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5- The Big 3 Challenges: Weeds, Pests, and Disease



  • November 14, 2014
    9:15 AM
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so again we are trying to cover way more than we can adequately cover in an hour three three topics that could take spend the week on probably so I just request the panel we've got a keeper answer short and really powerful try to make up with your choice of words the fact that we don't have a lot of time so I am kind of thinking will just divided into the three twenty minute segments basically weeds pests and diseases and and what I would like us to do is just share briefly some of the things we found to be effective start with weed control and and then hopefully they'll be a little time if there are specific questions so are we good with that would like to start how do you manage weeds on your phone gets on the closest on the first well then the proper tool is probably the best place to start and the first tool that Alan recommends is a nice home Brett happening before that you bed preparation hyper presidents you can do still that English different techniques and all the things that end of the day the most rudimentary fundamental tool is limited oh on my farm I hope will not preferred how is a is actually a fifteen dollar what they call Bilbo or disturbed how and the reason I like it is some I can pretty much do everyone within their detail client and family spacing different things there may be better host for different projects but that particular health for me this works really well a lot of people sharpen your house I do not sharpen my house on the contrary farm or maybe but at the Dole Ho has a tendency to pull the weeds out as opposed to just cut them off and account like I feel like they don't return is easy depending on the week so that specific in our first line of defense against the weaves is by transplanting as many of the crops as we can we start and end up in a group house and we set the plants into freshly prepared beds and Matt gives us a head start read what I have found to be most effective for us that if we get our soil chemistry balanced and also properly but that's probably not the best term if I balance us all chemistry the way I think this will chemistry needs to be balanced we found that in the last three years most of our weed problems have diminished pretty dramatically in the weeds that we do have are actually in weeds we ask a Texan purslane and the farmers market because my big weed problems in our personal purslane chickweed lambs quarters so that chassis is not that significant a problem another very important rule is that we never allow weeds to go to seed on the farm even if they happen to get away from us and we have to go out with a weed eaters through the watermelon vines and top the weeds so that they don't go to seed we do not allow weeds to go to seed we is also mulching techniques on some of our best not all of them but between the transplanting the soul chemistry and and got you the appropriate use of mulching weeds are really not a significant problem for us words for for many people that's the big obstacle to to to growing crops yeah was so similar to my place although we do support your crops as well in regard to the row crops transplants wheeze of a mulch plastic molds we have multilayer and we cultivate beside plastic with tractor cultivator when admitted into tall we use it will work Rototiller work and maybe some or the wheels turning those to work with those more a while I think this vital people you know about weeding is I don't consider reading a productive way to to work your weeds I don't cultivate don't let your weeks even get going in are just very low through the reins we try to get an cultivate through the water so controlling water one thing to work that one order my wants one of those we decided their lives I certainly drip and vibrant microglia and second mold I put in a pot a small plot by every trooper so my water went sub it income to surface bargaining state underground but I can still see the gripper and manage that so that was one way to management with mammals and officially start mowing number using in our orchard reusing a was mowing lawn mowing and then were just receipts are using a string reader which is unique tool it's a vertical pointer which actually clean right around from the tree I said my presentation yesterday did CNET that's something I'm looking into more neighbor uses that I'm counting us for a good idea to treat older boy 's multiple units on the Ouija growing we try to trim off our seats but for Johnson dresses that comes up from root and sing a morning glory we cultivate that got a deep cultivate even one quarter cut out the otherwise it just empty scoop you got to just cut it all cut also than keeping sunlight and coming troubles with Johnson Grassi and digging out the roots in those things we tried chemical weeding like with the souvenir times a week reading materials but I've gone back to same with the root it really use those likes a vinegar acetic acid in Singh or Doyle which as you know helps spread the vinegar to guilt among the weeds of the real small as one one type of materials and using forking can type weeding and organic systems I found a lot of times it just you know it is a party got ahead of you it's it just doesn't work runs across the come right back so that hasn't been real effective you know there's with the amount of time in over a single week that was a big one we've we fight all the time in my farm it's like I tell little help as I hate weeks I want but you know it's inevitable we get some so that serfs were about to start a new farming you have the space available in dealing with something like we were with the Bermuda grass I don't know who here deals of Bermuda grass anyone okay just keeps going going going on Sorkin Sudan grass till about area plants and sorghum Sudan grass mixtures got an insufficient amount of nitrogen but it can grow up to fourteen feet tall and ill outcompete any weed that I know of as you'll basically just start out by shade you'll see Bermuda grass growing under really shady tree and it's the same concepts of subject do that you can break a lot of weed cycles that way if you can stand to not let that land be under production for one season to cut your bottle shorten the long run with Bermuda especially on another thing that so we use is intensive succession of our crops if that crop is new be in there get it out and get some Nelson there was a cover crop or something break those week cycles we dealt with some big issues with with weeds coming up in certain areas and but since we started really succession cropping more that goes crops up sit in the ground because then you come out right away and some else put in there it doesn't let weeds get established to the point of going to seed and now you have a whole empty bed you can just get everything out of inexpensively new in knots really been beneficial because when the cops come up comes out you're basically hitting the weeds are hidden or spring weeds in your summer weeds and always because your success seen about those times so you knock them out right when I come and opt in that's really been a notice at being a very effective for us this year I will mention in your home garden if you keep a clean it makes gardening a pleasure I would say that the answer to weeding is simple but the simple does not mean easy you know it's simple little attentions often repeated is exactly what it takes don't we cultivate enough you can get him before you even see them you know when they're in the thread stage your your reading problems are never a problem you know but saying that does not mean we don't ever deal with weeds kazoos a lot of other things you're dealing with besides reading on the farm just a quick comment on the Hula ho just to help you think like a farmer in all the old-fashioned hoe is only shopping half the time the other half of the time it's in the air which is very inefficient so with the Hula ho a stirrup hoe you're always in contact with the ground you're cutting on the push and on the pole and that greatly increases your efficiency one other thing I just wanted to mention that has really been revolutionary for us and it was new to us this year so I I don't have a track record with it but when we went to Jean my teens farm up in in Québec we saw him using tarps silage tarts and this summer we had a unique challenge we had a very vigorous spring garden and then we had a very wet June which is when all the grasses are coming up in an grasses are really a challenge in the summer so when our spring crops came out I actually just went in there and we needed cut it all down covered it with tarps and a few weeks later you pull back the tarp and you have a totally new start it's incredible you know that the worms and all the biology is working underneath there they broken down your residue on the surface and it was I don't know how we would have managed the season without it it really revolutionize our garden this summer now assistant invention one of the things that we don't think about is we think of weeds in terms of the problems that they give is the sum of in be beneficial like they can have a life as a dietitian and so if you have a totally cleaned out and there's no weed pressure there is there's a new system within the plant and then uses in the plant isn't tax to some degree with pressures you have actually less nutrient dense food and so there is there there's a balance there I think that we want to balance lying on the pressures we allow and the idea of these perfects absolutely weed free beds in others there's a reality to how nature works and works in tandem together and we once were and balance all that stuff and a weed if I have let us let's say that in a salad mix and sometimes my soul this is the secret of contentment taken that out before I move in on down the next succession plantings I have let us come up the lettuces and we'd but if it's a plant that I didn't intend to be there if so e-mail me and so will we as you know measurable it's just something that's happening in place and you don't want out one thing that I wanted to add sure strategy that is really helpful to us is as the plant population itself you know we plant on beds where multiple rows of crops on the beds were using transplant center our concept here is to have a plan when it's about halfway to maturity to provide a canopy over the beds that itself mulching and that has worked very effectively forced to every few problems with weeds in those beds typically we can get away with cultivating them no more than twice oftentimes will only need to cultivate one's of before close over in the crop itself provides protection from just this plant is visited for friends farm in North LNG would least want to look at this website try to get someone would lead farms Woodlief names Carl Woodlief Ms. Carr Rosato 's farm he basically lets everything grow so it's fully different type look at me he's got so it provides what he considers beneficial habitat in all those things whose orchardist is the yearly incidence of injury damage Atreides more than than just complaining keep it down so there's a whole other aspect of as anything else to look at his placement my place and you know maybe some aisles one way of working with the weeds I guess in its it's a method that a lot of people in the United I would call it a more new age method let them all grow together but I think personally and I haven't consulted with the panel on this site I don't think it's a biblical method and no Mrs. White has I can't tell you exactly where it will as when she says that our farms and gardens should be an object lesson of what the Lord wants to do in our hearts into me that means we need to do everything we can to keep the weeds out of their cell yes it that is as a method a lot of people just let it all go in all hay it's natural this is nature working okay we got time for just a couple questions but can you come to the mic so couple we'd question canopy and hello hello I'm McChrystal as well as less question about the canopy and me I found that to be true to life and I tell people yet you know but I defined on the seed packets you know that you don't something that you could share with the group is we get a seat back in a label what will I space this as it has usually has two spacings and in rows facing like you in and between row spacing and eight eight oh in the end row spacing I can't take his party gospel you know it's like a all a listener that one I find it between row spacing 's note between rows is more your course tractor farmers if you're not a tractor farmer in your home gardener can you might might remedy to this is meant to just sorry use the in row spacing is my between row spacing to get that canopy cover it do you find that true or do you have us a different idea on that I think that's a good general rule from the work week we do successive planting to soak we have found that our our our plant size depending where there are more growing hero were a spring summer fall or winter so while ultimately that's that's a good place to start and I would think that the love that the plant spacing that's that's express on the Parkinson's is done by her land-grant universities as for optimum yield in a field situation usually thirty and spacing on bed so I view apply that that length to width as well it should it it should be a good place to start but we use primarily our experience in determining space and we go anywhere from twelve inches to fourteen to eighteen to twenty four inches depending on what time of year it is in the criteria that I use is how large it without I want to plan to fully cover the bed when it's about fifty percent grown because then you have enough capacity for to grow up and you know you're not have problems with competition if you give it if the bed is covered when staff okay do we have one more week question can you come up we've got a mic over here so much quite a week question as a asparagus bed management with with that we can add like to put in a large asparagus bad for market but in the little bit daunted with that type of management could you address the asparagus bed many are talking about a perennial crowd this is a very interesting way of doing it I'm not sure how how much I know but I've heard it done with asparagus and I hear it's quite effective but asparagus is very salt tolerant it's probably the most salt tolerant plant that I know that grows and some people actually broadcasts all night don't know what the parts million of of what that needs to be to not guilty asparagus Joe believes that something you could do more research on but it it's effective at killing a lot of stuff but not asparagus so to you can look into right eye I don't want to disagree with you Alan but I think you know using toxic methods when there are other approaches I think are better and assault does lead Sharon died at I don't recommend using sodium chloride and in your gardens and any and any form tossing chloride or sodium chloride the important thing with asparagus is to start with a clean bed when you establish it and asparagus if you're starting it from plants particularly her to be planting those those those records fairly deep eighteen inches typically and what I would suggest is is to know until the area thoroughly first major trends that you're going to plant your spirit SM and then cover the new shoots with with compost dressing with compost about six inches deep and then allow them to grow Justin that the first year and during the winter months you can make use of something like the vinegar that are that that Brad mentioned earlier vinegar is a good herbicide and burn back whatever is on the surface and then mulch it more heavily with compost and then put a final dressing at most once you've reached the soil level and battle down eliminate a lot of your weeding problems the other thing to do with asparagus in terms of weeds is we have a real tendency to over harvest asparagus and if you're getting a greedier and have weed problems because the canopy itself during the later part of the growing season can provide some protection to the crop and also give you better quality and better longevity of your plants okay you have a quick leading question she asked what the ratio of vinegar to use an end there are various of types vinegars the recertified for organic use you can also just use straight household vinegar but it needs to be at least five percent acetic acid to be effective and I don't mix it with any water I use it straight and it's important to have a surfactant with it also a surfactant is basically of a product that allows it to penetrate the leaf surface and spread out on the leaf surface and actually for a home gardener dishwashing detergent will service at surfactant if you're going to do an acre my suggestion would be to go to the farm supply and get at it on adjuvant or surfactant from them and follow the labeled instructions for for herbicide used typically it's eight to sixteen ounces per per hundred gallons or so one one that we have used his third max it's a yucca extract it's a good works Thurman asked T H E R M X okay well we read did a quick tour of weeds so I think a little attentions often repeated is is the main message and you have another week question okay explaining the tarts that the tarps I would recommend JM 's book the market gardener because he talks about it in their but it's just spreading it over your bed 's obviously you're not growing anything while you're using that but it's just the way of cleaning up it's all so it works for cover crops this is really exciting to me could I've tried to figure out how home gardeners can do cover crops and work them in easily you know if they don't have the right equipment but you can wait a bit flail mowing cover it and let nature work it into the soil with what you've experienced with the talks you think that would work for the asparagus as well as far as a winter cover to start over with Debian option I prefer use organic materials for that simply since you get plenty of air and moisture penetration in no one of that one other critically important things in soil that we rarely talk about his oxygen and one of the ways that oxygen gets into the soil ironically is after heavy rainfall when the soil is saturated and that water moves through the soil profile it creates a vacuum behind at the polls in fresh air and I I I don't know whether the tarp would inhibit that but I have been that's a good opportunity to use on your things like the user or straw or first cutting hater or some other organic material and I just getting back to that as far as I mean I don't know on my personal operation I haven't found that excessive mulching holds back the weeds at all we just come right through it and it's more of a hassle to lead and manage them than it was in the beginning so I don't know I don't know why it doesn't work for me but to put ID but Mandeville homeowner in the south that stuff just decomposes like crazy and then you're back in your dealing with mulch and you know it you can get on anything and then we did so as a challenge I found it up Bermuda yelling as well a lot of things are just great but there's a lot of things that can be done on the home scale that are more challenging when you're trying to do it on a commercial scale know the volume of mulch can be a challenge expensive okay we need to move on just because of time so let's talk about pass and you know that's a big topic let's first start with the ad pass that a big past mean large pass dear what do we do it dear cousin the black was at the Black Hills health education Center we move the farm today filled that had a herd of deer that live in this build for fifteen years order and is over hundred had her and we put up a nine foot deer fence and your Johnson like it when their neighbor jumped if it was your beats wouldn't be good for them so I lived out there a slip in my car out there made in an unpleasant place for them for weeks and that mitigated only new to the new farm or at now before I planted anything I put up an eight foot deer fence and have had absolutely zero problems dear in a place where everyone warned me I was and had your problems to the fact that I the first precaution for me was to put the fence up before there is ever anything there they really wanted our new there was anything there there were no lines was a was a very strategic new for me secondly I was asleep the deer for now since I was a question and get out of basically echo of what Larry said when we established our place the first thing that we did was erect the fence and disrupt those patterns of travel we debated the fence with those who weaves electric fence and ours is only about seven or half to eight feet tall but we debated the fence with some aluminum foil in an timber and I gave them a very unpleasant experience and we been there five years now in the following winter season starts right about now oftentimes will will will get Ruby deer in the neighborhood that may decide to tutor are aware that the fences there and occasionally will get one in the fall but it's our very rare circumstance and it never caused any any damage on the farm so I would say if it's possible at all to dissuade the deer before that they know there's something there because they will easily go over a ten unit twelve foot fence if there's something desirable on the other side and of and growing sweet potatoes at heartland I know that we had fences that were ten half feet tall the deer were accustomed to choose to the area before we put the fence up and we planted sweet potatoes out there when you're I had no idea the deer could eat so much sweet potato vine that they basically decimated about two acres of sweet potatoes so it is a problem that take very seriously also make good friends with your neighbors that are dear headers we invite our neighbors to come over and your pest control for us and remember that deer are terrorists they're all trained by Al Qaeda they're not hungry they simply want to destroy our food supply is to be considered as such no one outside of my garden your beautiful and we enjoy them and we love to watch them and market them but that date they truly are terrorists I want to make up like here for Geisinger 's dog this dog are you internationally works more on on a smaller scale farm where you are not having acres were dog can't smell some of the midfield but you know in a slow and also we went to James farm up in Québec and he has a dog and he doesn't have any fences over there and that he's like a good dog given some dog food especially one like a dog called that you have yeah I mean these guys and especially Oklahoma our biggest issue right now is not dear its armadillos and boy can they go off it now learns some find a hole in your greenhouse in a good dead armadillo in any of the dogs buried but other than that you know they keep him away and he's a great dog and they were great hunters and great protectors of the garden so on where you don't have to spend immediately on offense a good dog but you know will chase deer in the close area of your gardens keep close your house I would think that would be quite effective dogs are not a hundred percent effective like offense but they can be very effective in what we have done is put an underground fence around our main garden area and give give a border for them to patrol so they they literally just patrolled the fields and said you know fences have a downside and that is maintaining along them so with an underground fence you don't have that but I have to you know sometimes seriously and sometimes there on the other side of the bar and so is not to be a hundred percent effective but they are very effective and another kind of fencing I would like to just mention is the black night sensing that seven and a half feet tall that's what we use and in its portable so we just use eight-foot deep posts with an electric bill yellow electric wire insulators on the top that we just hang the fence on it comes down and kind of goes out at the bottom it's not the way the company recommends you know they want you to put in 4 x 4 posts since they get down that it has been very effective for us and then we just we only fence those crops that we know dear below sweet potatoes beets they go for carrots some carrot tops strawberries that's that's strawberries what else being green beans okay that yacht if they're hungry enough they'll go for most anything but if they've got a lot else around they definitely prefer some crops over others were really in the forest so we had a terrible time of the year but we finally euro at one last ten years what we have trouble with his ago so we took a eight foot high dear friends with power poles got off there were at least eight feet above ground Woodberry fencing but women we take the three quarters recorder netting take that up I put extension brackets on the top of these polls and I put up continues wire around their and hang this a net letter loopback down over and had also stopped the raccoons I don't know do you ever have trouble raccoons they are they are thicker than mice were we are I would've been an night nice to take a Paul of you all about your specific insect problems we obviously don't have time for all them so I'm just in a raise one which worked we have a challenge with the net 's cucumber beetles I'd like to hear from some of the rest of you how you deal with cucumber beetles I would like to say with any the first place to start with any of the problems is healthy plants soil amending the proper soil amendment where the plan is healthy vigorous and mineral densities high sugar levels are up in the seer bugs would prefer something else that's the first place to start with with all of the and my estimation I mean I didn't say this first because retirement dear dear don't seem to care about that so much yeah after that most people would probably disagree with me but I share that's a good concept to have it sometimes they can get pretty greedy and I agree with what Larry said that in a healthy plants is as you are your first line of defense but I want to dispel a myth there are a lot of people that advocate that if you have the right soil balance of microorganisms and healthy plants that you won't have problems with pests that that's an absolute mess I've never seen not to be to be true it is helpful to impart resistance to those pass notes with the help the plants doing also what little damage they sustained the overcome more easily than a week implant but simply dealing with the soul alone as I can be the solution one of the techniques that we've used really successfully for the past three years I'm really happy to be able to share this with you I haven't just I haven't had to treat any insect problems for three years on the form and it's because we use a a a principle of trap cropping and in fact a West Virginia University is so excited about the results that they seen on our place about working with one of the extension service people on it actually investing some money this year to do some of some long-term studies on trap cropping for using various plants and trap cropping if you're unfamiliar with it is basically the use of one of plants to attract the pests away from your desired crop and its the trap crop it so you remember the same family and plan so our trap crop for broccoli for example is a variety of cabbage we found that there is a particular variety of cabbage that the cabbage Looper 's absolutely love and they will go for this cabbage rather than the broccoli and a fully infested cabbage it's a sacrificial plan you drop it in a bucket of soap and didn't kill off the insects but it's worked really effectively for us now with the cucumber beetles that you were talking about we found that there are a couple of varieties of squash the workforce as a trap crop for the cucumber beetles and also for cucumber beetle there is a repellent that we've had some success with this isn't to be used on the plan but around the base of the plant and that is mixing a couple tablespoons of powdered sulfur with about two and a half ounces of insecticidal soap for now not insecticidal soap is not to kill the insect is just interior and an household and that the powdered sulfur and suspension by the insects don't like that acidic environment and during the time that those cucumbers are germinating some of that soul from the surface of the soil as oxidizing slightly as it's creating little episode to make an seem to to detect that end and it works somewhat as a repellent but you don't want to Sprint on the plants just around wireless the insecticidal soap by use of the labeled rate which is usually two and a half ounces per gallon and now include two tablespoons of powdered sulfur per gallon and just mix that up thoroughly and sprayed around the base of the plant most insects do not like an acidic environment they don't like sulfur they don't like spider mites also are fairly easy to repel with sulfur but by spring it on the ground instead of the plants you protect your plan from the federal toxic effects of sulfur and especially their young plants I can be significant it can burn ways quite easily yeah I can agree with both you guys in the sink and I'll might share some ice of my garden that when I come I feel crops lazy and pretty protective for same-sex go but in regard to cucumbers document reveals we grope for my cucumbers for market we got to come to not desert because it works both ways but we decided to you to transpire cucumbers from the greenhouse and then we trust the applicant and lanky thirty oh seven timing with my later the lien of doing are scaled on a large scale United I came in what I would do a large-scale week end up for this but our transplant mix which is a liquid reservoir the plant and at that time we went ahead and plant seeds writing that in the in the field through the plastic mulch and then will that will cover with the fabric and then at fabric what would govern as much as five acres with ever so that we put exam week yummy something picture will achieve something by season on a hundred feet wide and twelve feet long and you can shoot that thing just you just QuickTime and just let the and has those then that protects if you get a quick and given right-of-way than the Beatles and get in and of the gives us the plants are like a greenhouse on either to the loans they were way ahead of aphids do so that is the monthly pull off these can get in and then were just doubled when going in with a cover spray weaves a mix of covers breakout using industry cross we used would have to deal with Robert Watson featuring more galling moth single sanctuary we've been using him of murdering peaches would mean using firm on confusion which using that scientists you know us and we have given this with us on the other bugs that were using rather using up confusion you somewhat if you want to the theater oil which is complex in the same way that confuses the above receptors and will will cover thriller that was another step we use in our water which is grew we have a if you want to know what we do we over it we use or lose we use here guard we use the past we used us another materials and therefore use them for worms are for the park partly to cover specifically that's how we deal with that just by the time there were up and running or weighing it and then was taken and then we run we run a sassy can't help you know the books get can get bad but we have at times usually were done by the time we get are often in network would try to get in early get out his later generations you like to come up with you real in the spring when they first come out if you share share the first two leave your God in a linear you're doing what you are you I do I mean she reveals a bit of a problem for us in the past because a whole healthy big plan huge plants that could be ten feet long and a day their wilted down like that so I think it's good to try to benefit to keep her from dying small but you can Beatles can knock down big plants like that bacterial wilt the Syrian welt on some of these things and I I think in this input above plug-in here for something that Sean Slidell which is doing the soil fertility thing over there you're really not yes they do scarring on the plant but really the biggest fear that I have computer beetles that the killed whole plant like that but it's not then that's killing it it's their carrier of these diseases and knowing how these diseases flow within the plant is a critical aspect of that he actually recommends applying at an initial rate he told me I don't misquote him but I want to say ask him later I say numbers of minimum exactly but abuses as a mite which is a biologically once gets in the soil it's a biologically available form of silica and silica is known to actually be used as a plan as a blocker for us stopping some of these types of bacteria and viruses within the plant and preventing them from spreading to the rest are the plant so quick testimonial now this is the first year I used it and we had excess of salt levels in our plants this year and we lost all three crops but we found out that it was to salt because he start leaching after that in the plants came back beautifully beautifully but even to all that stress with the salt and all this kind of stuff going on on we did not lose one plan to bacterial wilt for Sambo and we had to cover Beatles and their goal wore lots of them is actually the aphids that we lost the plants do not too none of them died because of bacterial welt and I was really incredible to me because unlike theirs Q cameras in here I should be losing plants but we didn't lose one and so you know giving the plant some mechanisms you know silicon is even consider to plan your trip from they don't even test for it most places I don't even know the place that does test for it but you know there are elements that we don't even know about yet that were exploring into that could be pre- crucial to some of these some these aspects so some thing to consider I forgot to mention one thing in my covers Reyes which is maybe a couple things we use around which is a kaolin clay which is reflected if they feel like like our cover but what after the covers off with Bremen are completely white before the fruit comes on so you don't want to get out for a visit or get off but that just reflects the lighting seems like it or repel and letting the reflecting a it's hard because I know there's so many more questions than the wiki we can take let's take is this the insect question is the A's might you speak of how do you apply that there is a there's a powdered form and is a granular form that I think the sticker that is there is a wood for the call it enjoys the sticky part whatever exists on one of its cul-de-sac anyways it's appellate enough with a bind it went on and I applied three hundred pounds per acre I'm only doing one something get to understand this when you're when you're when you're working with a small amount of acreage what like I am not one seventh of an acre in your getting you know Lewis grounded out you know twenty thousand per acre which I think is that per one seven seven acre which know you're looking at one hundred you have the money to invest in your soil to do a lot to invest a lot more in your soil quality and health than other people do so if your biggest telco work on those rates you'd need you just can't afford that but a small-scale you can and that's what that's what I applied it and then just to maintain it a hundred pounds every year is what I'm going to be doing on you know I is that gunshot do we really know you know you can wonder but that's a member to try other okay any last I just would would say one of the reasons that worse you get a healthy plant like Bob said United and mitigate pest pressure you're not enough leaving weeds because your proper so balanced that things are going to grow up to have healthy soil is changer weed spectrum blood pressure the plant grows in its proper rate will generally outgrow we are blood pressure and in you you may hence if you have a healthy crop is growing at a proper rate is not in the ground as long and it's growing fast enough disorder outgrow most of the lead pressure that's been my experience and the reality is and we were in the Black Hills we do not have balanced soil though we had over mineralization the biggest issue we were facing their and we would have grasshoppers and everybody would come to market in the grasshoppers had eaten everything they had for most of their plans and we had a one-out walk there like a wave of grasshoppers parting the Red Sea as I walked in they were eating our plans one thing we haven't mentioned we prayed we pray daily for the garden and not his name I hope everybody institution and so Jones forget that you have promised us men thank you for bringing that out okay what I need some help in London for fools they eat all our root vegetables I don't know what to do try everything dogs are good for holes you just have to weigh the Deb Bennett you know they'll get the polls but digging a dig for them so I we haven't figured that one out as far as benefit versus risk okay I got called out on this one my wife salt level problems forming last year I was out of the sustainable preparedness Expo and Spokane and Seattle and while I was away my wife undertook to talk with some of our neighbors about what we should do about her holes and their suggestion unanimously was getting a cat now we've always avoided that because my entire families were allergic to cats and not up and not particularly fond of them but there was a stray that came along shortly after the told this by the senior folks and senior center next door within fifteen minutes mom promised them that she would pray about it and that the next Ray Kathy came along she would take that happened fifteen minutes later so I came home and I was proud owner of the other cats and I have known that cats can be effective for this and frankly I'm it was an answer to prayer because we were having some significant problems with rules and parts of our garden and since we've had that count only one cat and are our cats name her name is Bob tissues Bob Scott and Kyle Ishii hasn't been trained she was she was going in a few weeks old when we got her she hasn't been trained but we don't love letter inside she is an outdoor cat but I have to say here that I believe that the reason it's effective is the wisdom of the old-timers but more than that it was prayer and this aspect of praying for our crops is really our first and foremost line of defense do not neglect that because everything else that you hear and that we say today is is is useless unless you seek the assistance of heavenly agencies we heard earlier too about the importance of orderliness in our gardens and I think that is also very important so that we have those heavenly agencies in cooperation with us and one other thing with prayer is when you go to market in people saying this is the most amazing food I've ever tasted what you do you have a perfect opportunity to witness you say we prayed for it and that that's an incredible you give the glory to God okay we've got a few minutes left for diseases let's just hear his shout out from the congregation I'll squash bugs that's not a disease but now I I understand we we need to talk about squash bugs but we don't have time Southern blight okay yes okay and and let me just say back to squash bugs you know we are can have more time some laws in the state tomorrow I guess it's this afternoon more time for questions and answers more general just you know things you wanted to hear that you haven't heard yet so we can maybe address some of those so who wants to deal with I don't know either of this speaks to your particular issue but it also speaks to all issues that we face in the garden in terms of both diseases and pests you know we've been programmed to think that we find a problem in our garden what we need is the nuclear weapon that zeros and what we need is the nuclear weapon that zeros in an erratic it's that problem and that's really a very convoluted way of looking at the problem we have to see things as a three sided of the situation that all has to come together in order to have problems with disease and only one of those is the pathogen the other two sides are the environment for the pathogen in our host plant and we have opportunities for managing the host and the environment to the disadvantage of the disease that has to be considered before we reach for the sprayed I'll therefore reaching for something to eradicate the disease itself that means that we've neglected to do some work on the other sides of that triangle and the reality is that with most of the fungal pathogens is you're going to happen the South here at you start on a treadmill of treatment for those problems third they're going to get worse and worse you know the effect of sin in this world is all around us and one of the most serious ways that it's affecting us right now the most people are absolutely oblivious to is the fact that just as we see an increase in in new diseases of humanity Ebola for example we are seeing a whole new explosion of mutations in some of the pathogens for our plants to their five new strains of Phytophthora and fast things that are going through the East Coast right now that affect our potatoes in our tomatoes some of these are very vigorous and they're going to get worse not better so what we need to to do is reset our thinking a little bit to understand that if you're having continual problems with a particular disease look at things like plant spacing plant timing your your irrigation methods that the very plants themselves how to select the right varieties that might be resistant to some of those things rather than just looking for the immediate solution for -year-old of how to spread the other thing that I want to say is this can be a pretty comprehensive study because are a lot of things that influence a plant susceptibility to disease and if you're having problems like that we really need to know more information just as a doctor does when you visit him if you walk into the doctor 's office and say Doctor got a headache is not interview me know whether you got a brain tumor you're just dehydrated without knowing some history some background and some examination too so don't take your disease or your press problems as one-size-fits-all it's a comprehensive view that has to fall within the parameters of what I call this disease triangle force to really come to long-term solutions adventure not relying on just weaponry how to put forth to three people here follow the health message trying to follow the health message is sent that way preventative is our first line of defense such as it with our plans let's would bother saying anything we have preventative measures and we should start their okay I any other well I mean what they're kind of saying is you don't you don't focus on the specific diseases so I think that's that's wise counsel no I don't always know the disease that's that's attacking my plan and honestly I don't spend a lot of time trying to figure out exactly which one it is I'm just trying to figure out how to keep it from happening again Allen you have something just a quick cut of something that I've done this year and exhibits is this cute crop is just another in my bonnet for too long but you know Lord knows what he's doing and in this experience but it's you know what when I'm dealing with a problem especially truck because the thing is that people like why you take a soil test it's so expensive and it's like well if I can take it now and prevented for the rest of my great experience that the value to me so don't be afraid to invest in your education by taking these types of tests but this year I took when we run started running into issues with our with our cucumbers on first I took a soil analysis okay do I have all my all my ducks in a row okay so you eliminate that factor or at least it's within range is that I shouldn't be having this problem then from there on you take a leak analysis which on the one knows when I'm not going to exactly how to take that so we look at the lease analysis and if the law so masterfully analysis my levels in the slower authorization are concerned with hot were very high in potassium work were going okay but a leaf analysis they were deficient so now you know that okay it's in the soil but it's not getting delete and you know what elements to zero in on so then we started zeroing in say okay which elements are affecting which elements here and so you start doing some math which is what they're talking about in the soil fertility class to know what could possibly be causing this year if on that point this is after three crops I did this for each crop just trying to okay what numbers are dealing with here and it was uniform between all crops and then one guy I was talking to said well have you taken a soluble salts test on your soil at the dollar seventy test but they don't have it on Kim these tests or Perry's I don't know why that it's not part of their standard package but you have to pay for it separately and anyways we zeroed in on it guess what was causing well we put it this way so we think is causing the problem I now never say you know what it is because you might think it is my not being about what we need what we think it is right now is that I bought a compost I put thirty five tons per acre I'm only due to symptom makers oats not thirty five tons I purchased but anyways put it on their this compost actually had a hundred and fifty fifteen hundred parts per million of so soluble salts and at those rates in a greenhouse with increased decomposition we took a soluble salts testing our levels were up that basically the nutrition can be fine but that salts too high to be pulling from your plan is happy to be on the newer base of floor space compost which are not there with them in salt or whatever why but see what I'm saying it's a progression of elimination here and I thought I'd gone about God about it and start watering in these branches came right back up and it's like leaching okay excessive watering energy macros like okay now we know something 's going to lease better here and just keep moving on that way but that's kind of process that I've been going through I don't know that's the best but that's what I did I would just put in a plug here for Bob Gregory 's video seminar course you know he has a training program I think he's can be talking about when is that okay Saturday night I think yes but he also she can go to his place has DVD series what is it nine how many discs six of this ten hours or something that goes into more depth some of the things that we can't go into here so I think you have those available here so that's that's investment in your education well I think we are just about out of time for this session I hope we've answered a few questions I wanted to back to the southern blight there is a product we've used quite effectively in the name has just escaped to me it's it's a book that's a biological wind when it comes back to me I'll go give it to you because we have found when we retrench the soil with that at at first planting yeah yet stars within a action of eight that said act ten of eight when we have been proactive with that it has been very effective for us if we put it on after the fact it doesn't seem to work the same eight you know we had problems with my mind going blank here in a lettuce square ten you had problems with glare tinea and when we drench the beds at planting didn't have those problems but when when the plants were already up and growing and then we drenched it didn't seem to be as effective so that's just our personal observation I'm not putting forth the science but action of a post- glare tinea it will start as just that the plants will just start dying day they rot at the base of the plan and then it spread you innovate in our own right away when we mix our trust that makes before we put the CD in and you found it effective preventative it is more preventative we haven't really young we've had trouble in the past we've usually rainy days before transplanting out and we got a keeper Lance in the house and we can keep dry that's one thing maybe dinner disease but so as we do I just encourage everyone these these biological things are nice and inert in there good but wise are not already in soil water and there always these checks and balances within the stump I would just encourage all you are my things on many farms we tried to get appointments like I can figure this out so users enough okay because we have to do step to prevent from losing our shirts would never stop pursuing the true issue because Mrs. light has a statement where she says a diseases within nature and since this is a paraphrase not an exact quote but is nature trying to correct nature 's laws that have been transgressed okay so there are laws up in the systems even though we don't might not know them yet but I've I've strongly believe that we need to pursue what those laws are tried figured out because there is a real issue what is happening it's not just is there is no always have this trouble there are things within the system that there's a root issue to I strongly believe that cannot encourage everyone to continue pursuit of weight where to close the session hair but I just want to put in the apply for agriculture of in relation to Alan you know I want to say too much here but some win when we first met the silage there the parents came to us and work out like we don't know what to do with this kid see all all he can think about is agriculture and you know these you just eats and drinks and sleeps agriculture in on they were trying to do more traditional education I guess you could say at home and you know my response was price Lord you know this let him let him loose and you can see I think that although he may not know everything because none of us do he's learning and he's probably learned a lot more and then will knows he been in a more formal schooling this media was brought by audio errors a website dedicated to spreading God 's word through reading seven audio and much more I would like to know more about our universe is like the more so than please visit www. audio person or


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