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Decisions, Decisions, Decisions

Steven Grabiner
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Steven Grabiner

President, Outpost Centers International

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  • August 6, 2010
    10:45 AM
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seven Army nonprofits is about decisions decision-making those in your personal life but more focused on decision-making in your organizations and introduce myself and Stephen Ratner and I'm currently vice president with an organization called OCI was in his international labor and seventy five ministries around the world that we work with analog boards helping with leaders consulting with leaders for ten years I was a missionary in Africa place called Riverside farm and for eleven years before that I was pastor in southern New England and leaderships did a special study of mind for the past number of years because it only makes a comment in the testimonies in a little level of the church only gets really as far as spirituality of the leadership in the church thinking organizations and I think we can look at different organizations and see how leadership decisions board decisions individual leadership decisions have either contributed toward the success or the failures of those organizations that sort of talk about this morning as his decision making the process of decision-making you should have a handout with you as well and works hard in the gym of a handout and community leadership and I really like the technologically challenged it in order to talk about I found this on the Internet I thought it was a great illustration for the complexity of decision-making and you can relax really to talk about that chart fill your mind with all that really want to kind of hosting him and when asked the question had been involved in an organization you are ministering your shirts and nonprofit something like that in which you can look back and think and decisions have been made and they get sick just a favor and just jot that down on the top of your hate for Kerry to come back to that hopefully later as we go through this and you think of a specific incidents where you are within organization and some no decisions went the wrong direction the reason I want to do that as good as we go through this process together I'm hoping that she'll be able to reflect on that situation and it will uphold the things we talk about anxiety no I think that contributed to our poor decision is our hope purposes learning is not just to find out about that decisions it's really to learn how to make better decisions make good decisions and ceramic two purposes where you think there on your handout of believe they are first is that little white to identify key decision-making saboteurs things that will terrain all the decision-making process and most of the sorting through decision process ever to talk about you know what went wrong it's easy to say well hindsight is always twenty twenty in hindsight is twenty twenty one the fact that I really wouldn't have done and done this but too often we use that as a kind of a cloak for not learning from our mistakes and psychologically of hindsight 's twenty twenty was able to know that I didn't know that I made the best decision I made in Italy did but maybe we were tripped up I some sabotage some certain things that happen in the decision-making process and then secondly I hope that we can identify some ways easily fooled our decision-making in identifying areas of culture and then looking forward to ways they can improve their and others' couple of Bible verses I wanted to share with you ensure their familiar to you and interesting to me that in Proverbs in two places we get almost the exact same quote is certainly the key emphasis where there were no counsel is what happens to fall parish in translation but in the multitude of counselors there is safety without counsel purposes are disappointed but in the multitude of counselors they are down the real truth that there is a value that there is an eight hour in Sheen now probably familiar maybe not recently with the TV show who wants to be a millionaire ever seen and heard about it but as far as I understand question and answer and when you're being asked the question one of the things you can do to get a right answer is what privilege of ways if you have any idea what you can ask the audience and the audience is right and astounding ninety five percent of the time resumes is this group of people and if you were to ask them as a cool the audience is right about ninety five percent of the GC as it does view there there was a on ministry that talked about God is the elephant in the sure him John seen us about high and the whole thing was they wanted to go to Gethsemane cancer in there and they're getting price of the price was most times the aggregate the fringe of all the answers all the gases will be the closest song I have this idea can stand there and ask people how many units they thought were in that jar and statistically the average within closest to the right answer is a tremendous power in June but is also a problem in teams and that is that there are certain dynamics that come to play that shortcut the power the teams can bring to things we think of our boards and organizations in your together we have this different things but there are certain processes that impact the potential of teams of groups of boards of different clusters of people so the Scripture references say the multitude of counselors there is safety great but how do I get that group of counselors to really fulfill their potential what is it that negatively impacts that group of counselors of other quotations you're just a click at the briefly as well from second selected messages when ninety eight in making important decisions we should study every side of the question we are ever to remember that we are given a place in the work of God to act as responsible agencies of that phrase studying how many signs of the question every sign and will see how difficult that really is for us to go through this time together to really cheer one another to to have good no enthusiastic discussion when they renew little test with you if I can know where Association so that I say for example red with the first word that comes to mind but bold okay okay what about regulation John prophecy is required here but Apocalypse what is a conflict argument what is common to the ageism that was really like totally a higher-level blessing Dynix conflict usually argument inauthentic your facial expressions went through five stomach gets high but it's really just study every sign of the question we need to learn away to foster healthy debate dialogue and will look at that but you take your paper you'll notice that I have written down is some cognitive biases negative find life and what you fill out remember them and what is this story this illustration that took place at now I'm not Everest it was in nineteen ninety six May eight through tenth there were a number of teams trying to climb the world 's highest mountain they were to consulting Janesville is called adventure consultants and their name Rob Hall and another consulting team called Mountain madness by name Scott Fisher Scott Fisher and Ron Paul were to premiere climbers they had both and brought thirty plus clients to the top of Mount Everest save these men were quite accomplished and what they did unfortunately during that window of time when they were caught Chris both parents with six of their clients the greatest tragedies that took place ever in the climbing Mount Everest and as we look back and we kind of think about what took place certain functions of online cognitive biases things they just take place in the way we think our prejudices are on your way of thinking sure which really hindered their decision-making process slips look at five windows right now first one is a sunk cost the fact that illustrated not technological and not an artist but that's off the way were looking at the world okay and as we see things in a facts are thinking and a sunk cost of fact mentioned that claw sunk cost effect impacts us because of the time or money that we put into a situation what is a sunk cost if that's a sunk cost of cost the fact is when we make decisions based on what's already happened in the past and not necessarily considering what's the best thing right now there lots of illustrations of this we think of Mount Everest the clients for example all invested a significant amount of money each of the clients paid sixty five thousand dollars for the privilege of climbing Mount Everest it took them eight weeks to get prepared to get in a acclimatize to get ready for this him who has been dismantled both time and money in their energies now there was a rule in the rule states that at two o'clock huge turnaround no matter where you are on the mountain why because you don't end up in a dark storms can come in much easier to go up and it is to come down next week and down the dark but surely a time was egregiously ignored at that point in time there they were moving off when they should have been coming down what was one of those that took place some cost-effective or spend the money they are to put in the time we do that a lot I just recently is on a board and we were discussing loaning money to an organization part of this board had already most significant money for this other organization hadn't gotten it back to this other organizations that do we really need alone or offer to lose everything and sell some cost effect came upon our whole group is born without a minimum the more money now starting could money after Daniel insists that the money is what it's go and as the allotted illustrations and about this hot video sports whenever I can from the national basketball Association it's been shown that individuals who are kicked higher in the draft in other words they get paid more if a team pick someone high in the draft contains the more they don't perform well will get more playing time why what we've already paid them and we need to get our money out what you're not getting that your money out that impact us in organizations there's plenty of times and we as organizations have invested a lot emotionally lot of him a lot of energy into no starting a new project wanting to see it go and is really not getting off the ground and maybe it's a time to study every side of the question and send it back and they are and what this point in time is the best thing to do rather than teaching throwing things out there because I'm already there spent so much to be involved so some cost effect applicant down investments all different aspects of life and something that we need to be aware that we become emotionally attached to things of any of you read every book Freakonomics notes when Freakonomics did to economist and writer and they describe these model people called me an in vitro and will only do what's right all the time regardless of anything else like that but most of us are not like that were very emotional individuals the so-called defect played on down ever so they were going up there was one man this was his second try I invested tremendous amount unfortunately there was tremendous loss loss of eight lines as they went up the mountain on another bias another cognitive bias is called the overconfidence bias network and looking call that Superman and super woman I fact the overconfidence bias what is the overconfidence bias of the party plane is that we can do almost anything it's good to be confident good to be optimistic and not saying it's not wish that tremendous conference I can do all things through Christ she strengthens myself how can I have overconfidence there are rains when necessary so while I can accomplish everything called to make that decision is an organization they know in another country and they were looking to purchase a piece of property may work sure they reiterated ninety seven hundred thousand dollars down to purchase this piece of property that a certain amount of time to purchase it or they would lose their hundred thousand dollars they needed a raise over million they didn't succeed in the process they found another piece of property that they wanted to do something else someone was like a training place most of the health center and so that property was also worth over a million dollars they put another hundred thousand dollars down thinking they were going to get the money they lost both these properties and they lost two hundred thousand dollars overconfidence effect no it didn't get to be optimistic it's good to have confidence in what God 's going to do for us and with us at the same time we need to have a healthy sense of looking at every question from all different sockets sense of my news reading something rather than just blasting through situations another effect that took place on Mount Everest and the limits say one more thing here on this overconfidence effect that Rob Fisher and I think it is Fisher said this that we have no Everest she called the big E totally wired we built a yellow brick road to the top of the mountain that is delusional yellow brick road you know Alice in Wonderland to the Wizard of Oz Dorothy taking you will regret I have no allegro to no way but these guys were overconfident in their abilities and call them John Krakauer 's book on facilities guys were clinically delusional in their sense that you know we can do this again it's an important aspect of the overconfidence bias another good question how can you distinguish overconfidence from faith and wisdom genes not what you say how can you distinguish overcompensate and indicators there is certainly difference between faith and presumption the question is why we know the survey does that's an interesting point in on that faith claims promise and brings forth fruit into obedience unto obedience where presumption takes God 's promises and then instance of disobedience but if for example the illustration of the ministry that I talked about here they both felt they fell your God told the students my question for them would be really how broadly did you counsel and did you listen to the voices that said this is a bad idea the overconfidence will cause us to just disregard those involved will see that a bit more as we talk with something else now is present in moratorium against the answer himself but there is a real question of who were involved in this ministry he'll howling it will cost and give me all that spout some just take the purpose yes but in the multitude of household their safety and to see what the Bible Mister prophecy says McGinnis an enhanced hindsight to look back was to define the so cost-effective is committing more resources simply because we've already committed a significant investment whether that investment of time to strike and it happens lots of places to get that you and your wife is money and you okay that he wasted time and energy into something in place of these brochures are really there not right now but we were spent a couple thousand dollars we have to go forward no you don't have to go forward because you've already lost that money it's going some cost to set some cost-effective is when we continue to pour resources into a situation project ministry only on the basis of our prior commitments not because we've analyzed it right now and we think of this is still a good idea as our prior investment into a prior commitment that pushes us to pack up their losses and go home and people have a hard time selling investments stocks whatever because like the money radio and some cost-effective another dimension of it is really admitting I was wrong why we don't like doing that six years as you are working and started and it appears that some encounters a look at their restaurant and oh you poor thing but here's an illustration a certain ministry but it took them six years for it to be profitable and then they closed medical as they were completely after all you took was of some cost you don't then you probably was in London with this but there are other factors my point highlighting these are these are factors for us to watch out for as we make decisions it's not like I may make every decision based on how much time and energy I spent but you know what's the bigger picture what's and motivating me to go forward I would venture to say that what motivated you not to keep going was not the fact that we put three years into erratic that you have passion for ministry and so there's a different motivation that's moving forward but as we stop and think what our best resources we need to take this into account if we don't we can be blunt and so overconfidence effect is that clear government notes talk about that him that an individual sunrise the resistor that is when we make mistakes when we allow recent dance to be the sharpener of what we should do when he tied back to the Everest account for the past five years before this time Fisher had never had a storm never experienced the storm in May as he climbed Mount Everest he had five years of reason demands that said May is good not the previous five years there were some years when no tutorial as they were terrible storms at that time so the recently fact is that we simply allow new relations of Venice to focus our decision and referred to ask what happened further in the past that's again a powerful thing is the oldest turned out well this turned out well cable Internet well that turned out well but what's your longer time frame it is geeky looking back you have a much longer track record things churning with some of the recent defect causes us again potentially not every time to be simply deceived by what recently happened of course is the flipside of that talk about the start of view for Jesus and ASI at a meeting in in Florida the number of years ago it went well and so they decided to do what continue that's a great thing it's continued just because something is recent doesn't mean it automatically should figure into our our decision process but on the other hand we need to be careful as were talking about things as were looking at you know what what kind of decisions we should make for ministries are born for personalized it how much we were giving to simply wants to place recently and found that interestingly enough there was another climber not ever his name is David brassieres and in the high notes moving the nineteenth he was on the mountain the same time as Paul and Fisher were as many were claiming he was claiming that while declining down he had a feeling that the weather is concerned that turned to his friends and I really think we should go down and how hard was that they were going down the mountain and every else is going what you do anyhow we just don't still like the situation talking more about intuition later but they didn't let their recent defects that have a longer history and remembered some of the storms that could take place we need to have that as well let's look at something else called this a loser he correlations to get couples stations now this is wrong and is an example of a friend of mine but I know that it cannot give us very good enough to do that are killed when his name is now he's got a real names to the octopuses many irons in the fire you names or live octopus things Paul Hall Hall and all Paul all you are doing this correctly predicted every game with your music and playing World Cup whether there will be when you lose many predicted who was then when the final World Cup they would put to container is into his with food into his tank and flags in each of the container whichever container he went to first that indicated that that seems to and he correctly predicted all of Germany's wins and losses and who was good when the final eight games now if you could do that now the interest is there any correlation between Paul and what happened World Cup none at all that's an illusory correlation it looks like there is a connection but there really isn't a connection to get another one in the national football league the NFL for many years depending on if the team from the American week or the National League won the Super Bowl that would indicate eighty five percent of the time what direction the stock market was going to go eighty five percent a Fox interview I enough the AFL one forgot which was the more pronounced eighty five percent of the time in the AFL one would say the stock market was getting eleven NFL one stock markets can go down eighty five percent AFC incidents are maximum Missouri correlation there is absolutely no connection between who wins the Super Bowl what stock market doubts you believe that meant that he affects what people 's euphoria manager Navy illusory correlations are dangerous as we sit in meetings because people know they make connections we really do we connections and so has only said we need to consider every side the question we need to know people 's assumptions because they happened and then be happen does not mean that a cost be to take place and one more this is the confirmation bias this is perhaps one of the most dangerous and the confirmation bias is is that we only allow generally speaking information to come to us that fits our preconceived ideas or prejudices is really very important confirmation bias how the study done where group of individuals were taken some of those were for the death penalty some of those work against the death penalty and they were all given the same studies to read and then there were questions did any of the studies change over we think the answer to that question was now nearly reread the same studies nobody was moved some of the studies showed that the death penalty was a deterrent some of the study showed the death penalty was not a deterrent nobody's mind was changed and then after further question one studies do you think what well-written and well argued the one that supports your point of view confirmation bias is tremendously difficult for us because we we want to read things we look for things that for what we believe is an element of found for think goodness coming up right where no fan and is a benefit to this but it that way it's earlier for studying the Bible and were reading something and the millions of page fact that really we shouldn't keep Sabbath we should keep Sunday what happened to us automatically with the damsel block in order to read everything through our filter they now happens to be I would argue true shelter in a case that's true filter button is your giving of Bible studies on and they had this confirmation bias near or read Bible texts that you are confirmed they are beliefs to give us way more patients with individuals but the confirmation bias is dangerous Ms. was sitting in a board meeting were sitting in a meeting church board whenever it is time to make a decision window lock for things that confirm what we want and were going to discount those things that disagree with us that's very dangerous because the only warnings can be coming to us and realized that I say whatever you want without a witness in and it and happens all the time and in many different situations that interesting quotation again my apologies but that very bright plate therefore there is this the most difficult subjects can be explained to the most slow witted man if he is not formed any idea of them already a look matter how difficult it is biblical truth with others if they are open-minded let's say they'll be receptive and we can explain something to the goes on but was simply him him clear to the most challenging man if he is firmly persuaded that he knows already without a shower without more is made before why over and over again says that we should come to the word of God 's learners and that we should be open I remember many years ago I was doing some other work I was studying within Jehovah's Witness and we're studying a number of topics and then we came to the topic of the divinity of Christ and I know that he was for peer hardening for certain arguments certain Bible passages on the divinity of Christ sizable Lord I just show me know if I'm wrong that's okay let me learn and as I studied the Lord showed me several different lines of argument there is support for the divinity of Christ when we went into this Bible study he was totally unprepared and he was ready for these arguments learned unique new evidence and he was unprepared how to do to be open to learn new things it's from Holstein is exactly sorry I think my notes but sure and neither can the public that you would like to rent the confirmation bias so I think outside any questions on those cognitive biases believe me just because you're a Christian and you're some of the evidence doesn't mean you're immune to this doesn't mean that once you get into a board you know everything works great doesn't boards are very interesting dynamics strong personalities able to sway things we become quiet when we might be outspoken normally all the things that go in your mind that can positively or negatively impact our decisions great good illustration I wanted it very clear what you say that's happening and I know my district council there and we should be less confident than in own in the sense being headstrong in this than in any other area counting before you have the is a great picture on the confirmation bias the stars will start as a nominal installation in the constellation says yes I believe overconfidence bias dangerous very very dangerous as we know how to navigate things we self distrustful Paul says in Corinthians know that Internet thinks he knows anything knows nothing has yet all this on about something for the recency effect also sincere but I forgot to share with you now know that hearing the stories of King David's battles this time David asked the Lord should I go up in the Lords of the app store and in victory and it was a battle just two verses later think it's interesting Samuel single interesting and then a second signal and then the next time should I go up and the answer is no don't go up really something different just because God worked one way in the past as a means to do the exact same thing now we need to be open to God how are you an impact this helped me to be learn how to gain the most from the team that I work with Jericho I recommend anything I go crazy I don't know what you're entering into the promised land all sorts of examples where will this is what happened this is what should happen we need to be very careful about that but that's not always the case who is thinking a nice without going to the point and Gibeonites came over to next page here and I want to talk about fostering healthy debate in ways that we can foster healthy debate this is really important I find it to be one of the greatest weaknesses of organizations that work with is that people feel a lot of things and they'll save them other places than the appropriate place and there's lots of reasons why that takes place some of it is some people just that way in their undermining other people don't don't feel comfortable perhaps there is not the right atmosphere created where people can feel yes we can discuss things in China help with that let's withdrawn on your paper here and two sides of conflict both cognitive and affective conflict cognitive content conflict is a discussion on the issues and can't not know what is the issue of man some he said that when you can identify the problem the solution jumps out at you you can identify the problem the solution jumps out at you what the country document but we haven't him refine the song that the meeting yesterday in fact we're talking about all different directions in our conversations go like tendrils of those finds the growing tendency to describe all over the place in outcomes and just move around but it's important for us to identify the point of cognitive conflict is where disagreeing about acts affecting conflict is much more emotional I've had a disagreement with you before and I know that every time I talk to you this is what you say not listening to I'm emotionally responding your native curtain in the past when you disagree with at all you always say that that's an emotional conflict that is really harmful to an organization the cognitive conflict real good discussion on the issues is really helpful and helpful and it only happens now when there's a good level of trust to certain people that I really know it I really trust we can disagree really strong I can be very planar this is your weakness or they can tell me my and we still appreciate one another resistance level of trust when there's not a level of trust most of the conflict will be more emotional focused on personalities rather than issues and coordinate their decisions our thinking of the committee will continuously put on this committee only do we want to hurt their feelings for the month community covering this committee members at the batteries and puts me on the committee and for some immunoassay you know I really don't think that's a good reason and not offend somebody at such vendors string to an organization cell no what are some ways that we can him will some ways that we can downer quiet down affective conflict and raise cotton tip conflict first of all one way would be instead give you ideas zero minus two record error vigorous debate to not allow people to know and I'll know not really agree to require vigorous debate another idea would be to proceed at language that shredders defensiveness I was working with an organization we are doing strategic planning there are some issues and we laid some ground rules minute as well and what those rules was no responding emotionally you could respond with questions you could respond in our there for clarification but you can react whenever that way the motion is good in conflict as well in its right place but in meaning we're talking instantly said something and I could see the present in the organization and get out of his seat and reacts my hand on his shoulder is that clarification question and sat back down and breathe a little bit and then he asked clarification question but too often we know we react so to pretend that inflammatory language let's say that way to break all coalitions lots of boards there are with somebody calls for line where there's this cluster of people that hang together sit together eat together talked together than is the other group will try to break those up my mixing people up into smaller groups and that is just some ideas to move from one to another women in illustration of a gentleman and architect I will design this building in New York City Mrs. Citicorp building in New York City and Dickinson is that how to use natural killer and has for New Orleans but notice that columns are not at the corners columns are on the side is very unusual architectural point of view and inorganic buildings withstand certain wins and everything in about five years after they built that there was an undergraduate student undergraduate student in my genus teachers that are latter-day looking for project closure again in this building was very interesting architectural feet and when this student undergraduate students for answers of it is calculations she came up with the conclusion that the building was not safe and that a certain wind came which could happen in New York City and hit the corner of the building it would cause the building to fall houses conclusion in undergraduate student he contacts the architect is no need to my conclusions the architected get lost thanks but no thanks no fantastic the architect and really and he took the documents they began to examine it he ran his own recalculations he found out the student right he went to the owners of buildings and communities and structural changes in on they did something supporting in the building but she was an individual well-known architect who assumes an undergraduate student and they can't imagine he didn't handle it if I is that she really is humility it's listening it's being all up in to influence from information places we would normally think that's a good maybe engineer when they win and that that may need to let this architect reputation was on the line as well South Kent so it'll conflict how to generate good conflict we house in meetings with different ways to disgusting I've given you on the paper again six discussion hats I like different illustration statistic in her mind that I than just words and I liked it yesterday it's Jerry that we were sitting in a board or committee whenever it is now towards nonprofit boards I you know where people and so there's all this feeling and emotions and one thing that I found helpful is to try to do some board education and that's amazing for a little further on and got some tips for before during and after discussions night education on the organization is really important to release some of these things out there I think we may mistake here and this is why I think we made a mistake here to I think people know where certainly were not an insulator when these feelings that's never happened until translation by others we can move in a direction that means setting there are different viewpoints and we need to learn to appreciate the different viewpoints and six at fostering healthy manner white hat and I call this pack the facilitator is greatly the chairpersons role it might not be but the facilitators really trying out to to draw people out to look for individuals that are talking and try to get all ideas out on the table as the facilitator viewpoint and Ginny in a real-life setting it is ideally a chairperson would you have this role but sometimes we were sitting around the lunch table and were talking different ideas fail this is just one school for having the conflict the next hack is the problem finder every organization there's the guy that sees the problems and it are you those visionary people say is a great idea and the problem find areas out that what about this one about this and what about this and depending on the relationship that comply completely dampen that the energy of the vision person the problem finders are necessary but I have a share this know a lot of people talk about setting goals different motivations people thought singles singles singles is good I said libels personally but did you know that most people would prefer to solve problems rather than set goals when I can ask you what you wait what energizes you are setting a goal list of things or looking at problems in figuring out how to solve if interesting talk to somebody and they come in I think their marriage and since it by highlighting not because she was a goal setter he was a problem solver near currently crossing each other all the time but solvers are necessary unfortunately a lot of problem finders are viewed as simply being obstructionist that's not necessarily true that it troublemakers and more in our office we have a problem finder it's it's due now we cannot with a good idea and she's like okay what about this about that next tremendous strains if we can embrace and sometimes we mediate the problem finder involved because they are usually very good at solving problems as well they just bring them up and they're not finding a solution it's a different issue in some kind of conversations there is a very rational individual the objective give me the data the knee look at this note to look at things from a organizational viewpoint of the Doctor Spock I can do that illustrate objective just wanting that are individuals that it is totally optimistic and upbeat visionary people know here's a new idea and it's a great idea and objective data driven in no kind of non- kicking the cognitive concept to history and then there's visionary people their upbeat their greatness let's keep going let's move forward you need individuals like that as well truth is you need all these in conflict point of view and if your group is talked about it neither had perhaps in training a look at some of these issues and people can in this interesting phenomenon as I talk to different boards about different hats people in the boards will pick up that expression is okay with it my no rational had off their new put on my problem after a second okay great and when are you coming from let's examine things like that optimistic visionary person that we are the insured in the most toys into an emotional note simply meaning that they are really acting emotionally or that there lashing a people emotionally puts certain individuals have a intuitive sense of the way things should go they're not always right but many times they are misreading an account of a firefighter he kept in the firefighting team they went in there was a small kitchen fire and so they are putting out the kitchen fire but it wasn't going on is the Captain stood there he was like something 's wrong else done without any real rational reasons he said everybody are the building a few minutes later the floor collapsed and as you know processes don't try to find out how did you know that small ESP not really yesterday and noticed certain things subconsciously was way too hot in the room the fire was going out there was no noise things just didn't add up intuitively join as we called everybody out and save their lives and so is in meetings like that we also need to learn to appreciate those individuals who may not have irrational data for but they have this sense that this is good or this is not and lastly before think out-of-the-box you know imaginative freewheel and there was look for new ways new ideas to bring things together sometimes I think I'm crazy but they're good to have an organization in question yes we tried shaking all of them yes so if we have a perception of this person as acts we could mishear what they're saying now and get a good point and just as you said that I can think of a board meeting I was in some he was sharing it was the treasurer needs always cold and calculating but he was being very got in that situation it's good that illustration that sometimes we look at people as objective or something and then we find out that there really coming from a different perspective in different situations certainly excellent excellent point people can wear different hats come from different perspectives given the situation given the dynamic of the people and the relationships with those people had at times the issue presented to hiding our awareness of this say okay this is taking place home where mind how a mind responding out I'm much more than it should personally get into board meetings I find out what the issue isn't about thirty seconds I have yet him I think you answered him to do the whole board meeting the unreality of the answer not really a lot of times I'm wrong but my point is that you don't ask how I react to things that make intuitive fast decisions and shopping addicts in thirty minutes you done in the labor over issues other people do and and we need to learn to appreciate one another's strengths and to realize that you could really be will in fact you probably are so really listen to this other person to continue going on here and another tool to stimulate good conflict the discussion is to appoint somebody will usually call this the devil 's advocate but I don't like that title so I've nicknamed the examiner what is the role of the examiner their role is to find faults and weaknesses with assumptions wrong assumptions in other people 's presentations and that's the role they are the examiner may have full right for freedom to really show ends with somebody else present on individual illustrations both from the presidency of John F. Kennedy strongly after Kennedy came became president he was presented with a plan by the CIA to invade Cuba you might remember this was called and pigs fiasco and the CIA presented his plan the idea was they were training in Panama a group of insurgents the idea was they were in a drop them off on the beach do you and that the populace would rise up and support them and they would overthrow Fidel Castro and it seems that it didn't happen that way they can simply simply melt away quote unquote into the willingness the mountains and be safe whole plan was totally flawed first of all the woods the mountains were eighty miles away from the beach don't know where you're not nailed into the mountains we have to cross that much territory and will so that the people and you support them and as you look at this whole thing there was this whole dynamic of people were invested the CIA was very invested in having this take place some cost effect they've spent time and energy training in Panama I had all this organization and thirteen this whole culture on in a while were already down the road the ships out before we have to go through terrible disaster pastor was ready most of the men were captured and killed terrible disaster for the United States public relations everything clears later there was another crisis was Cuba and that was the Cuban missile crisis where Russia is putting nuclear warheads on the island of Cuba how should a responsible candidate to his credit had learned from his previous mistake and then things that went wrong and so what she did for the Cuban missile crisis deformed different genes and he appointed his brother Robert Kennedy as the examiner and his wall was a renewing his role was to look at every single play in the cable people put forth and basically was to plans should we do a blockade or should we don't attack which we do they examine those plans pushing pushing pushing plan arose then wonder if they just follow along with their groupthink is an important dynamic to have somebody in the team better radios if you've got the right to throw all do that sometimes all you take a look at living Examiner today people edited and then just challenge their assumptions and challenge the opposite assumptions is really what we want is the best decision we were not really concerned that our idea of somebody else's idea not really concerned with our reputation what we really want is the best decision that that's really important as well it's not that she got a few things going to give it quickly is winding down in time before the discussion takes place it's helpful to establish these three are first is rules what are the ground rules for the discussion no no personal attacks openness ground rule for discussion on asking for clarification rather than just responding in whatever the ground rules are that your organization wants to use one of the values you think it is really important transparency respect user rules that we layout before been entered into any kind of dialogue well in every organization is a different rules but some rules that I would say is you are giving you three second are his goals to do first thing would be disestablished the rules for your team the second thing would be to ask people to place themselves mentally in other persons roles severe that no year the charity organization what's it like to situation worker 's point of view don't care the head elder what's it like to look at this from the sap school superintendents point of view to try to ask the group to consider different people 's positions and roles played that that we have respect in among our discussion it's very clear that respect one another we consider each other better than ourselves beings to find we want to fear what each person has to say before we get into some top discussions nearly concentric rows is what we want we want clarity we want transparency we want open as we want confidentiality whenever those rules are then again let's broaden this out at yourself in somebody else's position as were discussing this issue and its treatment another with respect during the meeting during the presentation certain things we can do here to help the conversation move along one of them is to read frame the situation what is that mean to reframe the situation basically just know let's were looking at the problem from this diagonal was taken different picture some of you might have been involved or heard of strategic planning you have had probably heard of the swot analysis strengths weaknesses opportunities threats it's very interesting studies of shown that if we see some hello rats or as a loss we won't for more resources into it it's probably to some cost effect coming into play since him enough for act were to put more resources into it unfortunately when we view things as a threat we cling to become rigid in our thinking self and individual buy stock in the stock is down they lose money I don't want to just sell it which might be the best thing you know it's a threat sort of unity wanted by Moravec is now priced at home and get my money back no endless cycle let's ask Ken to motivate organizations to do something but unfortunately constricted thinking opportunities for young think it's overlooking a problem with talking about refraining here ever letting a problem in organization if we describe the first is a threat while they might motivate people that we need to reframe it as an opportunity to free up the creative juices take newspapers and the Internet age you know many newspapers were losing sales of hardcopies and social newspapers all it is up with their print edition on the web that wasn't very creative I was kind of a knee-jerk reactions some said okay it's a threat let's put money into it here's a whole division you should think about how to do it but the creative and think of new ways to doing created blogs and video embedding so refraining a situation is important especially if where we're bogged down in overlooking out as a threat let's maybe look at his opportunity something like that again yes him on him might be more brief describing with my nursing reframing is tailored out is this really a threat let's now look at it as an opportunity let's can turn it around me describing closeness and learned you can do it that way on note instead of looking anywhere in a financial crisis is an opportunity to become leaner sometimes it's just semantics but it helps the decision-making process if what-ifs this is a high technique for helping organizations plan for the future and it stands for strengths during the organization 's strengths their weaknesses opportunities and threats and then keep moving on to revisit and learning by revisiting is to ask people to revisit their assumptions he came into this meeting this was her assumption has our conversation it all changed any of your assumptions as anything anybody said in this argument in his discussion calls you to even think your position no not moving in that happens but hopefully will yes I haven't really looked at it that way but I still think we should do X because of why the police were trying to no capture information from other people were trying to smear from one another and at the end of a meeting will him reflect again the Kennedy did after the Bay of Pigs fiasco he stepped back and thought what went wrong the actually I was interesting he contacted Dwight Eisenhower and try to get advice from him and he devices one activity wanted from Eisenhower was ill on it what I do I do wrong but Eisenhower said what was your process for making a decision taken really how the process he hadn't sat down and thought this is the way were going to design but that's very important to think what is our decision process going to be like Muslims getting there and talk to make decisions so reflecting looking out and saying okay so what we got in the past what worked what did not work repair in every conflicts and he gets hurt or how much you might want to avoid we do want to avoid the need to repair relations with people to go back and take this wasn't personal against you to appreciate what you've done try to repair the Monday the issues that have taken place I really remember what the lessons can we carry over into our next session into our next learning what what good examples of good conflict came from the organization in question so far four minutes left was afraid to a questions one arrested in the last viewpoints but I might any questions the influence of the questions that I can see we describe me describe in other words and we decided to go to think of an illustration of the problem we describing with Titus state the problem in the different way that's really important because when we come to a situation and we think this is the problem and when you were born going on this track sometimes it is said okay let's back up before a final decision and let's examine it down different track let's look at it from a different point of view I be describing the best well consensus a lot of people okay I question whether that's a good method a lot of organizations use I would question whether the method because what it says is one person to veto the majority now there is certain organizations that have a policy and held one of them and their policy is disagree and connect and that is in in this session in the meeting you can disagree completely with the decisions made need to be on board and started working that the organization and not much I can yours understand that there is another side to that consensus that the developer of the organizations are going to stop its twelfth locker call me to draw to a close what really do is just put up your last five points on the slide screen that he wants to buy and write them down to have any questions I'd be happy to answer them thanks very much for coming I hope you have a good rest and ASI I can be knows fear of marginalization some people don't want to speak up because they fear there any marginalized in a meeting time to encourage people that know things can happen to them is helpful number two problem as to why problems high is because sometimes there's lack of open communication people feel afraid of communicating sometimes there are gatekeepers but the gatekeeper gatekeepers are individuals who filter information from the leader may be secretary maybe vice President somebody that doesn't let all the information is they don't want to upset the president whoever so all the information doesn't flow through that's a weakness lack of intuition and lack of experience looking for problems those are all dynamics that cause problems to hide it is out of order church organization foundation whatever independent board meeting and wonderfully made and ask questions really are there some problems that were not surfacing how can we surface him these are some reasons problems high working on those to minimize marginalization to improve communication will help problems come to the top this the right to raise a very good question and individuals have information and they don't always share it they are selective in the information they share that this is a real problem is very difficult nose of the leader of the chairperson or the team itself needs to be very proactive in my name for information now some people feel like what I say this honey and wax they shouldn't only know this is the place to share right and the continual education process keep going over things keep developing your board the reward training for bringing this is when there isn't an issue so that you have a conversation about how to feel thank you very much a medium with my audio maintenance if you would like to learn more and I I him for assignment in the world this is a free online service please visit www. nonbelievers .org

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