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Plant Propagation by Cuttings

Rob Norris

Conference

Recorded

  • January 14, 2021
    9:30 AM
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About cloning as as also a very effective main means of increasing your production cloning can be done in several ways. Cuttings division layering and even grafting I'll talk about a couple of these just by way of introduction cloning which is a sexual reproduction we by that we mean it's reproducing the same genetics of our original parent plant we're not mixing chromosomes we're not mixing genetics. A really good example of why we do this is for instance in the mint family there are many many different varieties of mint and if you start mint from a seed Mint cross pollinates so easy that you almost never get a mint true type so so back home I've got a greenhouse business I sell veggie starts and herbs at the Farmers Market So coming back to this mint there are many varieties of say peppermint but there's very very few really really nice varieties of peppermint a good variety of peppermint is going to just grab you by the ears and shake you because it smells like a peppermint like a candy cane factory it's just it's cool it's crisp and it's sweet when you find that peppermint plant you want to save that plant and reproduce it's genetics and you can't do that by seed I've got a man that it's called Strawberry Mint anybody heard of that one. Smells like minty strawberries another one's banana minutes a little more demure and just kind of retiring kind of an introvert plant not really aggressive as the men's usually are but it smells like bananas you can't find these things out there it's just hard to do so when you find that that just that one special plant you want to be able to reproduce that one so. So how do we do this well like I said we can do this by by cuttings which is usually taking just the tip of our plant or by taking side shoots we can do this by division simply dividing a clumping plant into multiple sections layering layering is simply taking. A shoot from the plant and rooting it before we take it off the the the parent plant or grafting divisions like I said it's simply I've got this plant it's in the garden arts in a pot but it's too crowded and with divisions on a company clumping plant we just simply either use a shovel or by hand and if it's in a small pot we can just pull it apart into 2 pieces now we've got 2 plants or we can dig it up and we can pull it apart completely down to the individual shoot and sometimes. We can get hundreds of plants few years ago I dug up a Siberian irises a Black said Berry and iris that I had in my mom's flower bed and it was a clump about that big around. I wanted it for farmer's market so I dug up that clump that was about this big around down into individual shoots and I made about 200 gallon pots of plants and 5 bucks of plant that's not bad. So. You know it's could take a couple years for that to grow up and make a nice thick file plant but that's the power of division layering several ways to do layering the simplest way is to take a long branch or shoot and lay it down on the ground pin it to the ground and put a shovel full of dirt over that stem in about a season or so it will grow roots and then once it's got its own roots cut it off the parent plant dig it up and transplanted elsewhere. Another way of doing layering what's called air layering is skin off some of the bark in about an inch of the stem maybe down you know however long you want that cutting to be done this with blueberries and just come about a foot down from the tip of the the branch skin the bark off and then take a basically you're kind of making a hotdog with a piece of plastic and some potting soil and just wrap around wrap that around the that scraping and then tie it off on either side so the plastic kind of in case is that potting soil and in about a season or so over the course of say a summer. That will grow roots and towards the end of the season you're peeking into the plastic if you see those roots in there go ahead and cut it off and transplant it wherever you would like it so that's that's layering don't want to go into that too much but coming back to the basics of cutting this several things I want to talk about. Are basis versus perennial Woody cuttings one talk about rooting hormone tools trace sizes. Creating environmental conditions that are conducive to good rooting and talk about Mother stock and about timing so start off with the herbaceous cuttings these can be annuals or perennials. What I'm looking for is to get typically the shoot of a plant inch and a half hour from anywhere from about a half inch to 2 inches long. And I want new growth if if you notice right outside this building there's a big rosemary bush Well the plant is dormant right now so it wouldn't make very good cuttings it tends to be very woody right up to about an inch of that the tip of that stem it just it wouldn't make good cuttings right now what makes the very best cuttings is in the spring when you when you're starting to get that 1st flush of of new. Tender growth usually those 1st shoots that come out are the the thickest stems they're just the heaviest cuttings those make the very best cuttings and the reason why is the tissue of that plant in that fresh vegetative stage is still able to to change from from stem cell growth to and switching over to becoming root cells and that fresh tender growth just makes that transfer that transfer real easily very streamline were of Whereas when it's old and Woody it becomes a lot different more difficult to switch gears genetically and go from stem cells to root cells so so whether it's an annual or perennial I want that fresh new growth so if you look at this plant anybody know what this plan is just throws Mary that's right. It's Rosemary but if you see what has happened on this plant it's almost done blooming you see all those those bugs it's almost done flowering. After it gets done flowering it's going into a vegetative state vegetative growth plants like animals like people when it's in the when it's in reproductive mode nothing else will get done so after it starts getting out of that reproductive mode it will start growing and that's where you get this flush of green growth and if you notice the color on those shoes what color kind of that bright line fast growing were happy about life and that's what I want to key in on those will make really good cuttings so so that's what I'm looking for examples of things that cut very well basal catnap me off you should have one or about writing all this down but you can see fusion is lavender level Lemon balm lemon verbena how many of you are familiar with lemon verbena that's all marvelous plant how many of you just throw this out how many of you like saffron rice anybody Ok next year plant some lemon verbena and dice it up and put it in your saffron rice it's really good it looks pretty because the saffron rice is is gold right and the bright green the lemon for being the leaves in there it's just the green and the gold is very pretty dish and it just gives it just a hint of lemon really good tried out. Rosemary sage winter savory stevia just so many different kinds of things that you can do by cuttings. The 2 on that list lavender and Rosemary are just a little bit harder than everything else. But completely doable once you get the conditions just right. So what I'm looking for on what I would consider on average the most perfect cutting is I'm wanting about an inch to an inch and a half. Of the tip of that plant. That makes the very best cutting So what I'm going to do is I'm going to cut that plant I'm going to come down about me an inch and a half and I'm going to cut about a quarter to 3 87 inch below the last set of leaves that are left on that little cutting and if you notice I've pulled that last set of leaves off on this cutting which happens to be a spear mint and you notice the cut is about a quarter of finance below that last set Elise can you all see that. And then I want to make sure that Ok so I've picked off those 1st 2 biggest leaves I want to about a 3rd to half of the stem of that plant there so I can poke it down into my soil in this case just picking off that 1st set of leaves cleared off about half of that stem So that's plenty also the leaves that is remaining the leaves that are remaining cumulatively I want a leaf area of about the size of a 50 cent piece so there's basically 4 leaves on that plant. Besides the little tip if I took those 4 leaves off and just put them side by side they would make about this the leaf area of a 50 cent piece that's kind of what I'm going for if you get way more leaf area. You get just so much transportation. Transport Taishan transpiration and having been cut and there's no roots in this plant the plant will almost find it impossible to keep up with the photosynthesis and it'll just well and die. If you take off too many leaves you don't have enough leaf area to do the photosynthesis to create the energy to produce the roots so you want about that much leaf area about size of a 50 cent piece on average under another really thick stemmed plants use a knife to cut them a lot of talk about tools in just a few slides here but on a fixed damned plant like draining this is an i.v. geranium. Works even better on zonal geraniums which typically have a stem that's very large and it's a tender stem so if you use like snips or scissors to cut that stem you damage a huge amount of that stem and that damaged tissue will just die and rot and then just introduced disease into the whole plant and then it'll die so a nice clean cut quarter inch below the last set of leaves on this cutting I'm going to take off those 2 big leaves what's left is a little bit less than a 50 cent piece by a fair bit but that's Ok I couldn't support those 2 big leaves so that's what I do for geraniums another pretty peculiar thing about draining don't poke him deep into the soil only poke I'm about a quarter of an inch into the soil it's going to be hard to keep them standing up because they're only in the soil that tiny little bit. But they're a little bit finicky too but quarter inch in the soil and get them to stand upright and they'll root fine as far as Woody perennials go if you notice on a lot of shrubs the woody perennials. About 3 inches or so down oftentimes the the tip of the plant is green as far as the stem goes the stem is green and then about 3 inches or 4 inches down it turns brown and Woody. On a would be perennial I want to cut down and get about maybe half inch or so of that Brown would be growth so if you look at this picture doesn't really show the brown woody part but it's definitely a longer cutting than our herbaceous cuttings and if you notice the the bottom part of that stem that has been all cleared off you notice it's been skimmed off what we want to do with these Woody cuttings is we want to scar a 5 that stem we want to scrape the bark off of what happens by doing that scarf occasion is that induces the plant to want to scab over and when it starts putting scab or developing scab cells those are undifferentiated cells that can just as quickly turn into roots cells and produce roots. If you don't scar a fi you'll have terrible success but just take your shears like that pair of orange handled shears they're. Orchard pruners that are big and heavy don't work so well unless they're braise or sharp so get a fine if you're going to do some Woody cuttings get some real fine very sharp. Shears like this one here in the picture. But you just scrape off the half inch or so of the bottom of that stem put it in or rooting hormone We'll talk about that in a minute and then these would be perennials because it takes a lot longer to root them we want to put those in straight pumice or perlite it's very it's very loose it's a very heavy grain you're going to get a lot more airflow in that routing media if I do a it would be perennial. In potting soil or plug necks like I'm using for our a regular basis cuttings is just too wet and it will just rot so we need something really rely like super core sand or pumice or perlite and we can see that in this picture. Vermiculite is something different. Holds a lot of water because of its its structure microscopic structure if you were to look at it. So promise perlite or really really core sand will often work this particular cutting is an arborvitae shrub and the cutting itself is probably about $33.00 and a half inches long and you notice I've gotten down into that that brown woody stem and I've just taken my shears and scraped off the bark give it some fairly strong rooting hormone and then just poke it down into that pearl like that you see. There in the picture. It's going to take these plants these would be sure shrubs more on the neighborhood of of 2 months or so to root about longer than Arbor or basis cuttings. Examples of these would be perennials might be arborvitae boxwoods grapes although grapes we do a little bit different technique I've got a picture at the very end and might show you on the grapes Juniper's I've done just thousands and thousands of Droon of hers. You want to aspire real Laurel. So many different Woody shrub plants that can be propagated by just simple cuttings little bit harder to do like I said takes a little bit longer than the. Than the herbaceous plants but still just as doable as far as tools go. My most favorite tool is the orange handled by it at your local fabric store thread snaps. They work really really good with the little finger loop you can just put that around your finger so that you don't have to keep putting some putting them down picking them the pots up moving the pots around and grabbing the cuttings they're just always stuck to your hand. And so you can multitask without having to keep setting things down. Probably 10 millions a cutting switch with those orange handles snaps they're just really really nice and the nice thing about those is you can resharpen them the blue handled set of clippers I've used that sail of Clipper for just the scads of cuttings as well and it works very very good long thin pointy sharp blades that can get into that plant and cut the stammer cut the leaves off. Something else to mention and you'll figure this out as you start doing this but on the airbases cuttings for instance Rosemary if this is your basis I could usually get away with the rosemary by just polling just made a liar out of me. By just pull plucking the leaves off and and exposing the bottom part of that stem which you don't want to do on the herbaceous cuttings is stripped the bark off that stem which is what just happened here because it's Woody. Which is Ok on the way to cutting right but on the tender plants you don't want to tear the skin off of that stem by plant pulling the leaves off and different plants. Are work differently on this minute you can just pull them off because Mint is tough and you can't hardly kill a man. And so just pull them off other plants you have to be very careful get in there with your snaps and snip them off so you don't peel the stem down and just playing around with it you'll figure it out really quick how much abuse those cuttings can take and you know which ones you have to do either way with the with the snips or you can just pull them off as far as rooting hormone goes. Going from the left to that that little container there is product called Dyna grow it's actually a gel smells a lot like. Vitamins smells very vitamin e.. But that products a gel works Ok the next 2 little white bottles are a product called Harman it actually comes in 3 different strengths Harman in number one is a very. Dilute rooting hormone I would use that for almost all of my herb basis cuttings all the way to number 3 which is very concentrated for the woody the real woody cuttings. It's a powder the the rooting hormone right next to that called root tone is also a powder and the one on the right is dip and grow it's a liquid and the powders are a talcum powder base. And I've used all of these products there's one that's not pictured that you see it quite often is called form x. and it's just a very simple similar to the other 2 powders in the middle there. The dip and grow is the one I prefer because it's a water alcohol base as a liquid so when I take that cutting just think about it you cut your hand off to start a new human you know it doesn't work that way with us but imagine if it did you have an exposed surface right that that is exposed to infection same with the plants the nice thing about that liquid hormone with that alcohol in it that alcohol will kill off. More pathogens and sterilize deck a lot better than the than the. The powder based hormones so I like using the the liquid dip and grow and a little bit goes a long long way so just a little container will last you probably all season let's look at cutting trays trays that we're going to put our cuttings in so if you notice I've put on this picture little red lines and I've done that for a reason. These 2 plug trays are are my standard trays that I used to do my cuttings and the one on the left is a 105 cell so there's 105 little cells in that tray the one on the right has $84.00 cells in that tray if you notice if you're really sharp that both trays are 7 cells wide and then however many cells along the tray happens to be. A couple other things I want to point out on this on these trays you notice the little holes between the cells in the olden days the trays didn't have those little holes and what would happen is the tray would dry out around the edge way faster than the tray would dry out in the middle and so it just became a nightmare to keep everything evenly watered so by putting those holes in there everything evaporates a lot more consistently and it's much easier to keep an even more secure content across that. Across that tray nother thing to notice is you notice those plugs are not round one is hexagonal and the other one is kind of round but it's got these little ribs on the inside of the plug what will happen when a plant starts rooting in a round plug tray is the roots will go out hit the round side and just start doing this to start spiraling and then it makes it very difficult when you go to transplant that to untangle and spiral those roots pulling down damaging the roots and it just doesn't work as well as a tray that has or a plug that has edges on so the roots will come out they might start going sideways but they'll hit an edge and they'll turn and go straight down makes a much better cutting So if you pick up a couple of. Plug trays somewhere along the line don't get ones that don't have those little holes and don't get ones that are round smooth and round don't work nearly as well so something I want to point out here almost all of my cuttings are going into 4 inch flat pots so they're on the left is a flat of 4 inch pots and if you notice do some counting real quick here there are 3 rows of 6 pots you see that in my 4 inch flat. So there are 18 pots performance flat that I take to market well if I'd look at just 3 rows of my plug tray do the cow I've got 21 cells in 3 rows of my plug tray you see that because it's 7 wide that allows me to take 3 extra cuttings so that if a couple fail is long as I still have an 85 percent rooting rate I've got enough cuttings to fill that Florence. Flat and there's there's nothing more of a pain than having not enough cuttings so that you're like 2 cutting short of a full flat 2 core 2 cutting short of a full That's like a few bricks short of the whole road but anyway so you see them saying and if they all root Well that's fine because I can take those extra 3 cuttings and just put them in with one of the cuttings or couple of the cuttings that are smaller than the rest so I'll just double up on 3 of them that may be a little bit smaller than the rest and they'll come out and be just fine so that's something to keep in mind as do multiples of whatever size of flat the going to eventually put them in another thing to keep in mind that I forgot to mention was I'm shooting for a plug cell that's about a quarter of the size of my final pot so I'm going into 4 inch. 4 inch pots so those plugs are about an inch inch and a quarter round about a quarter of the the final size that it's going to wind up in that's about the right ratio. As far as routing media goes the one thing bad thing about this picture is the soil that's on the right is damp the soil on the left is bone dry don't pay any attention to the color difference that it's kind of distracting but the soil on the left is a potting no excuse me is not a potting mix the stuff on the right is a just your general basic potting mix it's got pumice peat moss as its primary ingredient but the pumice and the grade of peat moss that's in there is fairly course when you put those course ingredients in a plug tray the dynamics of that little plug change drastically from cell to cell even one little piece of large pumice in a cell can change the dynamics of what happens in that cell drastically from cell to cell so for doing these are basis cuttings you want to buy a bag of soil mix that's labeled seedling mix or sometimes it's labeled plug mix it's a much finer graded. Product the it actually has the little white flecks in the plug mix are actually for make. Perlite perlite and it's a much more finely graded. Peat moss so it makes a much more consistent mix in those little tiny plugs and that's important to have uniformity. Across that that plug tray so plug mix or seedling mix. Works much better for our basis cuttings as far as environmental conditions go. What favors root growth is cool tops and relatively speaking warm root zone because that's where we want things to happen is down under the soil where those roots should be and we do this by a couple of things Number one we shade the plant a little bit we want bright but in direct sunlight is much latest we can get but we want to indirect because we're stressing that plant because it has no roots it has no way to pick up water moisture except by just absorption at this point so so we want to minimize that brightness we want to slow down the photosynthesis a little bit root zone heating especially helps the plant at night. The tops of cool down so they create less of a demand for for more ice here and the other thing we want to do is early on when we 1st make our cuttings we want to miss them. That also brings down that. That demand for moisture that can evaporate there the or wilt the plant something that I keep in mind if I can keep my my cuttings from Will thing the 1st 3 days of life I've got 90 percent of the battle licked so just keep them from from one thing the 1st 3 days and it will develop a little bit of a scab over that cut it will slow things down as far as the demand for moisture and I guess as long as I can get that 1st 3 days without will thing. I know I'm probably going to have pretty good success now obviously most of us probably aren't thinking about the scale. Of that picture but it's just kind of shows and demonstrates these are actually plug trays of seed but it is the same way with cuttings in this picture you notice you've got the p.v.c. coming up from underneath the bench with little Mr heads on them you can either come up from below or come down like this picture the the misting nozzles are coming down from the ceiling now the way the reason this works is because just before that little misting head there's a little pressure compensating valve that when the when the water's actually shut off that little pressure compensator shuts off the water flow so that it can't drip and empty that long piece of pipe on the 3 or 4 cuttings right below it if you don't have that compensator it'll blow out the cuttings right below where it's dripping you know just it's waste wasteful in a room so you've got to have these little compensators in there so that it doesn't continue to drip when the pressure shut off that's where I've learned that the hard way here's a go. As far as misting nozzles. I use the one in the middle which is called the follow the fog and also you can get those at most garden centers It just screws on the end of a hose that's the one I use right now because I'm not doing a tremendous amount of cuttings at this point I also am a beekeeper and so most of my energies in the last few years have been moving more into the beekeeping aspect of our business so I've been growing that so I don't have all the fancy equipment at this point I've just got that fog hold at the end of the hose so when I do my cuttings. Which is you know 2 or 3 flats at a time plug trays at a time I'll just scoot them under that one of the tables in my greenhouse and fog them a couple of times a day in for the 1st couple of days that's fine but then again I live in the Pacific Northwest and that big bright shiny thing that's up in the sky right now we rarely see in the winter so it's easy to not worry about stressing my plants because it's too bright too hot. Some of you that live like maybe down here you're going to have to pay a little bit more attention to keeping those plants. Meston a little more often than that the misting heads that one on the left the brass one works really good puts out a really fine spray out to about 2 feet. The black heads you notice their color coded. They put out different flow rates so if you're setting up an area that you want a lot of cuttings Maybe you're working into a farmer's market in you're going to do a lot there's lots of different Mr heads out there and you know once you start looking you'll start seeing flow rates and and just how much they put out and it's just kind of playing around with how far out do they go you want to overlap them so that there's no dry areas so you wind up usually putting these things quite close together. Maybe if if it's got a 3 foot spread as far as to where almost out to. Put them like about a foot apart and so there's lots and lots of overlap so there's no real wet areas 6 inches away from a real dry spot on the edge as far as timers go. Like I said in in what I'm doing right now I don't need fancy nozzles or timers. Because I'm just doing a few flats at a time just poke them under a table where they're getting in direct sunlight and just missed them a few times in the day but but in the past I've used timer similar to this there's 2 dials there one dial regulates how much time the water is actually turned on and the other dial is how frequently the water turns on and shuts off so for a timer that you want to use for cuttings you want to go down to a 3 to 5 2nd interval so that you can turn that thing down so the water will come on and miss those cuttings for 3 to 5 seconds at a minimum so that you can turn it up and give it more on warmer days middle of summer where it's real hot you might turn that up a bit and you want a frequency rate of 15 to 20 to 30 minutes so if I'm down here in a greenhouse setting and it's July and I'm still doing cuttings and it's what's the temperature here in July just plain hot Ok so so I'm going to have those that that cycle turned up to about maybe 5 to 10 seconds misting every 15 minutes I'm also going to have a cooling fan on that greenhouse I'm going to I'm also going to cool the greenhouse down as well so but you know if I get a string of a week of cloudy days at that rate my plants are going to get waterlogged so I'm going to go in there and I'm going to turn that rate way down so it's maybe watering for 3 to 5 seconds. Every hour if it's kind of a cold cloudy day you're not going to need quite as much mist on that. Much Time years. Good. This is another type of timer. That you can just plug a solo and into so typically people that are are making a built in system that's a little bit bigger typically they'll use a soul and i'd rather than just like these 2 timers as you can see they just hook onto a faucet and just run a hose to your misting system this tends to be more of a built fan thing where you've got the timer that regulates that plug in. But the same same features 2 dials changes the rate in the frequency as far as root zone heating you can do this many different ways. If you look in your seed catalogs you can oftentimes near the back to see catalog you see these grow mats don't buy those those are way way too expensive and they're little you can only get just a couple of flats or one flower on those grow mats is just terribly expensive heating cables are low but less expensive and if you really will want to go economical just go get a. Electric blanket and 2nd hand store and then carefully take it all apart and get the cables out of it and just like this picture where those yellow cables are going to bury those down in the real core sand maybe an inch or so and that's going to dissipate the heat make the whole bench top nice and evenly warm the nice thing about the electric blanket you've got the dial control so you can set it so that the soil underneath that plug tray is about 70 degrees that's going to make that little root zone part of the plant really really happy. In this picture the sand is just pulled away too exposed to the cables the sand would go back and then I would put a woven weed barrier fabric over that sand because you don't want your plugs when they start growing and putting roots out the bottom of the plug to grow down into the sand and then you're pulling sand away every time you pull the plug trail way you don't want that to happen has got messed up your table I've also seen people do this. When I'm most creative ways was a guy took a crockpot quarter inch tubing and a an aquarium water pump and he just cycled the water from the crockpot through the quarter inch tubing crossed his bent back and forth and then back through the little aquarium pump back into his crockpot him ingenious set of also seen people do that exactly the same thing with a full sized water heater and using a lot of electricity before for the full sized water heater just a little circulating pump and half inch p.v.c. across the whole greenhouse maybe half the size of this building so they were doing. Woody shrub cuttings. But it worked fine for them and the amount of cuttings that they could get off. More than paid for their electricity so this is just some ideas like I said I'm doing my cuttings just on the floor right now and it works just fine for me but oftentimes if you can get those cuttings up on a on a bench another thing that you can do that I've done is I've simply used a. Bench that has slats on it put the weed barrier over it and take the weed bare clear to the ground and clean enclose the underneath side of that table and just put a little space heater and in there and it takes some working to get the dialed in just right so your your heat on that table is about 70 degrees and you know that's different for every set ups it just takes some working to get the temperature just right and your plants will be happy now this is one of the most important points that I really wanted to make sure I got to timing timing is a big deal when you take cuttings trip typically herbaceous cuttings take 3 to 4 weeks to root from the time you cut them and then they will take about 3 to 4 weeks of growth to get up to a sellable size so if I market starts let's say the 1st week in May when do I want to start doing my cuttings 1st week in March 2 months roughly right that's when I want to start doing my cuttings saw this flat of cuttings you've noticed I've got. 1234 different kinds of plants in this one plug tray. And they're small They've just been cut this is what they look like and in a couple of weeks I very gently pull out one of those plugs and this particular plant. Anybody guess you're right it's based on you know kind of baseball. Close but no this is actually a really neat basal It's called African blue basal how many of you have heard of African Bouvier's all it's real pretty The veins on the leaves are purple and then they're nice side of the leaf is purple it's just really pretty but you can't get seed for African blue Basler it's only propagated by cuttings that's the only way you can get it but if you notice. A couple of weeks into it I've got roots can you see those roots on the on the plug now I could transplant this at this point though the root ball is holding together this soil ball is all staying in one piece I could at this point drop it into a foreign it's flat and it will take off and grow but I'm not going to do that what I'm going to do is leave it in for a few weeks and get it a little bit leggy like this these cuttings are probably pushing more along the lines of 4 weeks and if you look they're about 4 inches tall Now why do I want to do that this is really important a pole one cutting out about 4 inches long I'm going to cut that right where my fingers are and that's going to do 2 things for me number one below my fingers you see there's 2 sets of leaves almost all plants have a little chute that comes out at the base of every leaf stem right so when I cut that plant there's going to be 4 shoots that come out and it's going to make a bushy plant if I don't do that it's going to be an herb on a stick and stick herbs don't look nice to sell You've probably seen stuff like that flower on a stick is not pretty you want to bushy compact and nice and fall so I accomplish that by cutting and leaving 2 to 3 leaf nodes or sets of leaf nodes on my original plant that's now rooted. So I can I can cut that right there and then I can take that original plant transplant that maybe in the next day or or even the same day Stick that in a foreign pot you're giving it new soil and soil fertilizer the roots just go out into that new soil and it just takes off and becomes a nice compact bushy plant for market. But what did I do to the top part of that plant that becomes another set of cuttings trim off the bottom said Elise and it goes right into a plug tray for my next cycle of cuttings so I don't have to do a lot at one time I just have this rotation going this 1st set of cuttings grows up take the tops off and those become cuttings for the next set following behind. Usually 3 to 4 weeks or so from cut to rooting 3 to 4 weeks from when it starts producing those roots to where you can get it to a sellable size 3 to 4 weeks depending on the weather condition and what you're feeding it and how you're treating your little babies another thing on your tag I just put on my cuttings I put one tag in each flat and I'm listing everything that's in that flat on my seeded plants I get a tag for every variety of seed that I plant so little bit different the cuttings I just write everything that's in that flat and then I write the date that I cut those I made those cuttings. This particular tag says 5416 this is the day I cut there's one date on there a few weeks down the road when I transplant those cuttings I'm going to write a transplant date on there as well. So when they get transplanted this one tag is going to have to go into one of those for Riot e s that I've just transplanted So I've got looks like 5 varieties inside the plug there's 5 things listed on that tag so I'm going to put it with one of those varieties and I'm going to put it front and center Usually I put this cutting tag right behind the the commercial picture tag that I have in each one of those pots so a picture tags for everything that way that I grow but that that tag there will go front and center and then on the floor with all the other plants that are growing in my greenhouse at some point in time a few weeks later I'm scooping up those plants putting them on a rack and taking them the farmer's market so now they're at the market and as I'm going through and arranging everything making sure that everything standing up and the tags are in straight looks nice I run across this tag Oh so I pull the tag out and I wrote this cell date on it now am I going to sell the whole flat that day no but that's the day I begin to sell that's the day the plants are sizable to sell so I'm going to wind up with 3 dates on the tag and then the tags going to go in my back pocket and I'm going to save those and put them just in a little jar or something in my greenhouse so at the end of the season I've got a big handful of tags that then becomes my data for next year so if I find out this year I had I was really short on a particular thing well then I can go back and like my tags I can see when I cut it I can increase the numbers or perhaps it was too early and it was just. Some things just grow real leggy and you learn. Yeah don't put mints in the same flight as you do. Rosemary and lavender because the rosemary lavender are going to take a few weeks longer Meanwhile the mints have just gone. And just taken over and. It's like trying to get things that grow roughly the same. Rate. So I can I can look at those dates and think I was too late I was a few weeks too late so I'm going to back my date up you see them say in those dates become invaluable data for the next year when you go to fill out your calendar and when you need to be doing things for the upcoming season. So in theory I would be doing that right now putting in these dates and so that when I flip my calendar up it's like Ok so this week I need to do these cuttings those cuttings and that's how I keep track of things some miscellaneous cuttings there's a plant called Crane's Bill I don't know it's got a couple of different names it's also called perennial geranium I don't know if any of you recognize the picture there. It's a it's pretty all kind of dormant it's just sitting there doing nothing this time of year I took that picture a picture probably 2 weeks ago. It's got really pretty flowers the foliage is very peculiar has a strong fairly strong smell to it but I just simply reached down into that that mound and pull up a couple of shoes the chute on the right I've simply pulled out of the plant and you see all those dead stems and leaves on it that's what they look like when I pull it out of the plant and those are probably about 6 and a half 7 inches long. Clean all that dead material off and it looks like the center. Down to all cleaned up now take that center stem and carefully cut it in one in segments and I'll be careful to keep them right side up because there's a top on the bottom on that those little pieces like you see there on the right. At that point I'll take those little pieces and I'll just poke them into a plug tray the top half will grow shoots the bottom half will grow roots and it will produce several shoots so you don't have to do the cut the top lady part it just it will fill out on its own with several shoots just right off and then you see the 3 tops that are of that I've also stuck in the in the plug tree as well. That one. There's a couple of things that you can do this to I haven't done this to a lot of plants plus a perennial geranium or Crane's bill as it's called different places in the States. It works really well. Oriental poppies or pretty all poppies you know the the big poppy that produces the big seed head if you dig down underneath of it the roots on those perennial poppies look like a big rat tail and that's actually a root whereas this is actually a stem in this picture but those poppy roots that look just like a naked rat tail you can do exactly the same thing cut it up into individual one inch sections keep them right side up if if they drop on the floor and they get all mixed up then just lay them sideways in your plug trays in like almost cover them with dirt Yes. You know this. Those are roots that mass on the left are not roots those are just dead stems. From leaves that have come in the previous season so it's that stem right there if I can step away from the mike for just one minute. And. That's why the year's growth that's the next year's growth and that's the new for this. So this season like I said to be about. 2 weeks ago. It's going to grow there of out there this summer. So that that brown stringy stuff that's not roots that's. All dead leaves from last year. So. Also with the like I said with the the poppies you can do that with the root keeping right side up poke him down in the tray and just have him stick up out of the soil just a tiny little bit the top part will grow root shoots in the bottom part will grow roots and it doesn't take much more than a handful of roots and you can make a lot of plants really fast. Using this method something else to consider art what we got so we got 5 minutes Ok we're doing good. As far as Mother stock. I have most of my plants that I really like and I use from year to year I have those out in the flower bed. I plan I'm at my church I give them to friends so I have that stock in case mine dies but my mother stock plants I try to put them in and 3 to 4 gallon fairly large pot potted you know pot I'm up because in the fall if they're not tender like baseball I will put them outside in the fall and let them go dormant so I want that plant to think it's winter time to go to sleep it goes dormant and then about 6 to 8 weeks before I need my cuttings so in our previous scenario market starts 1st of May I'm going to start cutting 1st of March 68 weeks before that when do I want to bring these potted plants in from to the greenhouse from outside. About early January about right now and I want those to start waking up there and they're going to get warmer in the greenhouse they're going to get watered you can get some fertilizer and they're going to wake up and again that 1st flush of growth is is the very best cuttings so that's the timing so let's say you're on vacation and you're 2 states away and you see a plant in somebody else's garden that you really really want. Of course you ask to have a few of those cuttings. I don't you know people are usually very generous take the cuttings way longer than you need them so herbaceous cuttings you know I'm going to cut it like 6 inches long way longer than it needs to be and then I'm going to put those cuttings in a brown paper bag and then soak it in water and I'm going to put it in a plastic bag so it doesn't get all over where and I'm going to poke it under the seat of my car or somewhere where it's fairly dark and cool. So few years ago we went we traveled I live up north west in Washington state vacation down in California I found some really nice cuttings that I wanted to take home so in a bag soaking wet and then under the car seat or the air consist missioner was boring so just kept on cold you can get cuttings to last a week to 10 days or so just depending on what it is and how careful you're keeping them you can keep them there quite some time when you get back home the bags kind of falling apart but pull them apart and then go ahead and trim them up to their their final size clean them up rooting hormone in the plug and they'll take off and do just fine so you can get cuttings from way over there and bring them home yes. You. Know. This particular picture I didn't because I'm at somebody else's house but I would've I would oh yeah. How much time do we have yes. Blackberries no because we live in the Pacific Northwest and blackberries are the closest thing to a communist that you can find and it goes everywhere on its own and you don't need to sorry was that political sorry. Raspberries do do by divisions just dig them up and divide them rez berries don't do things that well you just get them from the roots way better than the last. One. Just dig up some root just get the root division and you know. Very well on Black Berries. You can watch because the Black Berries will grow. And the moment they hit the soil they will grow roots at that point you can walk around and find all those little at the shoots that have hit the ground and dig up those well they're just a little tiny plant and you know once you get that crown you can take it away and transplant it yes figs. Ok so fix real quick here I think we just got a maybe a minute this is kind of my farmer's market set up here I've got big tags on the on the rock and then you see every little part has its own little picture tag. This is a picture of how I do grapes grapes 1416 inches you get at least 3 or 4 leaf nodes little bit of rooting hormone and just jam down into pumice and put them in a protected area outside over the winter because you're doing this in the winter when they're dormant and by spring they're going to be full of roots and little shoots starting to grow same thing with I don't know why I threw this in some of our blueberries you notice the back blueberry a sitting on a quarter. The biggest cherries. These cuttings here are Kiwi Kiwi you would do figs the same way you would do Kiwi in grapes a cutting about this long. You know and skin and up a little bit really little bit of rooting hormone and put it in Palm OS This. It's actually perlite but promise perlite whatever you have for grapes and Kiwis you're going you're going about 4 teeny inches long you're going about this big that's a 6 inch but all this is really really important on Kiwis that have male and female plants once you cut those you don't know what they are because you can't turn the leaves over and check so sorry that was bad humor. You don't know whether you cut these so you can't make some right because you don't want to sell people a bunch of male plants are all female plants so you notice what I'm doing I put the female cuttings in a round pot and they always get planted in a round pot even after they've gotten rooted the males always go in square part because we're always Square. So that keeps the males in the in the female separate Otherwise once you lose the tag if they're all around parts it's anybody's guess yes. Pearl White are pumice grapes Kiwi figs cut in the same way while they're dormant sleeping just come down in their little bit of rooting hormone. Like this picture here you can see the use powdered rooting hormone on this just because I'm using it up. Just for a quick during the I'm cutting and I think I'm pretty much done and out of time yes. Put him in a little bit of a sheltered area you know cold because. They're dormant you cut them outside so they're already outside right so put them in a pot put them and maybe in a little bit of a sheltered area where they don't get an icy blast on them to really dry them out you just don't want them to dry out if you live in a northern area where you get a lot of sun You don't want the sun to scald or dry out that stem. So yeah I've never done well there's. But maybe go online check quick. Sometimes no figs fruit fairly easy. Because I live where I do I'm kind of at the northern edge of Fig territory and so I'd do just because but if you're down in places where figs just naturally go probably wouldn't need hormone on those. Carnies. Look that one up I haven't really been around those plants but I haven't really done those so. Roses roses are well you can do it either way if they're like an r. basis or like a woody cutting seed I'm so. Seed implants like this picture here to simply pull the leaf off and if you get that little bud sometimes you take to carve it off the stem but they just pull the leaves off and they all root and turn in the plastics like this. Well the 2 rooting hormones in each one of those mixes or again ik but it's organic as in organic chemistry rather than organic as in a straw hat and Mother Earth News. There's a 2 different kinds of organic. We are organic because we're in made entirely of organic molecules right so it's it's a conundrum group the hormones themselves are made of organic molecules because it's a carbon based compound but it's not organic as in certification organic but they are normal hormones that you find actually yes you can you can make a tea out of willow bark that's organic. Willow bark has the. Has compounds in it that will act kind of like Ruby. And I think we need to be doing. This media was brought to you by audio for years a website dedicated to spreading God's word through free sermon audio and much more if you would like to know more about the universe or if you would like to listen to more sermons lead to visit w w w audio verse or.

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