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Introduction to Canning

Rob Norris

Conference

Recorded

  • January 13, 2021
    9:30 AM
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Good morning my name is Robert Norris and this is the basic canning class for at Agra. And this is the 2nd recording. That will be the complete recording for what we weren't able to cover on the 1st recording so welcome How many of you are new at Canning so. I see there's a few of you awesome it's good to see you how many of you have been doing canning for. Maybe years and I've done quite a bit of it. Some of you as well so I don't know if you've ever noticed but food often comes in waves it's the natural order of things here on Earth now that we rarely get a steady stream of natural foods year round so we must consider how to save that food for later use there's many ways to preserve foods but today we want to look at canning. This year we've harvested over $300.00 pounds of honey crisp ballfields just off of one of our dwarf trees that is a lot of apples. You know what do you use 300 pounds of honey crisp. Or you can make a lot of applesauce on 300 pounds we actually didn't do too much applesauce this year. We did a lot of juicing and some drying but you know again you have one harvest of apples for instance and you've got all your apples you need to learn what you can do with it so that you have those apples available in some form year round. So we're going to talk about 2 basic methods of canning water bath canning and pressure canning there are other methods of canning other areas that we just don't have time to cover their steam canning that's very interesting and then there's dry canning which we just don't have time to go into those other methods we're just going to look at the basics of water bath canning and pressure canning and bear in mind this is just an overview we can't give you everything in 60 minutes so maybe just sort of sit back and take a few notes and just well we'll run through this and you can get a big picture look at the whole thing. So what's the difference between water bath canning and pressure canning Well the difference is safety water bath Canning is used to heat treat high acid foods at $212.00 degrees which is boiling This would include most fruits jams jellies pickles and tomatoes these fruits are scuse me foods are really only vulnerable to heat sensitive organisms so that the the bacteria and. The things that. Give us sickness they're not going to survive Well number one in an acidic environment that is heated up to 212 degrees or so so we can water bath can most fruits like I said jams jellies pickles and tomatoes. Now when I said high acid foods that means foods with a ph of 4.6 or lower. If you remember back in the. Days of high school chemistry the ph scale goes from 0 to about 14 with 7 right in the middle being neutral ph So just to throw out a couple of numbers there baking soda is very basic It has a Ph of about 9 so that's tending towards the higher part of the scale whereas vinegar has a Ph of $2.00 So that's down more towards the acidic end of the scale the lower the number the more acidic the higher the number the more basic sulphuric acid concentrated so fair said has a Ph of less than one. So here's the thing most tomatoes come into the range of $4.00 to $4.00 Now where is that on the scale where it's both sides of our $4.00 cut off line so tomatoes are a peculiar exception in that today is just safe to say all your tomatoes need to be acidified when you're canning them by adding 2 tablespoons of a lemon juice per quart and that will acidify them to the point where they're safe to water bath can. Give you a few other numbers as well cherries cans cherries have a Ph of 3.8 to 3.9 applesauce 3 point one to 3.6 apricot 3.4 to 3.7 plums 3 point $2.00 to $3.00 pairs $4.00 to $4.00 so you notice a lot of these these fruits have a Ph in the neighborhood of about 3 or 4 so those would be on that acidic side of the scale if we look at pressure canning. Typically we're pressure canning foods like vegetables and soups to have a much higher ph these foods need that and need a higher temperature to actually kill the potential dangerous bacteria and their spores so we achieve those higher temperatures by putting our food that we're cooking under pressure so in a pressure canner when we heat that up. Let's say to have 10 pounds pressure that the boiling temperature of that water inside the container is going to reach $240.00 degrees and at $240.00 degrees for the recommended length of time you're going to kill that that botulism or those other very potentially dangerous bacteria may give you some numbers here just a few numbers for. For some vegetables random vegetables beans have a Ph of 5.5 to 6.5 asparagus 5 to 6 pieces 5.7 to 6 potatoes 5.4 to 5.9 corn 5.9 to 7.3 mushroom 6.0 to 6.7 squash 5.16.5 in rice between 6 and 7 you notice all those vegetables have a much higher ph now they're still on the kind of acidic side of our number 7 midline. Neutral point but they're not acidic enough to kill those potentially dangerous bacteria so we have to pressure can them. Now there are some safety concerns that most people. Will will bring up and ask questions about number one is food spoilage and one of the worst ones that can spoil and and really not even show signs of it is botulism. We'll come back to that the other thing that people ask about is pressure canning and my going to blow up my house and you know how dangerous is it is it going to you know I'm I just putting a bomb on my shoe on my stovetop there well can answer that question to spoilage going back to the spoilage issue spoilage comes from improper processing times jars not sealing right poor quality food or poor quality cooking something just doesn't work right you can you can think of it this way there there are many many thousands hundreds of thousands if not more people every year canning millions and millions of quarts of canned home canned food and we just have very very few a handful of records. Every year of people actually. Getting sick or dying from. From food spoilage if you just have the ability to follow follow a few simple rules this is not hard at all something else to bear in mind is if you're at a higher elevation let's say over a 1000 feet. You need to increase the boiling time for water bath canning and the pressure for pressure canning So think about this if you live at let's say and I don't know the exact numbers but if you live at 1500 feet elevation water will actually on average boil not it to 12 but maybe closer to 200 degrees Let's say you live at 3500 feet water might boil actually not it to 12 but at one $35.00 degrees temperature and so that less temperature means you're not getting that effective kill of bacteria at your standard canning water bath canning time. Let's say most fruits that we do we can water bath can for 30 minutes. So that these different elevations we're going to have to extend that time because we can't make because we can't raise the boiling temperature of water because we're just stuck with that by giving our elevation we're going to have to add time to that and the same with pressure canning if you live at 3500 feet you're going to have to add to that pressure and they're the best thing I can tell you is go online and look up the. The charts for elevation and pressure changes and increase boiling times for your pressure canning in your water bath canning So that's just something that. Just kind of need to keep in the back of your mind as well. As far as equipment you'll need there's 2 things 2 books that I would mention just right off before you even start canning I would get these 2 books one of them the 1st one is called stocking up 3 Roman numeral 3 by Carol hopping and it's put out by Rodale Press Her name is Carol helping h u p p i n g and the other book is called the Ball Blue Book It's much smaller stocking up book is about 2 and a half inches thick and it is the. The reference as far as we're concerned for for. For home canning it this book also has. Me pull that up here it also has chapters on freezing fruits and vegetables canning drying it's got a whole section on cellaring on pickling on making jams and jellies and fruit butters which is actually we did a lot of apple butter with our our pony Christabel poles this year made a bunch of gifts and it was just really nice to do something new we had never really paid out the butter so we've got a method for doing it in a crock pot just made things really really easy so we made just all whole bunch of apple butter There's also a section in the back of the book on nuts seeds grains and sprouts and that is also handy there's many recipes in this book so I would suggest find that book stocking up 3 and then also that that ball blue blue book it's a thin book but also has a wealth of information so that those 2 references if you're interested in canning and pick those up just as soon as you could find them. As we actually look at our our the actual Quitman that we're going to use for canning. We need canners of water bath canner and if you are looking at my slides I've kind of gone old school I've got this granite where. Water bath canner it's blue with the white spots we also have a black one. Bowls lots of large bowls because after you you bring your Freudian in boxes you're going to wash it you cannot want to process it cut it top whatever you're going to need some other very large bold step to put this into as you take your fruit through the various stages of processing obviously you're going to need jars and rings and lids now see this is something that really caught me off guard is when the whole covered thing hit. The early part of the year very very quickly we started getting into canning seasons and the lids dried up across this nation and matter of fact is still very difficult to get a lives by themselves I'm seeing jars coming back on the shelves so when you buy a box of jars you get the rings in the lids with them but as far as getting the extra lids that's probably going to be a little bit longer before those really show up on the shelves but once they do start start stocking up on those lives. I've got a couple years worth of firewood in my wood shed I've got. Just things have stocked up on a normal country living I've got enough to last. You know throughout the whole season but but just that live thing I didn't have enough Liz stored. Sitting around on my shelf to really take us well through a whole canning season so we really had to come to do some different things this year other things that are really handy. That are very helpful to have is a jar class for pulling those jars out of the hot water. Jar funnels a little a lid magnet so we can pull the lids out of our our simmering water one of the time you need spare parts not so much for the the water bath canner but for the pressure canner I would if you get a pair of pressure canner that uses a gasket I would get at least one spare gasket maybe a spare Gage and just some other spare parts so that if something breaks right in the middle of things you can fix it. Colander some slotted spoon. Little tools to use for d.c. stemming with say strawberries or tomatoes. Something that's very handy to have as a Victorio strainer. That is a very handy tool that you can put put your cooked apples in and turn the handle an apple sauce comes out the chute and the apple peelings in core parts and the seeds will come out another section just makes life really easy to make applesauce. Cherry pickers are really handle handy to have and also some other large kettles and we'll be talking more about some of this later. Another thing a word about jar sizes you'll see everything out there at a canning supply store section. Of a store. 2 court jars one court jars one pint half pint and even quarter pint jars and the jars that you use really depend on the size of your family. Years and years ago 100 years ago. A lot of a lot of America was agrarian and they had big families and I would imagine that a lot of those big families were canning foods in those 2 quart jars and they would probably use a jar or 2 of applesauce or peaches probably at one me me me oh if you know if you've got a dozen kids. A 2 car jar is going to go really fast while most of us don't fit into that kind of family size category today the most tender jar that's used today is a one quart jar. In the case of my wife and I Jeannie our kids are grown they've left home so it's just the 2 of us we're doing actually more and more canning in pint jars. So that could just kind of fits us better and we don't have so much sitting in the fridge rater at a time to go bad. We do have a lot of to court jars that we actually just use for either dry canning or for canning juices into and the smaller the smaller containers the pints the half pints the quarter pints used those for like jams and jellies and stuff like condiments diced by Mentos if you're if you can and diced by Mentos put those in those really little jars that you don't use much of. As far as jar lid sizes there's 2 sizes of jar lids. The narrow mouth jars and the large mouth jars if we had it to do go over again we would just do everything in a large mouth. But since we've been collecting jars We've my wife and I been married for 32 years and I think pretty much most of our jars came from a their hand me downs or or a boxer to share in their garage sales who just kind of been collecting jars and so you get this huge assortment of just about every kind of jar out there wide mouth narrow mouth. The narrow Miles we just use for applesauce juices and charities it's very difficult on a narrow mouth jar to put whole peaches our skin hot in a whole peaches behalf. Peach halves or pear halves in the jars that have the smaller tops on and. Everything else goes in the wide mouth charges because it's just so much easier to drop the fruit in there in a ranges so it's compact and everything fits well so we tend to do more of the wide mouth jars we tend to also give away as gifts most of our are foods that we can well let me How do I say this. The the fruit that we can and we give away we tend to do give away more of the small mouth or narrow mouth jars not that we're wishing something bad on anybody else. But. We're blessing other people with their own mouth Tsars maybe we could see it that way and the victorious trainer we've already mentioned that that's a very handy tool actually before we had the Victorio strainer. We were doing things the old way and that was with a call and or. A you have to see the picture here it's a it's a wire stand that's holding a car a conical shape colander with little holes all the way around the side and a wooden. Past all that goes inside of that and what we would do is we would chop up our apples were make an apple sauce and then put it in that colander and just take that that wooden plunger and just go around and around and around and around it just it was just like chasing Alpo sauce around in circles the peels would get up against the side of that thing and plug the holes and would always have to be taken the spatula and move in the peels away just took for ever to. To use that old style colander to do our apple sauce or you could actually use it also for making tomato paste but I saw a picture of that on the web when I was put in this slide presentation together and it's I almost had like flashbacks when I saw that it's like no. But you know actually you know those were good memories of early married life doing things the hard way so let's kind of step back of kind of explains some basics and so and the equipment so let's kind of go through this step by step let's we'll go through water bath canning process step by step. And this may seem a little bit backwards at 1st but step number one is get all your equipment together before you get your food. Get your canner ready your jars already did jars washed and cleaned out really well get your lids the reason we want to do this is to just to make sure you don't run out of lids or jars or something else how for through the process and then realize oh no I'm short on something I don't have enough for a I don't have enough LEDs what am I going to do and you get stuck in the middle of things so make sure you've got all your equipment and it's and it's brought in it's cleaned up and it's ready to go step number 2 is then get your food get your food fresh but this is really important don't get it over ripe or dead right you'll have very little time to spare if that food has dead right know we've got some stories about the. Genie will call up my phone call up our our produce guy and she'll ask about peaches can I get 3 boxes of peaches he says yeah I got peaches right now so she runs down and gets the boxes of peaches and they are dead ripe and they have to be canned like right now today. Because tomorrow if we save them tomorrow they're going to have brown spots and start bruising and it just they won't be good tomorrow so we've got to do it right now and there have been a couple of times where she's stayed up most of the night to get something done that was just a little too right I like to get the fruit so it still has some firmness to I don't like mushy fruit I like fruit that's Ok because the fruit is going to soften up a little bit just being canned so. I like to canned pears and peaches and those things with just somebody on it so it doesn't it doesn't have that squishy ness dead ripe that is the stage that's that's good for fresh eating I think it a little bit stiffer. So you want to think about that is don't get it too late and Ok so that's number 2 get your food number 3 what you're going to go through and you're going to wash it you're going to core peel you're going to blanch your sauce that whatever you're going to do with it that's number 3 is is processing cleaning it cutting it coring it whatever and now bear in mind this is where things also start getting busy because you're going to start multitasking. You can do this before or after I've got this is step number 4 but but this multitasking comes in where Ok you've washed your fruit you're going to put the water bath canner on the stove about how full of water you're going to put a a kettle on the stove on simmer 2 to heat up your lids in a in a kettle full of water just a small sauce pan of water you're going to simmer those lids for a few minutes just to soften up the c. all and you're also going to put a kettle on the stove that has the liquid in it that you're going to pour in over that fruit once you get the fruit packed into the jars in the old days. We used a very light syrup so it's a little bit of sugar and water and then we went to putting in a tablespoon of honey in each jar and then pour in boarding boiling water over that for the probably the last 1015 years we buy. Containers of organic apple juice down at the local store and we can almost all of our fruits in our poll juice organic album juice. It's got just enough sweetness in it to kind of pick up the sweetness so that your canned fruits not so tart and you kind of kill 2 stones with one bird you've got the sweetener and you've got that that liquid and something that we actually just started this year actually with our $300.00 pounds of apples is it just dawned on us this year that wait a minute why are we buying 2 court and containers of organic apple juice at $5.00 and $6.00. A container when we've got all these apples less do a bunch of apple juice ing so we juice a ton of apples. And we can do it in those 2 court jars and so next year when we door canning we're going to use our own apple juice from this year to can all our fruits and so we're saving money in that respect so another process that I just briefly mentioned it is this idea of blanching. So let's see that would be like maybe tomatoes and peaches when you can stewed tomatoes I don't know some people do leave the peelings on but. Most people will blanch those skins and blanching is a process by which you're dropping your boy or your tomatoes or your peaches in boiling hot water for about 60 seconds then you're using that slotted spoon to pull them out and then drop them into ice cold water to stop the the cooking process what happens when you do that is the skin will just slip right off the that tomato or that peach Rivera very easy the skin just like slides right off and then once you've got the for instance if we're doing tomatoes we can just slide that skin off and then pull the tomato all into 2 to chunks it goes into a large bowl they get stirred up and then put into jars if we're doing Peaches will slip the skins off by the blanching process and then we simply either cut the peaches and have us or slices put them in the jar and then they're ready to go so blanching is a good technique to know about number 5 we want to put our fruit into our door jars so once we've washed and prepped and sliced peel the record of whatever were needed to do we put that fruit into our jars and we kind of pack it down not to the point where it's mashed down but just we've snugly put all that fruit in there and then we add that hot apple juice that we've had simmering on the stove and what we want to do is we want to add that apple juice right up to the 1st glass ring above the shoulder of that jar so in the end we're going to give ourselves about a half to 3 quarters of an inch headspace or airspace in that jar so once we've poured the hot liquid in around. Number 6 we're going to take a spatula and we're going to turn it around we're going to use the handle the plastic handle of a spatula and we're just going to slide it down between the fruit and the side of the jar on all 4 sides of that jar and just kind of gently nudge the fruit because what does happen when you pour the liquid in is you've trapped air bubbles underneath those pieces of fruit oftentimes And as you slide the spatula handle in and just kind of wiggle little bit on the 4 sides of the jar those air bubbles will come up and often you'll notice the liquid level goes down so you can add a little bit more liquid. And at that point number 7 this is a very important thing to do you're going to take a clean rag and just white very gently you're going to clean the top edge or rim of that jar so it's it doesn't have any juice on it doesn't have any little pieces of fruit or or salt if you've added salt to the tomatoes you don't want anything on that on that rim of that jar because that's where the seal is going to take place between the glass in the lead something else is very important to do is before you've even started this whole process you've checked your jars and you take out any jars that have a a chip on that on that rim of that jar because if it's got a little chip across the top edge of that jar it's not going to seal. So we've got the fruit in the jars we've got the water in the jars we've got the air bubbles out the vetted more liquid now we clean that jar him off so it's all nice and then we put our lids on and our rings on and we're putting the rings on we're just taking the ring down and we're screwing it on tell it just hits the lid and then just like another 16th of a turn just enough to just to make that lid snug we're not tightening it at all just a nice snug fit and then number 2 we up to we're up to number 9 we're putting the jars in our canner Now if you notice here we've got a jar rack that holds the jars. That we're going to lower down into that water bath canner and the way that rock is made it's made so that it hooks on the side of the can or so the jars actually aren't down into the water just yet so what all those I'll put the jars in it'll hold your average can or will hold about 7 jars I will put the jars in there and I'll just leave them there for a minute to make sure that Ok I want the jars fairly warm fairly hot and the water has started to simmer in that can or. What you want to avoid is having the jars at a drastically different temperature than that water underneath of them you don't want that if if you do have maybe the jar liquid wasn't quite so hot maybe it was kind of cool or even which you shouldn't do you should have heated that liquid up. But just have those jar set above the hot liquids for a few minutes so it warms up and then you can take that jar rack and lower it down into the the water bath canner. At that point usually your water is not covering your jar so then you go ahead and add more water so that there's jars are covered by at least an inch of water you want those jars completely submerged in your water so in the picture that we have here I've got a water bath canner full of grape juice so we've got to just let that down in there we're going to turn the temperature of the stove all the way up and as soon as that water starts boiling in that water bath canner we're going to put the timer on for 30 minutes now again everything you do it a different amount of time so I would refer you back to your book for grape juice that we do we boil it for 30 minutes in those jars after the 30 minutes is up we turn the heat off. We take the lid off and then we take that jar rack and just move it to the positions so the jars are mostly out of that water and they will start cooling a bit and then what we'll do is we'll lay out a take a towel on the table and then we'll take those jars out wanted to time and put them on that towel and we want to put them in an area not in front of a window where they're going to get a cold draft but just set him out on the tail of the towel so they're not sitting hot jars on on our wood table which might damage the table and. Then we're going to sit back and listen for the canning music what's going to happen because as those jars cooled down it's going to pull that lid down and it's going to make a nice ringing pop. That tells us that jar has sealed and that's just the neatest the neatest sound here is it's you you spent all this work handing all of these jars of food there sitting on your table because they're all out of the can or. And then for the next hour or so you're listening to that sound of those lives popping in and that's just that's just music to a canners ears so that's your of basic run down of water bath canning pressure canning is almost the same will go down this through this really quick but there's a few things that are a little bit different. Number one your get your equipment ready Number 2 your food you get your food ready number 3 you you food prep New York or wash whatever Number 4 you're adding your food to your jars you're adding the liquid up to the shouldering you're removing the air bubbles you're adding a little bit more liquid to bring us up to our headspace all of this is the same for pressure canning and number 6. Your jar rim is cleaned and you put your rings and your lids on now this is where it gets different on a pressure canner you only put one to 2 inches of water in the bottom of that pressure canner because you don't need to submerse your jars because you're using mostly steam to pressurize that container so just one to 2 inches of water in the bottom of your pressure cooker you put your jars in the canner and then you lock the lid down then there are several ways that this happens and you'll see a couple pictures that I've got you locked that lid down and the pressure canner has on the lid several little items of interest that we want to look at one of them is called a petcock. Some of them have a petcock that has a little black knob on the top that you can open and close some of them simply have a stem a pointy stem that sticks up out of the lid that's open and that can blow steam out of that little top So we've got our our jars in our can or we've locked the lid down on the Can we put it on the stove we turn the stove up. And we're going to get that water and that Canada start boiling now after it started to boil you're going to start blowing steam out of the petcock and you want the petcock open and you wanted to start blowing steam for about 10 minutes and what's that's doing is that steam is pushing all the air out of that pressure canner you're pushing all the air out and filling that volume of space in there with steam instead after you've steamed out for about 10 minutes then you just really close it carefully close that packed cock or if you've just got the canner that has that little stem sticking up with the open hole on the top you take this little round disc and I can show you a picture right there on the. Right hand side of the screen there's a little disk and Scott 3 numbers on the side of it see there's a 5 a 10 and a 15 most of what we do is at the number 10 which means 10 pounds of pressure so when you take that little metal puck as it were and you put it down onto that stem that sticking up out of the lid of your pressure cooker that hole is designed so that it burps out any pressure over 10 pounds pressure so it self regulates But let me go back a little bit. Here we have. One of our canners in our canners a kind of old school canners they were made probably back in the fifty's if you notice in this picture here you've got some alignment marks so look around the edge of your pressure canner to find those little marks that you align up and then rotate that lid into the locking position that helps guide you so that you can put that just drop that lid on and the little lugs lock into each other and it locks that lid on notice The next item there's a pressure gauge and then usually right in the middle well of our cooker I've seen safety plugs off to the side on that lid but our little safety plug is right in the center of that lid and that safety plug is there so that if for instance I forget about what I'm doing and I go into the other room and I get I don't know I start reading the book or something and my pressure goes way up above safe range that safety plug is going to pop out of there so that the whole thing just doesn't blow up so it's very important to have that safety a plug in there and if you buy a used can or feel that safety plug and make sure it feels like soft rubber if it feels really hard. Like it just wants to rattle around in there and it just doesn't feel like rubber anymore pop that out and get a replacement that's fresh and new and then you notice in my picture here I've got a petcock there on the back of the bed that has a little black knob on it that I can open and close so we've put our stuff in there we've we've steamed it out for 10 minutes I've turned the little knob on the petcock down so now the steam cannot get out of there. And what you'll notice is my stove is up on high you'll see the pressure on that gauge actually starting to come up. And as that pressure comes up. What we'll want to do is watch that pressure so let's say we're going for 10 pounds pressure when that pressure gets up to about 9 pounds so 90 percent of your final target pressure you're going to turn that stove down and it all depends on your stove and your canner we know that for our stove in our can or once we reach 9 pounds of pressure and we're going to 10 we turn the stove down to 2.5 on our stove dial and it will go ahead and come up to 10 pounds and it will just stay right at that 10 pounds for as long as we want to pressure canned things so so once you do this so well you know just right where to set that that stove temperature to keep that pressure exactly where you want it now if that's with our our pressure cooker that has that little Capet caulk that shut off if you've got the pressure cooker that's got that little rock or that Round Rock or pocket on it you can just set that on tone turn your stove down a little bit and and all the extra pressure is just going to burp out as it's. As needed to maintain for say 10 pounds pressure so actually the Little Rock or puck there is something that's a lot more forgiving and would be good for for beginners so. And there's actually some more options Here's a picture of a canner that is a lot more heavy duty and instead of a locking livid it's got these little knobs that come up over the lid there's 6 little knobs there that screw that lid down. The advantage of this pressure cooker other than it's a really heavy duty is that it doesn't require a rubber gasket or seal in it so it's one last part to fail it's a a tapered metal on metal seal between the lid and the body so so once you turn those knobs down it's metal on metal seal and so that's also a good canter as well and you notice on the lid of that on the left there's a pressure gauge there's a handle in the middle and then off on the right hand side of that picture of that particular can or there is a little round a rock or 2 to keep the pressure where it needs to be so let's just quickly go through a pressure canning scenario so last year we had a pretty good wild mushrooms season so let's do a mushroom run here so my 1st picture there's the mushrooms out in the wild and I go out and I pick a whole bunch of mushrooms several grocery bags full and I bring them back home and I wash them up so you can see the sink full of mushrooms there now I'm going to do something different with mushrooms that I haven't talked about yet mushrooms when you cook them a shrink enormously so so I'm taking a sink full of mushrooms and I'm putting it in a cattle and that kettle is going to be mounted up as high as I can get it oftentimes and I'm going to add like a cup of water maybe a cup and a half water not for and well not very much water at all to the bottom of that kettle and I'm going to turn it up about halfway and I'm going to start cooking those mushrooms well as that water starts heating those mushrooms up they are going to shrink a lot. And mushrooms actually if you ever can mushrooms it's not recommended to put them in courts mushrooms really need to go into pint jars or smaller. And so I'm going to cook down those mushrooms and if you see this picture here on the left the whole sink full of mushrooms cooked down to about half of a pot. Huge reduction in volume and this is what we call packing our jars and we'll come back to that so so that scene full of mushrooms actually cooked down into 6 pints of mushrooms so you see our mental picture there we've got our mushrooms they're all spooned into the. Into the jars. 3 quarters of an ant's below the top of the jar so we maintain our head space and then we're going to use that same a liquid. It's kind of a broth now at this point that the mushrooms cook themselves in and we scoop that we use that liquid to fill up the jars and then we also put I believe it's a half a teaspoon of salt in each jar just to taste. For our stand trial mushrooms that we. That were processing here. And then we clean the day of the rim of the jar off make sure there's no salt or anything on that rim we put our lives on Screw the ring on and we put them in our pressure canner there you can see our jars in the pressure canner we close the lid off we steam it out for 10 minutes turn closer petcock and you see the mental picture there we get our 10 or 10 pounds pressure and for instance mushrooms at 10 pounds pressure were running those for 45 minutes so we know at 9 pounds pressure turn our stove down it comes up to 10 and it just stays there and then we put a timer on and we make sure to watch this because you know you never know something could go wrong and the pressure could keep climbing. And we want to make sure that that does not happen so when you start pressure canning stay there and just watched that whole process for the 1st dozen or 2 times so you understand what's happening you understand how it's working and then once you once you come to understand the whole process and be aware of what's going on there you can start cleaning some stuff up and just keep an eye on that make sure it's still at the right poundage of pressure and everything's going to work fine. So we've we've our timer goes off for 45 minutes pressure canning is done what we're going to do is we're going to turn our stove off we're not going to move the pressure canner we're just going to turn the heat off and just from that point let it cool down on its own We're not going to open that little petcock or try to hurry the cooling at all but we're going to watch for some signs that it's completely cool to the point that we can take that lid off one of those signs that we're going to look at is that the gauge goes down to 0 not to to not to 3 but that that gauge is going down to 0 saying it's 0 pounds pressure the other thing that we're going to look at here in this picture is our little safety plug in there if you notice the little safety plug has a little metal plug right in the middle of it and when that little metal plug is poked up like you see in the left hand picture. That tells us there's still a little bit of pressure in that in that can or when that little metal plate plug drops down like you see on the right hand picture that tells you you can if you bump that little metal thing you'll notice it wiggles around that's because there's no pounds of pressure inside that that can are and then ever so gently we open the pack cock and sure enough no steam comes out of the petcock at that point we've had 3 indications that there's no pressure inside there then we carefully rotate the lid and unlock it and at that point open the lid away from you not towards you because there's still going to be a lot of very hot steam inside that can or so open the lid away from you and then just gently set it aside and you can let it sit like that for a minute or 2 but and then start pulling the. The jars out so when I come back to the side of hot packing if you look at this slide here we've got a jar of blueberries plums and tomatoes these are all cold packed and if you notice what has happened the fruit has really shank shrunk up on these 3 items the blueberries you notice. It's shrunk up by 50 percent so the bottom half of that jar is just simply full of blueberry juice the plums there in the middle you notice is almost a 3rd of the jar now is just juice because the plums have shrunk up no I packed that jar tight full of clubs and when I put those in there and the tomato you can see about a quarter of the space on the bottom is just juice when you call back fruit shrinks Now if you're limited on your space or on your jars and you want to be really efficient. You would precook that food so it is so it shrinks and then you can pack it in the jars now there's some pluses and minuses here the more you cook that food the more you're cooking out nutrients so you're losing nutrients by pre-cooking and hot packing. But you don't get all that shrinkage and it's a more efficient use of your chars but on the other hand pre-cooking or hot packing is just one more step that's going to take more work and most of the time you know we've got plenty of chars we don't we don't care if they're half full but it does give you a lot of extra liquid like what you see in the picture there. So so that's kind of another aspect that you will see coming up in in the literature packing versus cold packing the picture of the show due at the mushrooms you just you have to hop back on Otherwise you're only going to get like one mushroom per jar and that's kind of crazy because it's going to shrink up to something very very tiny. As far as troubleshooting pressure canning just listed out a couple of things that I've occasionally experienced and that is number one the pressure canner lid won't see a little chute jet of steam coming out between the lid and the actual kettle what has happened is that gasket has pulled away a little bit and that the gasket isn't in place oftentimes and that when the gasket starts getting smaller it will shrink and so what I'll do is I'll just go ahead and turn the stove off take the lid off and then just ever so gently while that gasket is still hot. I'll stretch it out just a tiny bit and then put it back in the lid channel. If the gasket is not hot all soak in some really really hot water and you will want to stretch that gasket put it back and it will usually seal another thing the can of won't vent out that little stammer out the petcock the pressure is building up you see that gauge starting to go up it's maybe 4 pounds 5 pounds pressure but nothing's coming out of that petcock or out of the little stem that you get to put the rocker on that's important to notice there is something obstructing that and you you've got to just turn the whole thing off cool it down so it's 0 pounds pressure take the lid off and clean out that little orifice in there and make sure that it's open you can see light through it and you get steam through it another thing that will happen occasionally if if you start getting all a bit over confident and you get carried away doing things elsewhere in the kitchen you might come back in that can or instead of at 10 pounds pressure might be at 16 pounds pressure that's getting way too high so at that point who keep your face away from the canner and just as carefully as you can reach around and turn the stove off and just stay away from it don't move the can or you don't want to jostle it you don't want to touch it you just want to turn the heat off and let it come down to that below 10 pounds bring it down into 89 pounds pressure and then you can go ahead and turn the stove on just a little bit and then bring it back to where it's supposed to be our 10 pounds pressure but just be really careful about. Getting that chain too high because what's going to happen is troubleshooting number 4 there you're going to blow a safety plug now this is going to scare the budgie birds out of you know if it ever happens we've had it happen. It's funny now but it wasn't then because it. You get your hair standing straight up and you hear this huge hissing boom not really a boom more like a big pop and you get this jet of steam coming out the top of your canner and again it's really not dangerous but it's blown that rubber plug. And it's hit the ceiling and it will be somewhere in your kitchen you have to go hunt for it but but there's a really good chance that for instance if you are canning beans you're going to spray beans all over the ceiling with that massive massive decompression there Debian's are just going to come out of the jars and you're going to make a mess so what do you do just turn the burner off and wait till everything goes down clean the ceiling clean the walls learn something and start over. But other than that rarely ever happens once you do this a time or 2 it becomes old hat if if it still kind of stresses you out a little bit start off with water bath canning go through a few seasons just doing water bath canning and then get with a friend that knows how to do this stuff and watch some You Tube videos and then go ahead and try canning some beans canning some asparagus can disparages to me is just really really good because it just melts in your mouth like that. Soft. But. That's pretty much it you know it's not as scary as it might seem I've given you a lot of information but you could do it. And when you do it's going to make you so happy when you start filling up your. Your storage room with canned goods. Learn and that's another thing is once you've got the stuff all canned up learn how to use it don't just bring a jar of canned a fruit for instance to the table and pull the lid off and expect everybody to be excitedly eating out of a jar of canned cherries for instance. Learn how to use it well yeah there's times when we just pour fruit fruit right out of a jar but but you can make crisps out of it you can do you just can do so many things with it you can flick on it and put it on toast or pancakes and waffles in the morning but I just want to end with this picture here doesn't that just look beautiful. That's that's just like so often it makes you feel good that is therapy for your heart your mind in your brain so just want to thank you all for coming today and just appreciate. What I could share with you folks and hope that it has been a benefit to you. Thank you very much. This media was brought to you by audio verse a website dedicated to spreading God's word through free sermon audio and much more if you would like to know more about audio 1st or if you would like to listen to more sermons leave a visit w w w audio verse or.

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