surface and so that's why every time you you plow or dig your garden. You get this flush of weed growth on the surface because you just brought up weed seeds that were buried and there are Reed seeds I read that Lamb's quarter is a is a common weed in a lot of places a very nutritious weed. If you're interested in wild harvesting things but it's very persistent they have found lambs quarter weeds weed seeds that were 40 years old in the soil. It's hard for me to imagine but there are there are some weed seeds that don't die easily and you can you can have them long buried in your soil and when you tell it you bring them to the surface so again. You know what tillage does to your soil we're also talking about chemical disturbance of the soil what do you think chemicals do to the microbes in the soil kill them yeah. You know that it's. All chemicals well not kill all microbes all the time but but they are not healthy to the soil just like they're not healthy for us right I mean we're living creatures they are living creatures and and most of these chemicals are foreign substances they're just not healthy so if. We have. The chemical disturbance it can be. You know it could be something like lifeless 8 or around. Herbicide it could be something like. A fungus aside you know you've got a fungal disease on your plants and so you want to spray a fungus side on them what do you think that's going to do to the fun guy in your soil that will kill them so you know you've got we we have a very. We're very focused sometimes in our thinking and we're not we're not thinking big picture and. We need to think big picture because creation the creation that God made is a big picture everything is connected to everything else at all is interested interrelated and integrated in a very intricate and complex way and. When we start breaking that up it's not good so aggregates provide structure to the soil. Which increases the prosody of the soil for better air and water movement and it increases the water infiltration and retention you want water in your soil and. So if you have good aggregates the water not only enters your soil more easily but it's retained by the soil as well and. Good aggregate well because the water is able to enter your soil easily it reduces runoff and erosion you know we don't we don't want our our good topsoil running away to the neighbors in fact. That's a major source of pollution. Runoff is and the chemicals that run off with the runoff. There's a huge dead spot in the Gulf of Mexico where the Mississippi in enters into it is just devoid of life because of all this. Pollution and it's mainly fertilizer pollution from. Nitrates and phosphates from fertilizers. Go with runoff and entered the Mississippi and go out into the Gulf of Mexico and they make this huge dead zone. So spaces are essential for biology and water infiltration So this is kind of a review on aggregate so aggregates are formed. The plants exit date the exits help to glue the aggregates together. The organic matter in the soil the fun guy and bacteria that work on the again organic matter in the soil they help to glue the the aggregates together the activity of we're earthworms helps to form aggregates and Michael Ries the fun guy again Michael Russell fun guy are the key the star performers in farming aggregates aggregates form around their hifi there's a the micro rise a fun guy produce a substance called Glow mole in. That that is this global and in cases the hifi. And it seems that that glow Molen plays a role in helping to transport the water and the nutrients along those hifi and it's a it's a protein that's very sticky and it's very persistent they say it can persist in the soil up to 40 years before it's broken down and but that global one plays a key role in helping to to form the aggregates and it's part of what glues the aggregates together Ok. So in summary micro rise a fun guy and biology in the soil build the soil aggregates that's how you get good aggregates if you want aggregates in your soil and think of it this way like I think a lot of us have the picture in our mind of a healthy soil kind of like a chocolate cake crumble a structure dark rich brown chocolate cake ish you know that's what this is how you're going to move your soil towards that no matter where your soil is at when you you when we go through these 6 principles you're going to be able to use these 6 principles to move say your clay soil towards nice rich soils or your sandy soil towards a nice rich soil wherever your soil is at right now you can build a healthy soil on top of that using these principles so the aggregates are kind of like the crumb indicate you know or a good slice of bread that you don't you don't like cakes that are heavy that don't have poor spaces right. Just doesn't work. As I have as I've said Michael Ries the fun guy are star performers in your soil in plant health and nutrition and in forming these aggregates in the soil so what can you do to increase Michael right as a fun guy in your soil you're interested in that 1st of all you can reduce or even better eliminate chemical usage Ok that's your synthetic fertilizers as as well as your your chemicals Yep pesticides herbicides any of those things that are a chemical you know even if you're spraying it on the plant. There's all that land on the plant some of the good sound is your soil right or it rains on your plants runs off down in tears oil any of those chemicals that you use on the garden it will have an impact on the biology Secondly you can reduce tillage or eliminate tillage already for the fertilizers. Alright. The 4th thing that you can do is keep living roots in the soil you get that what what are those living roots provide to your mica rival fun guy a home basically right because the micro right is a fun guy is symbiotic with the roots of it it actually grows into the root. And then the living room also of course is providing those exudate the liquid carbon to the Michael Russell fun guy in return for the Michael Russell fun guy providing nutrients and water through the hifi sources so the Michael Rogers all fun guy extend your your roof zone. Make it where a bigger by the way that last one keeping living roots in the soil that one has a double benefit because how many I think a lot oftentimes I'm going to I'm not going to ask you to raise your hand but oftentimes what happens with gardens we plant in the spring we get a glut of the harvest right and then it grows up in weeds and you just and the garden gets forgotten until the next spring right that's I mean to be honest that happens to a lot of people right at the garden is just kind of a one shot thing you get all excited in the spring you plan to harvest and then but. You know when it grows up in weeds that is living roots in the soil as well but imagine if you had that garden space you know by keeping living plants in that garden all you're wrong you're not only increasing the health of the soil but if you are managing it and those living plants are feeding you then you're feeding yourself from that soil all year long so it's a double benefit you're you're boosting the health of your soil and you're feeding yourself boosting your own health nutritional wise because your garden produce will always be more nutritious nutritious than the produce that you buy in the store so it just has a huge benefit to keep living roots and that goes back to those succession plantings right those leapfrog plantings getting that plant set up for your garden you know we are going to be posting the handouts for our classes I just want to throw this up and I'll throw it up at the end of each of these sessions at this website born to grow dot net forward slash at Agra. We will also probably get those some of those handouts or at least the slides on the agro website as well but go ahead and write this one down born to grow dot net forward slash add agrah a.b. a.g.r. a if you go there right now there is the plug and play garden plan that you can download that's the only thing that's up there right now but by the end of the day we're going to have more resources up there we're going to be getting our sly presentations available to you so you can download those and go review those as well we want to we want to help you guys out as much as much as we can just quickly do we have any questions so quick recap all the mike is coming up here once again we don't want to use to get bogged down in thinking oh this is so complex as well so the simpler the simple simple version of what we just talked about right is you want to focus on that life in the soil make sure to do everything possible to get it to thrive and your garden will do much better by simple question so when you could start it would you recommend an effective method of weed control if we're not going to or use chemicals or fertilizers how do we get rid of the weeds initially sort of just pulling them out and excellent questions forever we're going to cover that in the trunk action so you know stay tuned I just bought some land and for 5 years there has not been thought and. It's you know saying that killing is not good for the soil structure soul and so the putting down or putting up the raised beds What should I do yeah good question. You know we're we're going to talk about that in the Senate to some extent in the next question so. Maybe if you if you still have a question after they raise it again but I think we're going to cover that. How should I feel about grasses I have more problem with grasses in my garden and I do. Yeah. There there are there are some grass in the grass this can be a weed area to be a real problem yeah yeah. Again we're we're going to talk about methods of dealing with with. Without having and including grasses that don't require killing So yeah that can be I'll share with you an example in this next session specifically with grasses that had really good result. I have a question for our crop rotation so yesterday we learned about the soil through the Web and you're discussing the same principles here but that healthy soil so we talk about feeding the soil a crop rotation and the complexity involved even with the tools is there a means by which you can feed the soil adequately to minimize crop rotation or have other alternatives depending on you know busy schedules and things like that just how to manage it all so let me just recap your question real quick is there a way that you can. Feed this oil adequately Are you asking just with the crop rotation or are no in in place of crop rotation Oh inflated if you just say right so the for you because you're saying that the plants take different in the soil can you feed the soil adequately through organic methods to just make it simpler or 2 does that affect reputation at all yeah I would say that there probably isn't any. Ok probably the one way that you could do it is if you were intentional about multi cropping cropping plants together if you look in nature there is no place in nature where there are you where you'll find Mondo crops and so crop rotation is basically doing multiprocessing but in a rotation does that make sense like so you're not growing the same thing in the same place all the time pulling those crops together and growing them in the same place together can make a difference as well and that would probably be the closest that would come to it otherwise I don't think that you can entirely eliminate that principle which is a principle of diversity which will cover in the next section. What what does minimal tillage look like on your farm on our farm. Once a year or 9 or you know we have we have practiced minimum tillage for years we are we are starting to experiment with and try out some no till So that's that's a new thing for us but for us minimal tillage has meant that we will usually after each crop we would we would use abroad for so that the broad fork is something. That will loosen the soil it's not turning the soil is just loosening it. To help get more air and so that's that's what we've And then we've done surface cultivation with. One time a year would be considered minimal college. That's a kind of minimum tillage I would you know it's going to be a scale and so I would I would put that out on the on the heavy tillage of the men to a minimum tillage section. So basically what we would consider true minimum tillage would be if you weren't actually mixing that's well like you're just loosening it with a fork whereas a tailor actually mixes it but it is like if you only do it once a year it is definitely minimal comparatively you know good morning good morning to. How those your method come here to back to Eden method. And if you're about to eat and hold in Oregon the user will chip in to his soil so you want to do to learn do you compere your method to his method or a different method. Where the back to you can method is the idea of covering your soil with wood chips. I would say we we we encompass that method but we're not limiting to that method we feel that there are there are definite advantages to that method but I'm not convinced about using it in every situation and. For example I'm with the annual crops I'm not yet convinced about using the method and particularly root crops because what I'm what I'm harvesting roots out of the ground. I just don't see how I can keep wood chips from falling down in the hole where I harvested them out unless I pull them way back away. So one other thing to note with it is this wall and compass of principle that we're talk about in our next session which is called context but. When it comes to for example using a wood chip mulch. It your cereal. This the state that your soil is in right now will impact how effective that mulch is and if the microbes of bacteria are available to break down that molds so there are put there are times where that soil will not be activated and that mulch will just sit there on top and it won't break down and won't be adding organic matter down into your soil there is an example that Gabriel and Dave or one of his associates of a farm that started doing no till and they ended up just getting more and more plant matter added onto their fields and it was never breaking down there was never going back down into the soil and they had an issue where they did not have enough nitrogen in the soil already to jumpstart that process so it's kind of a cool thing what they ended up doing is they planted radishes and turnips. In the field that had all of this matter on it and those radishes and turnips act as storage tanks for nitrogen so the next spring they just left the radishes out there to decompose and as they decomposed today released all that nitrogen into the soil and within I think they said within 6 weeks or a couple months all of that plant matter had decomposed back down into the soil that had been sitting on there for multiple years so it is an intelligent process you know it's it's not something you know we have to you have to work with your contacts and. We're going to give you principles that you kid that you can use you don't know what no matter where you're soils at and let's try to make it as simple as possible for you all right we'll see you back at 1045. This media was brought to you by audio 1st a website dedicated to spreading God's word through free sermon audio and much more if you would like to know more about audio verse if you would like to listen to more sermons leader visit w w w. Verse or.


Embed Code

Short URL