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Logo of AdAgrA 2021: Hidden Treasure

05 The Backyard Garden Blueprint

Edwin Dysinger Paul Dysinger

Conference

Recorded

  • January 14, 2021
    2:45 PM
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So this next session we're going to be talking about dealing with pests and diseases in the garden and just before we jump into it I want to touch real quickly on compost because we were talking about how you can multiply the compost and stuff like that by the way the number one thing that you can do to improve your soil no matter where it's at so you know forget soil tests or anything like that the number one thing you can do to improve your soil is to add quality compost or quality organic matter to your soil whether that is mulching on top of your soil or mixing it into your soil it will help with water retention if your soil has too much sand and it's and you have too much drainage it will help with opening up your soil so creating more point porous space if you have too much clay in your soil it's just a buffer that helps on on pretty much every level so that's kind of the number one thing that you can do it's oil is too acidic. Compost will bring the 2 words neutral if it's to basically compost will burn it towards neutral it's pretty amazing. So the so then the question comes up like where do I get compost and that's a very valid question you can go to the 1st place I would go to is my local nurseries and garden centers and ask them you know do you have any organic compost and you can get non-organic compost too but preferably if you can find organic compost that would be oftentimes they will potentially have either mushroom compost that can be a good type of compost. And they will have like cow when ur compost sometimes or animal and animal manure compost worm castings is another type of compost that is can be very good for your garden as well so those are just a few types if you're going to your local garden centers and you're not finding very much or very good compost one thing that you can do is you can search for local organic farmers and go to your farmers and ask them where do you get compost sometimes farmers will get compost by the semi truck load How do I know we used to do it right when we were farming commercially we would get it by the semi truck load and I wouldn't be surprised if they wouldn't mind selling you you know a truckload of compost because they've got plenty of it you know depending on the you have to connect with your farmer and ask them but that's one of those things about context as well search in your local context because we can't tell you this is where you go get compost it is a little different in every single every single area all right for if for those I know we have at least one person in her lives in middle Tennessee there's a there's a a worm farm. That's really nice you can you can go there and buy worms. In your in your pickup truck and home home so. It's beautiful black stuff very nice stuff all right so session 5 we're talking about dealing with pests and diseases in the garden and we're going to cover our 3 step now formula for insect pests control when it comes to. Insect pests in the garden that will include our number one defense against inspect problems in the garden. I'm sorry the 2nd part is our number one defense and we'll talk about handling diseases and disease prevention in the garden in this session we are going to mainly focus on the insect side of past I'm going to try and go through it fast enough that we can answer questions if we have questions about larger pests and stuff like that I know also there is another class in Agra I believe my cousin Joshua is teaching it on large pest control so you know that resources there so I just I don't want to be doubling up everything that he's teaching as well so we're going to focus specifically on insect pest control here so number one is the 3 step prove in now formula for organic bug control so here is our now formula it's an acronym and the 1st one in. And it's kind of it's kind of you know you can remember it because sometimes when you have passed that or taking over your guard and you feel like you need to do something right now right you've got to you've got to get rid of the grip get rid of them or get control of the situation right now so this is the now formula the 1st one is n. and it's a little tiny tongue in cheek but it's stands for nuke them. You know naturally of course but so let me give you a little context to where we're coming from here. There is an interesting phenomenon and that is that healthy plants are naturally resistant to insect pests. Think about your body the healthier your body is the less you will have disease right the less those bugs right come in and and in fact your body is the exact same thing in the plant world and actually there's a whole science behind it of how the how the sugars relate to insects and how compromise stress plants insects can digest them well but they can't digest a good healthy plant well and we've seen it firsthand in our garden compromise plants send off a signal the insect pests pick up on and are trying to to them. Healthy plants send out a signal also. Causes them to stay away yeah we have seen it firsthand probably one of the easiest demonstrations of it was we had a coop house that we leveled out before building so the ground was out a slope and we pulled all of basically all the topsoil from one side and moved it over to the other side to make it level so when we planted some spin it in there we planted a whole bed of spin edge and half of the greenhouse had like a double layer of topsoil basically in the other half all that topsoil been scraped off so it wasn't very good soil on the other half right and you could visually see the difference in the plants as they were they were growing the ones in the top soil were much greener much nicer much more lush the ones in the in the worst soil were more yellow smaller leaves a little more stunted obviously stressed right. Phenomenally you come into the hugh palace and all of the stress ones are just riddled with holes and you walk down to the other end and the big lush greens are untouched right so it is it is something that literally actually happens in your garden so with that context when we come to pass we want to we we like to approach the garden from a plant positive perspective rather than a pest negative perspective and other words we want to focus on building up the health of our plants not focus on trying to kill all the pests right there comes some times where you have an infestation of pass that is so much that you need to do something right now right so this is the context that we're talking about where all of a sudden you have an infestation of pass you need to do something right now otherwise you are going to lose your crop you are going to lose your your garden and we're going to give you some natural ways that you can do that but we want to do it in the context of building up the health of your plant at the same time and that's is where a lot of people stop a lot of people stop right here at nuking the insect they just want to kill it they just want to get rid of it right but that is just the 1st step of the now formula Ok so one is nuke them you know get rid of the get rid of the immediate problem the immediate problem that you have with that past the 2nd is that you want to organically fertilizer plant you want to give your plant an immune system boost you want to Why do you take vitamin c. Why do you take vitamin d. right you want to give yourself an immune system because you want to get that you want to get healthy so that you that bug doesn't come and get you again Well like I said a lot of people start stop with just nuking the insect but it's just going to come back if your plant stay stressed right so you want to you want to deal with the cause of the situation organically fertilize your plant and then number 3 is water it in well give it a good musician boost and water and well when you're sick. Has anybody heard that you should drink lots of water when you're sick so it's a very similar situation here Richard sounds like you would yourself yes yeah I know someone had a question if we could just hold the questions to the end we will try and get to them absolutely all right so here are here's a bonus this is a few of our best fertilizers Actually I showed you one of these earlier bio thrive as a liquid natural fertilizer that you can use. And then down to earth can mix is a is the organic on relisted plant based on excellent balance of nutrients of the 2 I would I would use the down to earth being a mix that has a better. A better broad spectrum of nutrients for your plants I'm going to give you an example where I used the bio thrive. In a minute here so we have used both but if I was going to pick one I would pick the down to earth being in the mix so how do you use it because this is an important part of dealing with your insect Bessemer it's the organically fertilize that's like the central part of this. The in the box comes with these instructions on it so don't feel like you have to I mean you can write these you know write them down that's fine but the box come was that with these instructions on it you put $4.00 to $6.00 pounds per 100 feet of bed or $1.00 to $2.00 tablespoons per plant when transplanting or if you're trying to give the plant an immune system boost you do a similar thing you would side dress it. You can side dress adult plants with about a half a cup of it so basically you just take a half a cup you sprinkle it around your plant and scratch it into the soil and then water and well. For containers if you're growing in containers it's about $2.00 to $4.00 tablespoons per gallon of soil mix in your container and on the box it says you can apply once per month during the growing season if you want to stick and continued I wouldn't use this like in the long I want to take this and say oh you know for the rest of my life I'm going to use this in my garden as the nutrients. I would work on building out work on those those soil health principles that we talked about and once you get those in place you should have a consistent cycle of nutrients from your soil but this is something that you can start out with and specifically in this context it will be something that you can give your plant an immune system boost so that you don't have these pests coming back to get them we're going to share with you a couple examples here so let's talk let's just go through a few pasts and talk about what you can do with them here's one talking about slugs finding slug freedom with a proven organic pellet solution so let's use our now formula number one is you want to get rid of the immediate slug problem that you're having and you can do that with a product called Sluggo you can use Sluggo or Sluggo Plus it's an iron phosphate control pellet. That the slugs eat and then they. They do not make it after they eat it. It also adds iron phosphate into your soil which is a soil amendment so it kind of has kind of a double benefit there is some controversy it is it's organic and it's only listed there is some controversy and I don't know if it's entirely conspiracy theory or it's Or if there is a legitimate I researched into a little bit and tried to get a little bit more details on it but I do not have a definitive answer on it as far as if it is 100 percent truly organic so you're welcome to look into that but it is low. Organic. Is a slug solution then what you want to do is organically fertilizer plants to boost their immune system and health you can use those bio thriver down to earth if you can mix and then you want to water your plants in well so that's what we would do when it comes to slugs What about squash and stink bugs squash and stink bugs control so number one so you're going to notice something here when it comes to organically fertilizing and watering it in well it's kind of the same process each time right you're going to go to a good solid fertilizer and then water as water wherever you are when it comes to actually nuking them or getting rid of the immediate past problem that you have there are different types of things that you can do for different types of insects. One thing that you can do with squash bugs is you can use for example a food grade diet to me Earth. That is something that you can sprinkle over your plants and it comes in a powder and it's silica and when it comes into contact with insects it breaks down their exoskeleton and that's how it deals with and then they dry out right so now it is it is on contact so you know if it rains or if it gets wet or something like that it's not you know be as effective if it's really humid it might not be as effective you know I'll just say I tried it one season in our garden and. It wasn't as effective as I had hoped it would be and afterwards I found out somebody suggested in humid conditions. It might not be so effective because it tends to very clump in very small clumps but it's still tends to clump and it's not as effective on the insects skeleton. So just keep that in mind. Another thing is insecticidal soap there are organic insecticidal soaps that you can purchase it is an on contact product so you do have to spray that insect on contact like you can't just spray your plant and let the insects run over it later you have to spray the insect itself. You can hand-pick them and we ask us how we know we've we've been out there well a lot of time picking squash what you can what you do is you get like a bottle mason jar with some soapy water in it and then you just pick them and put them into the soapy water if you're really hard core Some people will squish them between their fingers I'm not that hard core but I prefer really so people who just put them in the so bought. Another thing that you can do I don't have it on here actually I think it's on the next the next one there are a couple other things that are different ways that you can try and deal with bugs like squash bugs. We literally had one of the worst squash bug infestations that I have ever seen in my entire life on the farm years ago literally it was like an apocalypse we grew a huge field of squashing you walk out there and they were crawling over the things there was babies everywhere it was it was phenomenal I haven't seen it like that anywhere else. As we works on building up the health of our soil and our plants over the years we've gotten to the point where we hardly see a squash bug again. On our squash I mean we grew squash this last year I don't maybe one maybe 2 like not. A handful there's not a lot so these principles really work when it comes to you it may take some time to build up the health of your garden but focus on it because it will pay off in the long run all right so then you organically fertilizer plants boost their immune system and water your plants in well all right bonus tips is keep the garden clean of old plants and debris oftentimes in insects will reproduce and use row covers in the early part of the season as a physical control crush or remove the eggs of the insects if you see them on the plants sometimes you'll find squash bug eggs on the bottom side of the leaves you can just squash those or get rid of those so that they don't become more squashed bugs and this can be done with a lot of duct tape sticky side out an idea from the Reformation acres bog by the way. A lot of these when it says you know clean old plant debris and stuff. When it comes to mulching you know that can often be old plant to rewrite that you're mulching with I have not heard of really bad insect problems due to mulch except for once in my in my experience and that is we have some friends up in Washington Hugh had a very bad year wig problem and when they put mulch on their guard in their ear week problem just went out the roof and it was way worse than before so again context right you got to figure out what is going to work best for your specific local area if the mulch isn't working maybe you should try compost mauls because maybe the air rigs aren't going to going to reproduce in the compost malts right like they are in the straw mulch so you've got to figure out what's going to work best in your area all right number 4 here how to use our 3 step proven now formula to kiss a food's goodbye forever I say forever because once you've killed them they're not going to come back a different one might come back but not that same one if it's dead all right so here's the story we had these we had these little transplants and. We my wife and I went on a trip and we had some other people caring for them anyways by the time we got home it was entirely the other piece person's fault they had grown too long in their soil block and I don't know if they had not gotten enough water or or what but they looked like this they were they were yellow riddled with holes and on the underside of those lead leaves a Fitz you can't see them in this picture here but that's what these plants look like and my wife Natasha said you know we should just throw these away and I said no wait wait I think they're I think there's a chance so I took them and I transplanted them out in the garden and here is the story of what we did number one with a feds you want to if you want to get rid of them immediately you can do it with soapy water you can use a for a brand insect killing soap or you can just mix a couple squirts of dish soap it's not going to be a 100 percent organic but it's an option you can couples works we had a natural dish so I discarded a couple squirts in a little spray bottle with water mixed with water and sprayed the a feds direct on contact in the and that will kill the a feds that use but you know whatever one's come in contact with soapy water Next you want to organically fertilizer plant boost its immune system in this case I used the bio thrive I wasn't using down to earth economics yet. But I use the bio thrive and then we watered them in well so this is what our plant started looking out like and. 21 days later how would you like to see what this is a caller's ability a collar plant so 21 ladies days later this was our colored plant. So there's a little before and after so this stuff really works and I attribute it mostly to boosting its immune system honestly I mean we did we had to get rid of those a fish they were causing a problem immediately right we needed to water them in well and we needed to give it an immune system boost and I don't think we had any problems with a physio with them after that. Here's actually one of our gardening members who did the exact same thing she says I did as Paul suggested in his case study sprayed the leaves with soapy water and then fertilize with bio thrive and made sure they were getting enough water and it worked perfectly so something that you can is a very practical thing that you can do in your garden All right what not to do with tomato horn worms and are no fail worm Caterpillar treatment plant worms are another thing that you will have may have problems with in your garden in the 1st thing is to know what to do and that is to assess the situation see how many worms you can find and look carefully see is this is this a significant problem is that going to totally. Eat all of my tomatoes or is it just 11 worm here and there and then look when it comes to tomato corn worms or tobacco horn worms you want to look for ones that are infected and I'm going to show you a picture of that look for infected ones this is what one look will look like if it's been infected. All those little white sacks on it because anybody know who made what makes those sacks. Oh last yes you got it absolutely all right so this is well this isn't actually isn't an actual picture of a bracketed Wasp I don't know what wasp it is that but it's just a picture of a wasp there is a wasp called a bracketed wasp that lays eggs into made a horn worms the larvae eat the Warren worm alive and the larvae a few pate when they mature spinning the little white cocoons on the horn worm so this is an example we're talking about diversity earlier right and how for every one passed there's 17000 beneficials some of those beneficials actually killed your pests right so who would have thought the wasp was good we try and get rid of all the wasp around our area right no no don't kill all of your loss they actually can be beneficial to your garden. And here is a real life example this is a tomato horn worm that I had growing on my tomatoes and I saw that it was infected with this with this wasp and so I did not kill this horn worm I just left it and let it go you know maybe it ate a couple more leaves of the tomato plant that's fine with me as long as I keep I want these wasps in the area I want to keep that wasp population alive so I left it those wasp and that's literally what happens over time the the wasps eat it alive and then those boss are going to be you know do whatever they do and become adult lost and they'll be able to you keep a balance in our ecosystem so if you so that's specifically with tomato hornworms by the way we had these other little worms on our process has been kill and stuff and later in the season I I left my kale that looked really terrible but I left it and the the worms just ate like all of the kale right later in the season I came and there were these other wasps I don't know if it's a bracketed wasp or some other type of wasp but there was these wasp that would fly in and I had video of it would fly in and they would attack these worms and they would eat the worm alive just on the spot like not laying its eggs or anything but literally killing and eating the worms it was very interesting. All right most of your beneficial insects the kill posts most of those are wasps different varieties of wasps so. We kind of give Wasps the bad name but they do a lot of good work for us if we're to follow them yeah. All right so what if you do have a worm prop. A worm or a caterpillar problem whether it be on your tomatoes or on your boss a cousin or cabbage you know kale there's different caterpillars that come on them so here's how you can use the now formula number one is you can nuke them with a product called Die pal this is an organic worm treatment the active ingredient is something called bt it's bacillus there in Genesis it's a natural soil borne bacteria that when a worm eats it it breaks down the gut inside the worm and then it can't eat anymore and within a day or 2 that worm perishes. Breaks down the guy in the worm stops eating so what you can do is you can take this product called dipole and you can spray or dust it on your plants sometimes it comes in a powdered form sometimes it comes arty mixed in a spray form sprayed on your plants dusted on your plants the worms will eat it and eventually they will pass away. Now I will make note that you know if you are going to be eating those kale leaves or whatever later then you may want to make sure and wash them well you know there isn't there isn't any scientific. There hasn't been any scientific analysis as to you know whether the b t hurts the guts of humans they say that it's fine but I I wouldn't I don't I don't necessarily want to be eating it myself right so it is something that is washable it washes off and it also in sunlight I believe that within a certain amount of time it breaks down as well just in sunlight like the bacteria cannot handle some direct sunlight for a long time so so then 2nd thing is you want to organically fertilizer plants boost their immune system or health you can use bio thrive or down to earth she can mix and water your plants well so I'm going to show you another example this is one of our kill plants that's what it looked actually yeah it's a kale plant that's what it looked like we had a infestation of these little worms and it literally just ate it down to the ribs I mean it looks like a skeleton doesn't it literally and in this case I don't think I even fertilized this plant I think that I I just used the the b. t. that the dipole. Or an equivalent with. With that soil borne bacteria and watered them and well and this is that same kale plant growing back so you can see I'm holding in my fingers the skeleton but there's a new leaves growing out from the center it got rid of the immediate problem with the past and allowed that plant to come back and and they thrived they did really well they were healthy All right what about other beetles and bugs. Will give you a couple ideas that you can do with them. Squash bugs potato peels Japanese beetles What can you do one thing is you can vacuum them up if you have a shop vac or something you can take that out to your garden and and literally just vacuum them up you can spray them with insect killing soap we've mentioned that before it is not direct on contact you can dust the plants with food grade died to may sort of thing and that's something that we have talked about before so I'm just throwing out ideas that you can do. If you're going to dust them would die to Maisha earth you do want to use a food great diet to make this earth put it in a sock or you can get dusters that to fit out with air squeeze it and it spoofs the patter out my dad likes the sock best but one of those. Squeeze ones the proof the powder Oh but I have to try in the sock and not like the sock better so in our members area we actually have a visual demonstration of how to use the sock to dust your plants and you want to organically fertilizer plant boost its immune system you've probably heard me say that a lot but it's really important it's really important and then water that plants in well you know Paul one thing I want to say for the. Like the Japanese beetles was the other one potato potato bugs and things like that those those all of those vehicles. Are originally you know they're they begin their life as grubs in your soil have if you seem grubs in your soil that's that's what they're that's where they come from and there is a. Product called milky spore. It's a bacteria that you can spray on your lawn or your garden area and and it. Infects the the grubs and kills them so that's that's something that's one way you can deal with them as well another. Melky spore milky spore. Another similar type thing you've heard of nematodes there are you probably the ones you've heard of are probably bad mammoth toads they cause root root not. You know the cause a lot of problems in the garden but there are good Naima toads that are beneficial and there are there are some some certain minimum toads that will in fact these grubs also and kill them and you can you can buy those online there are stores where you can buy Nima toads to kill the grubs So those are 2 other options you can use and again it's they're there in a product that you would spray on your garden area or lawn. All right so what is the number one defense against insect pests in your garden insect problems number one is set the foundation right can be a little recap probably bugs are a symptom of a deeper problem where do plants get their nutrients right healthy soil you know want to focus on that soil nutrients soil structure really focus on those principles and encourage biodiversity you've heard us say it before going to say it again right make sure that you encourage that in your garden here just a few before and after pictures this was an eggplant covered with. One of those called little flea beetles. They read all the eggplant leaves they make it look like. Like lace and we just fertilize this plant and water to end well we didn't even I don't think I've been sprayed them with insecticidal soap I just fertilize it and watered it and you can see the on the right there that was several weeks later. And this is some tomato plants they really needed fertilizer and system boost. This is the kale that I showed you just earlier and of course the collars that I showed you as well so let's talk about real quick handling diseases in your garden and we're not going to go into a lot of depth in this partly because if we don't have enough time to go into a lot of depth with it so I'm going to actually just more lay a foundation that covers there's a lot of similar foundational principles as with the pests diseases and insect pass have some similar foundational. I think to them. The key to truly dealing with most diseases is disease problems is not to focus on them choose on how to choose to have a plant positive approach in your garden it will go a long way in preventing diseases there are natural controls for every disease that's why disease doesn't run rampant and take over our world. For every pathogenic microbe fun guy or virus there is some beneficial organism or mechanism that will counteract it right remember it all starts with stress and that plants are at least stressed and thrive best where their needs are met in the growing conditions they're living in these growing conditions include the amount of light the plants get humidity levels temperature every aspect of how the soil is structured including the amount of air water again it matter everything that we've been talking about earlier our job is the gardener is to seek and to create the most ideal conditions for plants to thrive so I'm going to give you a few ways that you can prevent diseases in the 1st place in your garden we talked earlier about crop rotations that is a way that you can prevent diseases many diseases and pathogens spend part of their life cycle in the soil and by not planting the same crop consecutively in the same spot you can reduce that disease pressure on your crops choose disease resistant varieties if you know that you often encounter a particular disease in your garden look for plant varieties that are resistant to that disease and an example with this is with tomatoes you may have a blight problems with your tomatoes in your garden look for tomato varieties that are resistant to an early Bly or resistant to a late life and most most seed catalogs the good seed catalogs they will they will have in their description they'll tell you if if that particular variety has resistance they'll mention it if it doesn't have resistance they probably won't say anything about it if it does have resistance they'll usually mention. Seed catalogs Yeah what my dad just said there about they often mention in the seed catalogs all right ovoid warm moist environments that's kind of hard to do when you live in humid and Vironment right but it's true that human environments Foster disease more. Disease thrives on warm moist environments and dry environment such as provided by a few powers can often be beneficial in reducing disease pressure so if you do lose do live in a very human environment can be beneficial with keeping that moisture level down a little bit you know your and your tomatoes will not get rained on in the house so that helps keep a left moist environment in the leaves of your tomatoes there are still be humid in there just because you live in a human environment you know there are a number of diseases diseases that are waterborne. There transferred by by water and so. Tomatoes and you know and your. Squash family melons and things like that. Both of those families can benefit from being drier environment yeah yeah all right. What my dad just said tomatoes squash and melons are good for growing in a hoop out it's all right so once again dad and decomposing plant matter can host disease and while this is true it does not seem to mulch of straw hair which it's usually host disease so you do not usually need to be concerned about your mulch layer hosting disease but the old dead leaves are in plants and stuff like that it can be good to clear those out as your plant is growing I would I would just make an exception there are. A number of years ago we tried a mold around summer squash. This last summer we did as well and in both cases we didn't have the best experience. Seemed. We had more disease pressure so there might be you know some exceptions there. So keep an eye on it for your you know part of gardening is kind of that trial and error of seeing what works in your location best stagnant air can foster mill do's and molds so good ventilation and air movement through your garden is helpful in preventing this especially if you are an who palace or something like that you want to make sure that has good air ventilation usually outside it's not as much as a problem unless you are boxed in by trees or something that or call it causing wind breaks and it never gets any airflow through there so that's something to keep in mind. And then once again Keep this is the website the you go to for the class handouts and by the end of today there will be more on there so just write it down for right now and then come back to it by the end of today because if you go on there right now there's just a small ping to to download but we will we will fill that out for you so. I say by the end of that today but it may be I mean we'll have more on there by the end of day but we may have even more on there by the end of the conference so we're just pulling our resources together and getting them up were a little bit behind born to grow dot net forward slash at Agra I wanted to go through this quickly so that we could leave a little bit of time for question and answers here so it looks like we have about 15 minutes I will say one more thing about the diseases probably one of the most common diseases is mold and mildew is in the garden for example blights that's a fungal disease or you know you have white molds or milled use on your pumpkins or squash or something like that one thing that you can do as milk is an effective solution to help stop the growth of molds and mildew So milk just cow's milk that you buy at the store. And then there is a product called back to no vait at to no bait which is a host of beneficial microorganisms that help combat So you basically you're buying the good ones that eat the bad ones there are bacteria that fungi Yeah so you can be harmful fungi you can even mix that with a milk solution and spray both of those onto your fungal problem oftentimes it won't necessarily 100 percent reverse the fungal problem but it can vary. It can stop it from continuing to spread or stop it from continuing to. There are actually a number of they call them bio fungus sides bio fungicides there are a number of to innovate is one of them. Serene is one Surround is one around you know double nickel. Turn to remember in any way those are the main ones that I remember there. Those are ones that we've tried but there are a number of different ones out there so you can you can just kind of look for bio fungus sites. All right we have some we have a little bit more extra time this time we have about 15 minutes. To answer questions and answer so if you have questions about this or about something else now would be a great yes. Yeah so the question is how often do you organically fertilize is in this context in this context for most of these i just did at that one time when I was showing you the examples if you know that your soil is deficient. You know you can't like for example on the down to earth economics they suggest putting aside dressing of about a half a cup like once a month through the growing season like that's that's their recommendation for using it now I would encourage building a soil environment that has good new nutrient cycling suit that you don't need to be constantly amending it from the outside right so that ultimately is the ideal is to not have to be continually amending and to only use this when you need to give your plant a little immune system boost so that does that help answer the question yeah. All right we have one in the back and then we come up here. Oh no oh yes you know I haven't I guess I guess what you would want to do is make sure you're not. Putting it on flowers let me just repeat it. There was a problem with a diet to make this earth killing honeybees you know so I think if you don't apply to flowers you probably will be Ok. Because. You know generally it's safe for honeybees but I can see if they if they got into the flower. Would they would definitely get it and that would be a problem. And that is and that brings up a good point in most of these things we try and be as specific as possible to the past because you do not want to be killing off your beneficials which is something that happens a lot with just mass insecticides right you just spray the whole field and it kills all the beneficial ones as well as the bad ones but you know we don't want to do that and so some of these are able to do that more effectively than others for example the diaper Hell it only affects the worms it's not affecting the other insects in your garden so that's very nice diatomaceous earth is a bit more of a broad you know and so you got it kind of have to weigh that balance it and once again you know try and try and work the best you can to boost the health of your garden so that you don't have to use it in the 1st place and use it and over time you'll use it more and more minimally Yes I think. Excellent excellent question so the question was How do you fertilize and on fertilizers there's 3 numbers and what do they mean so number one how do you fertilize with the so thrive is actually a liquid and so you would just mix it it's a liquid concentrate and you would mix it with water and then water your plant with it down to earth. And economics is the powder and the way that you do that is you take like a half a cup of the of the powder it's like rock powders and kelp meal and all of these natural ingredients that are ground up together and you would sprinkle it around your plant and then scratch it into the soil and I'm talking about just the top half inch of the soil you just want to scratch it and you can do it with a little fork or something and then you want to water it and the water will help pull that down as well as the life in your soil those microbes are going to come up and help pull those nutrients down to the plant as well so that's how we would that's a practical how we would fertilize with it. And then you want to do the numbers Ok and then the the numbers are the 1st number is for nitrogen The 2nd number is for phosphorus and the 3rd numbers for potassium it's telling you how much of each of those. Nutrients is in that product so it's a very common thing for fertilizers organic and non-organic fertilizers to have those 3 numbers on them so that farmers or gardeners will will know you know what to expect out of it those are the 3 base nutrients that plants need plants need many more micronutrients as well but those are like the 3 main that are ones that they're always in that order nitrogen 1st phosphorous and then potassium and p k is the chemical number for potassium something's people talk about in p.k. as well. They had one in the back Ok. Guys I mean. Yeah what effect does diatomaceous earth have on birds. It's good for them to eat it. It's actually believe it or not people use it medicinally as well you know just it internally. People who are raising animals chickens and other animals will often mix it into their feed as. They feel like it it has. What do you call it a. Parasite effect you know and and. People do it for themselves too for that reason and they also say because it's high in in silica that it's good for your hair and nails and things like that so. You want when you buy a diatomaceous earth you want to make sure you buy what's called food grade diatomaceous earth that is called Food grade because it is food grade it's something that can be added to to feed but there is a there is a kind of diatomaceous earth that used in pool filtering that is is very dangerous you know if you happen to breathe out in it. It's like as best you know it's very dangerous the you don't want to you want to stay far away from that yeah so the question is is the insecticidal soap different than the soap that you would mix yourself and how you would use it on the plants so the so you mix yourself is just going to be whatever so that you know kitchen just so that you can you find there are some that are more natural than others there are some like steel. Something so that is like ultimately pure so that is technically organic and so you can you would even you could consider that organic alternately you're going to use the same use them in the same way on your plant as just the more you know the more chemical ised your kitchen soap is you know those are chemicals that you're Anding up putting in your garden right so it's just whether you're wanting to be ultimately purely organic or not. In this case we had like a Melaleuca very natural kitchen just so it was 100 percent organic I'm not sure but in the very small quantity that I put on those little tiny plants for the for the a fits I wasn't too concerned about it I would do the exact same thing with insecticidal soap though. Use in the same way. Yes So the question is about using milk for fungal treatment in the garden. You know. I believe the ratio is one to. Our Milky 011 part milk to 10 parts water and. I did a fair bit of reading on it several years ago and the. You know there are some purists who are saying that has to be unpasteurized milk other other people I was reading and studies that were done that actually prove that it does have a beneficial effect didn't use pasteurize unpasteurized milk they just use normal milk and it doesn't seem to make any difference whether it's skim milk or full cream milk. You know it's not in the they don't know what the what the beneficial action is but it doesn't seem to be in the cream anyway so so you can use any any kind of milk. You know. Yes and I would say another thing though is if you can keep your strawberries cleaned very well make sure that all the dead leaves are picked off any any dead flowers you have to keep them very clean that's that's very important because we raise quite a few strawberries and have similar conditions Ok yeah we can do that we have strawberries in the palace right now and the nice thing about doubt is that we normally would would begin protecting our flowers to keep them from from freezing in the beginning of March and then we would start harvesting strawberries in in the middle of April usually something like that outside but we found in the palace we can start protecting the flowers the beginning of February and start harvesting like the middle of March so you can get an extra month of harvest and last year we we continued harvesting from The Who palace the full time they were harvesting in the field as well so we got an extra month of strawberries which was really not. It is you can get it in anywhere from just this is like a 6 pound box up to 50 pounds you might be able to get pallets of those I don't know but you can get up to 50 pounds pretty easily oh you know in our hoop else. We have it open so the sides go up and we we have the the end walls very open especially the top and walls I've gone to just taking everything out on the whole top in the summer and then I put it back up there in the winter because we need all the ventilation we can get and so birds and bees and anything that wants to can come and go we don't have a sterile hoop else you know yeah now and then the other benefit is like in the winter when you do want your palace closed up that's when you're going to be growing crops and we'll touch on this in the next session but you're going to be growing crops that you're eating the leaves off of them so you don't you don't really need those inside you know you're going to want since closed up you don't have insects anyways so it's really no other issue excellent question you know. Very. Well. We're still trying to figure that out you know we have what we have learned is that the the very best strawberry production seems to come from growing the strawberries on plastic that means you have. A plastic mulch on the bed we we've tried it without the plastic mulch and. You know if you have hit a on the on the strawberries or straw it the the soil doesn't warm up as quickly and so you know they'll start burying later you can get them to bare earlier by having the black plastic mulch on them so that allows you to have a longer harvest off of them because once it gets hot they just don't produce. We have we have tried a woven fabric you know the landscape fabric we've we've tried that as a mulch and that worked but we try to a bed of plastic mulch side by side with the woven mulch there was a visible difference in the size and the health of the the plants in the the plastic mulch was so much better so we. We are right now we have one bed in our who palace that has. A mix of. Compost and peat moss. That we're growing strawberries and we would like to see if we can grow them without malt the plastic mulch you know I just don't like. The plastic if I can avoid it but so far we haven't found a system that does anything better or even equal to the plastic mulch Yes and one little tip is if you are thinking of using a compost malt so we decided to try doing like a compost peat moss mix like a half and half one thing that we found with that is that the peat moss dries out really easily and once the peak mosque gets dry it doesn't. Gather moisture very well it just repels moisture mostly So you have to really wet it down and then keep it moist like once it's more east it will stay moist if you water it regularly but that's something to consider regular compost does not have that that issue just regular compost by itself. All right let's take one more question and then we're going to we're going to take a break. A very good question very good question to my knowledge it does not affect the earthworms there's now I'm quite sure it doesn't because it's a it's a it's naturally a soil it's a soil more and back to your out here you know. And you are spraying it directly on your plants so you know technically you shouldn't get a lot of it on the soil which the earthworms would not get anyways but yeah to my knowledge does All right excellent questions we're going to take a little break we're going to be talking about winter growing extending your season into the winter and practical ways that you can do that this media was brought to you by audio for years a website dedicated to spreading God's word through free sermon audio and much more if you would like to know more about audio 1st or if you would like to listen to more service lead to visit w w w audio or.

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