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Moses, Egypt, and the Lie of the Serpent

Michael Hasel

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Michael Hasel

Director of the Institute of Archaeology at Southern Adventist University

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Conference

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  • September 20, 2008
    2:00 PM
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heavenly father what a privilege it is to worship and to fellowship this afternoon as we enjoy the Sabbath together here in college Dale bless our time and our experience may your words speak to us in May we also be able to see that your word is reliable today we thank you for your love for us and for bringing us together to this place in Jesus name amen I've got three topics that I'm sharing and you guys are free I know you can and move probably two different places on different different venues there's a lot of great seminars is always the problem being a presenter as you wish you could hear some of your colleagues getting presentations elsewhere so feel free to move about and around what would I deal here with the issue of archaeology and does someone have a program for the exact title think I got it down this is of course that's the topic they are but some that the name of the series is archaeology science and the Bible many people when they find out I'm a Christian say wait a minute didn't you say you are an archaeologist how do those two things work together and and there's a lot of challenges out there today in the field of biblical studies in the field of archaeology as people on all different levels are questioning the historical sources and wondering whether those historical sources are valid today were to go to ancient Egypt and Egypt is a fascinating country I've been there many many times and a country filled with ancient temples a country filled with the fascinating pyramid 's structures that were built we don't know by whom or how long it took some estimate perhaps it took a hundred and twenty our hundred and twenty thousand slaves twenty years to build one peer amid were not sure but we certainly are our confronted with these huge buildings that that Moses would have already seen that Abraham sought before Moses Long before and that had been existing in that country for many years and you may not realize this but until the Eiffel Tower was built in France in the eighteen hundreds the great peer amid was the tallest building in the world so you think about the tallest buildings today and you think about the monumental architecture of Egypt these were sophisticated educated people who were building these structures many years ago I mean how along with the Sears Tower last would at last four thousand years how long would with some of the other tall buildings in the world they've now you know gone beyond the Sears Tower I recently was reading some of the new skyscrapers that are being planned and places like Beijing and in Dubai in different parts of the world so the pyramids fascinate people and thousands of millions of tourists come to Egypt every year to see these places the Hittites are mentioned in the Bible and mentioned Egyptian texts over twenty eight times in the question for many years was by Bible scholars and by historians the Hittites or mention the Bible but we don't have any record of them anywhere outside the biblical record did they even existed that people even exist it wasn't until nineteen oh six that the Turks were working in the site near the site of Leticia and they are they uncovered the capital city of this ancient civilization not only the city but entire library was uncovered of cranial form tablets and and I was just there again this summer this is an central church the highest of the sideman sprawls over many many different places or I should say bills it's a huge site you have to take a bus to get from one end to the other guy I mean not not like some of the other cities in the ancient near East this was a vast capital city of an empire that rivaled Egypt during the time of mess with and during the time of Moses and during the new Kingdom so you can see here are some of the temples multiple temples they worship the pantheon of gods later on this afternoon to talk about the gods and goddesses of ancient Israel and the Pantheon and how a religion in Israel was affected by the surrounding worship but again it wasn't until that discovery was made and then recently as Egyptology has taken off we now know that the Hittites were major people that were confronted by the Egyptians as well there mentioned in Egyptian texts last year I was invited to London England to interview for a National Geographic special on the Hittites and they flew me over I got off the plane ends at six o'clock and by eight o'clock I was interviewed for three hours in the studio they are and then spent the weekend and then flew back home and it was all about the Hittites went to the Egyptians say about the Hittites well they depict them fighting against the Egyptians the Egyptians are always winning they're always on the on the battlefront and today we know that these people not only existed but that they were major adversary in the major empire so sometimes when we don't have evidence it doesn't mean that the evidence doesn't exist or that the people don't exist sometimes silence in the archaeological record in historical sources does not mean that their elbows those those Sunday nations most cities did not exist archaeologists every year are working in the field and uncovering of monuments from the past and new discoveries are made every single year see the Hittites how do we know that there they had types and how do we know that this is the city of Kent well it tells us right there the name is right on the city it's the city of Kadesh located on the Iraqis River in Syria and here we have the fallen one of cocci you see him fall in their see the man down at his hands gave Egyptian Egyptian up is of course a pictographic as well as a phonetic language and here we have the fallen one of Hoxie and here we have the Hittites depicted defending this particular city so again these nations that the Bible talks about our real nations with real kings we have a whole dynasty of kings ruling over the inside Empire and today we can know a lot more about them thanks to the science of archaeology but what about the ancient Egyptian scribes here we see some female scribes copying on papyrus of various manuscripts what do they have to say about other events in the Bible one of the most critical events today that is questioned by more people probably than any other event in history is the period of the Israelites sojourn in Egypt their slavery in Egypt the Exodus and the conquest most scholars have written that entire episode out of history and an end that may surprise some of us well don't the Egyptians mention the Israelite Israelites in their text don't think if this was such a monumental event that that we read about in several books of the Bible from Exodus all the way through Deuteronomy and Moses was the one who wrote those first five books of the Bible shouldn't we have more and this is not a logical world particularly in Egypt concerning this and my answer is yes and no first of all the evidence may exist we just haven't found it yet because we only have excavated a fraction of a fraction of a fraction of what could be excavated in these countries I worked at several sites in the Middle East some sites have been excavated for twenty five years by two hundred volunteers and archaeologists working there every single year but less than one or two percent of the site is actually excavated at the end of that quarter of a century the metal has to be published there's a lot of work that needs to be done so perhaps we haven't found the evidence yet that's one possibility the second possibility is and this is more likely in my thinking the Egyptians would never have recorded the events of Moses and the Exodus because if you look at Egyptian history and if you look at all of the Egyptian text that we have and I've studied all the military tax of the new Kingdom that was my dissertation topic you do not find one single time where the Egyptians mention that they were defeated by another nation not only that you study the Hittite annals and you don't find a single time where they could entice our describing a defeat by another nation this study the Assyrian records you see victory and success was tied to religion just as it was is in the Bible and these people in their records on the temple walls where the gods are interacting with the king they never admitted defeat their seats yes there sits right up there is some of you want to squeeze a little bit more together so other people that are coming in consent that would be great thank you you never admit defeat in these places why because it submitting the fifteenth of your God Instinet 's admitting the defeat of your ideology of your religion and so the Egyptians now the battle of we just talked about guess what Ramses the second plasters that particular battle against the net sites all over his temples and he asked what it was doing fine he claims victory but we have another text that I just saw the Istanbul are two logical Museum the summer in Turkey is from the capital city of God to shine guess what the types claim they claimed military victory at the same battle as well and is this so unfamiliar today even we declared victory several years ago on a rock but the Iraqis probably would have a different view of the whole thing they're still fighting a something so you know it depends on the perspective they would not be caught dead in knitting defeat and the defeat that they incurred as a result of being it if of the Israelites and Moses was a defeat that struck at the heart of their belief system every single one of those plagues was directed against another God but having said all of that concerning the Exodus and Moses I like this afternoon in the time that we have and we have thirty five minutes on the news through this so that's good golf right over the top of your adults will get double that of an idea where to look at the biblical evidence for wear when the Exodus took place then where do they go back to Egypt on the basis of the biblical chronology and try to figure out when did this take place in Egyptian history and see whether the story that we have in Exodus concerning Moses and concerning a princess finding Moses whether that fits into what was happening in the dynasty of Egypt at that time that make sense there is no direct connection here because the Bible doesn't mention the name of Ferrell doesn't just as Darrell the Bible doesn't mention the name of the Princess that rescued Moses from the bulrushes in the Nile it just as the Princess but there is other evidence from Egypt that helps clarify some of that the fact is that the Egyptians to mention Israel Israel is mentioned in Egyptian text for the first time outside of the Bible and history this text found today in the Britain in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo is a steal at about eight feet tall and six so on reach up to eight feet here eight feet tall and it documents a campaign first against Libya and then against Canaan by a certain Farrell Burnett and notice all the entities that he names to have defeated to hand you that's that's the territory of Libya hockey as the Hittites there they are my name came in another important name that we know from the Bible asked the lines and you may remember that name one of the five Philistine cities mentioned in the Bible many times desert I excavated with Harvard and Ashkelon is a wonderful site went in the Mediterranean they are need to go body surfing during Europe during your breaks down Mediterranean desert another important Canaanite site that I excavated with the University of Arizona and yet no one up by the Sea of Galilee and finally Israel notice that Israel is describable bit differently than the others a seated man woman over three strokes for the plural this is the Egyptian way of saying this is a group of people not a territory not a city interesting and then finally courtroom which is another alternate alternative name for Canaan what's interesting to me is the name that you see here are names that we also know from where the Bible and if the Egyptians knew about these names in the second millennium BC in these places and this people what does it say about the Bible networks as well doesn't right now completing a study of a hundred and twenty names throughout the Mediterranean world mentioned in Egyptian texts over four hundred year period and I'm finding that the Egyptians are very precise at how they describe these people places and polities in their sphere of influence it tells us something about the accuracy of the biblical text Israel's also shown much possibly we don't have an inscription you're going with it but at the release of Karnak that mirror the activities on this particular taxiway at Israel and notice they are not living in a city there out in the open which is interesting because the text indicates there are people not connected necessarily with the territory this time that number next to steal it dates very clearly at the top of the steel it to the fifth year of King were not Burnett was the thirteenth son of Ramses the second the longest reigning Pharaoh in Egypt and were not was an old man of well I don't want to offend anybody he was an elderly gentleman by the age of sixty six when he came to the throne his father was the longest reigning Pharaoh went over two hundred sons by many whites of course and that particular Pharaoh who sired all those signs had twelve sons die out on him before Burnett Deborah got to the throne and the only rain for ten years but twelve oh nine BC the first mention ever of Israel Israel is already at this time not in Egypt but is listed among the cities in where Canaan very important this means that prior to this time the Exodus would've had to take place right because Israel at this time is already in Canaan all right there's a couple of seats appear on you monkeys over just one I write a couple seeds of fear and if you guys want to squeeze a couple seats over here as well so by twelve oh nine BC that provides the date by which time the exit is needed to take place so we go back let's look at the Bible because the Bibles or source of great information over this the Bible tells us in first Kings chapter six verse one very important bit of information and it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after the sons of Israel came out of the land of Egypt in the fourth year of Solomon 's reign over Israel Solomon rained a lot what later than the notice right so this is talking not about Moses as much as it is talking about Solomon what happened in the month of the sandwiches the second month he began to build the house of the Lord so what is this text about in first Kings about the building of the Temple in Jerusalem but the building of the Temple is dated back to something that occurred earlier four hundred and eighty years after what after the Israelites came out of Egypt so four hundred and eighty years after the Exodus is when the temple was built that gives us a datum point to the time of the Exodus because we know exactly when the temple was built how do we know that because finally in the book of Kings we have other kings mentioned besides we is like kings we have king-size check mentioned and we know he was Shashank the first session of the first rain in nine twenty five BC that's when he attacked Jerusalem actually and we extrapolate back from his rain and we all that temple was built then around nine hundred and seventy nine hundred and sixty six BC somewhere in that area now some scholars look at this person I go back to the first part of the basic four hundred and eighty years that's a really round number and if it was four hundred and eighty one that could be a little bit more accurate four hundred and eighty is too round this is not really a reliable number is if we can determine that in all four thousand years or three thousand years after this was written now now there's another element here though they say they say these are multiple generations eighty twelve generations of of forty years or so but notice what the second part of the verse says that not only gives the day than that the year it does what the month of said that's a lot more particular than simply saying four hundred and eighty one or four hundred and eighty three right so we have some specificity here and so if we use that kind of chronology and we'd say Solomon 's Temple was built around nine seventy someone put it in nine sixty six we could extrapolate then that four hundred and eighty years before that before the building of the Temple is worth a place so again using a timeline based on the Bible nine hundred and seventy you go back for an eighty years the Exodus took place around fourteen fifty and then forty years Moses was in the wilderness in exile after slaying the Egyptian and then the Bible tell any tells us he was eighty when he finally came back to Egypt to ask for the freedom of God 's people so he was born forty years prior to that around fifteen thirty BC according to convention commensal chronologies and elegant to take what is stated in the Bible not in terms BC but in terms of the date of the Exodus were to go back into ancient Egyptian history now and look and see what was taking place who was raining around fifteen thirty BC what was happening around fourteen ninety BC know what was going on at that time and we come to the eighteenth Dynasty Moses was born during the reign of time most of the third the eighteenth Dynasty was the golden age of Egypt this was the time when you have kings like the seventeen eighteen -year-old king tots ever hear of them he was at the end of the dynasty and he only rained for a few years yes the smallest tomb in the Valley of the Kings you have other famous gangs like most of the third and cut most of the first but the first part of the dynasty there was a major crisis it didn't come as a about from an attack from the Hittites or some kind of invading force from the outside it was an internal family crisis because you see the kings of the first part of the eighteenth Dynasty were not producing male errors by the chief queen and what that meant was that when they die there was no legitimate successor that could take over the throne of Egypt it always went through the dynastic line notice what Professor William Murnane from University of Memphis wrote in the authoritative anchor Bible dictionary the first major crisis was what dynastic involving tensions within the well family which festered over the next three generations women continued to hold the position of chief queen at the expense of the non- wild women who did what who bore the king 's sons so not well when and where the king 's sons but there was a whole crisis in terms of who was to become King next and so forth were to come back to this in a moment so there sat most of the first rain from fifteen thirty one when was Moses born fifteen thirty about okay and his chief queen is off the mess but they have no male heirs when when cut most of the first dies they do have one daughter and her name is had Jepson Hatshepsut is a famous person we'll talk about her some more AdSense that is the daughter I'm using the blue here to indicate the well line okay but winds up most of the first her father dies Hatshepsut is left without there is no real clear male heir so what happens is well we'll talk about what happens in a moment it's interesting here that in the in the biblical text Pharaoh commands all his people what every son who is born you are to cast into the Nile this would've been the Pharaoh took most of the first if we follow the biblical chronology and it's interesting that he's ordering this in the middle of a time when he is himself facing a dynastic crisis is having plenty of daughters but no male heirs kind of interesting now we can just point that out it doesn't have to necessarily find the best but notice every Sunday was born to you you're the captain of the Nile and every daughter you are to keep alive well when taught most of the first guys a secondary wife would not fret produces the error that most of the second was really a half-brother or I should say a stepbrother to Hatshepsut and Hatshepsut marries her stepbrother this is not unusual not only in Egypt but it also is not unusual in an European olive oil families and dynastic history as you well know they were all connected you know so that the Catherine the great of Russia was the first cousin of the Prince of Wales in England during that final period of the of the Russian dynasty so here she marries up most of the second goal is a very sickly individual and who only according to most Egyptologists may be rains two to three years and I'm sorry that's the only picture I have of tuples in the second but when he dies that's his money when he dies the question comes again or is going to be the male heir of this new Dynasty Dynasty eighteen which we call it today in Egypt who is going to take over the kinship that the white line is to accept such but here we have taught most of the second continuing so again to a secondary wife I set I set in this case we have a young John King some think he was only two to three years old when his father died not old enough to rule over entire nation like Egypt of course and so what happens is that when taught most of the third comes to the throne Hatshepsut goes into a cold regency within urine talk about with a regency it means there are two kings at Jepson is really the one ruling but taught most of the third also holds the title as the three -year-old and four -year-old as he's growing up within the courts of Egypt is destined to be king eventually but not at that early point in time the problem is that as Hatshepsut continues is no nicer picture of the chaps of their by the way we have a lot of a lot of major statuary and in other kinds of sculpture on Hatshepsut and the Metropolitan Museum two years ago had a wonderful exhibit on Hatshepsut and in a lot of materials from that place they going to this Regency but when cut most of the third does come into the age where he could be king what happens is that Chapter 11 became well he is King he so has the title of king she puts him in charge of the Army 's and send them off as kind of a dangerous thing to do in one sense but if he does that and she continues to reign over Egypt Egyptologist to this day don't know why some think maybe she just got used to power and wanted to retain you know what you think she was the first pharaoh female pharaoh of Egypt think about that for a moment very very different kind of arrangement but she was a very good ruler as far as we can tell and she was one of the greatest builders of that time now that brings us to the question why would an Egyptian princess installers and ask this for years why would an Egyptian princess adopt a Hebrew slave boy that was hidden by his mother in the Nile River could it be could it be that this dynastic crisis could explain that in a little bit around it just called Egypt the gift of the Nile and the Nile was in fact worshiped as a god as many other things were they worshiped nature they worship animals they worshiped everything it seems like that the Nile was key to the belief system of ancient Egypt it was the center of the cosmos the center of their whole ideology the sun rose on one side of the Nile and sank down in the other side of the Nile and so even though they worshiped the God Rob the sun it revolves around the Nile denial would swallowed up at night to give birth to it during the day or the goddess nude what any right notice what it says here and the child grew this is after Moses is given back to his but biological mother the child grew the Bible says and see his biological mother brought him to Pharaoh 's daughter and he became her son Ellen White tells us he was about twelve years old when this happened now what else does it say and she named him hooting Hatshepsut well the Pharaoh 's daughter the Bible tells adjusted but the pharaohs daughter names in notice that it's not Moses his mother that names in twelve years after were this Pharaoh 's daughter that means and what is that because I drew him out of the water is the reason that the Bible gives could it be that Hatshepsut goes back to the palace and says look look at this gift of the Nile has just given to Egypt's we now have an air help help help help how often have you found a baby floating down you know via Kali River here in Tennessee or were organelle the Tennessee River going to Chattanooga I mean it doesn't happen very often does it case so here she finds this baby and she says because I drawn out of the water she names him Moses and most people today who are scholars of understanding ancient languages recognize that Moses is not in Hebrew name originally I know it's it is today with motion is a Hebrew name but in ancient times Moses was not a Hebrew name it was an Egyptian name is found in all of the names that you see here famous names of the famous kings of Egypt you notice that lets put apartment you can recognize a better now but most Ron will say this is kind of a a great later Greek version of rent Ramses is kind of his rumbles actually and most amines in in Egyptian sign-on or descendent of so Ramses is called the descendent of whom rock was thought that the one same thing worked out on went on it means life and online means is another God of the of the Pantheon thought is the God of writing and wisdom and literature he is always shown as an ibex cc is be there please always shown with with the stylus in one hand notice he's writing on this text here so the kings of the eighteenth dynasty were known as as kings who specifically worshiped thought they were the sons of thought Moses is given an Egyptian name but notice when he writes the first five books of the Bible he doesn't put an Egyptian name in front of his name what does that mean because he is the God of the one who is nameless the one at the burning bush instead when Moses asked in which lysate sent me tell than the IM sent you Yahweh the I am it was eleven twenty four says by faith Moses when he became of age refused to be called the son of Pharaoh 's daughter Ellen White tells us that Moses had the highest education he was destined to be the next King of Egypt Bible says he refused that in part of the reason he refused it is that for him to have that field work element to his name for him to have that Egyptian God attached to his name he had to go through all the rituals and become a deep become a deified person himself in order to enter into the kingship of Egypt because the king of Egypt was born by the gods he was Horace incarnate choosing rather to suffer affliction with the people of God and to enjoy the passing pleasures of sin and we know the story Exodus chapter to how Moses when he went grown goes out he sees an Egyptian beating up this slave and what is a daily takes matters into his own hands killed the Egyptian a few days later word has gotten around and Moses fears that he needs to leave he flees before the face of fair Earl is playing before I just or could he be flaying before the face of his rival type most of the third we don't know the answer but it's interesting that this is the dynamics of zapping happening at that time now came about in the course of those many days that the king of Egypt died in the sons of Israel side because of their bondage in your cry for help rose up to God so God heard their groaning and God remembered his covenant with Abraham Isaac and Jacob what were the Israelites doing at this time in Egypt they were making great building the pyramids know the pyramids that are ready been there for hundreds of years they were building with stone what were they building with mudbrick break made with clay and so forth now one of the things that's interesting with this passage is that the king of Egypt is referred to here in this text as he entered the king of Egypt as such upset that so maybe a little bit of a problem but it's really not a problem because adjustment being the first king of Egypt took on masculine titles she was the first female king and she took on masculine titles in her name look at this obelisk it still stands at Karnak today it weighed six hundred times made out of a solid piece of granite that comes from all Swan which is about three hundred to four hundred kilometers to the south was taken up by ship Hatshepsut shows under template dear L barring how that how these obelisks were moved by a whole flotilla of barges and this is what it says on her obelisk which was once covered in gold she made her monument to her father on one who was her father on one is a divine father when was the god of thieves Lord of the thrones of the two lands erecting to him to great obelisks at the August gateway on one grade of Majesty made with Feingold they illuminate the two more like the sun this made for him by the who song of raw or Ray adjuncts he reversed himself herself is what the son of Ray okay I just Cannon and that's one given life like Ray eternally is just one of the Texan woman the size now while this is all going on in Egypt what is happening to the Israelites many scholars for many years but all the Israelites there making break with straw that doesn't make any sense the week builder houses with brick withdrawn the they don't do that in Europe much either so they thought this is strange this is a make any sense to break with straw that must be some kind of an anachronism or mistake in the Bible until we began excavating there and we began to fine-tune paintings like this one showing Asiatics we don't know whether they were the Israelites but Asiatics were they making a making brick and hear the piles of straw that they're using this text to go along with this and other laying out those bricks you don't know who only need this you can read an papyrus on the Stasi one another text from the time of Ramses the second what does it say I'm without equipment there are no people to make bricks and there is no straw in the district this last year I was in Seattle at the professional meetings for the American research Center in Egypt which is the largest Egyptology meeting in North America and I went to a presentation by gentleman who's been excavating at the time of osmosis and later right at the time when Moses was alive in the children of Israel were in bondage they found that the store houses that were built there with mud bricks were built primarily by children between the ages of AIDS and fifteen eight sent they had they had footprints that were still preserved in the ground in the end is not in the sand but in the in the mind as they trampled and made the mud bricks as they took took the material over there and they took photographs and measurements and at the Johns Hopkins university where they have a a children's hospital and they are they they evaluated him and came up with estimates on ages and so forth I thought wow is just the time when the Israelites are building what storehouses in Egypt that connection was made by the scholar giving the presentation but I was thinking and as I was listening on the side here if you go to the Temple of Ramses if you go to the Temple of Ramses you can see both storehouses still today not the ones of the Israelites built this is about two hundred years later but what are they made out of mud brick and it's this is not reconstructed here this is the actual mudbrick as they been excavated and that's my hands either of my watch and silver in the same watch this was two years ago on two thousand and six we took a group of students over and look at the little particles you see the near and I'm pointing to some year this is straw that is still sticking in the brick today because it's such a dry climate it's preserved in those climates and you can see that that was the technique that was used but you don't even have to go to Varanasi and to see this just go up and down the Nile River people are still making bricks the same way they are today as they were making them three thousand five hundred years ago the houses are still being built on the same material you don't want to go to Cairo and you still see apartment buildings made out of mud brick built out of mud brick but still back at Jepson we have only a few minutes left at shots of this amazing builder and Pharaoh of Egypt she was a great builder she builds the Temple of dear Al Bahrain which set the architectural plan for temples were the next four hundred years of Egyptian history this was her mortuary temple and what we find it are more true temper particularly in this corner right here where she has a special temple dedicated to half for there are various temples built in here but Hatshepsut is interacting with the gods they are legitimizing her role as Gerald Egypt and in this particular here's Hawthorne you can see her here up north the cow Goddess you notice the gears on this image face of a woman but the ears of a cow to write how I wonderful and again here is a sure such upset notice which is doing I've never tried this before although I have had milk beforehand should be about same installs a look at this what does this mean it means that she is being suckled by the goddess half for who is her divine mother and if you look here in the front who is hot for being led by one the God of Thebes so this is her divine father this is her divine mother and this is a legitimation scene say I am the divinely appointed and born king of Egypt my wife Rhoda paper for her graduate class down at Emory University last year went through some of the stuff is fascinating see how legitimation is used in Egypt but something amazing takes place we don't know exactly how but there comes a point were Hatshepsut simply disappears from history we don't know if she was murdered we don't know she died we don't know what happened to her but someone begins to erase her image from the temples in Egypt and when you do that you're basically erasing someone not only from the annals of history but from experiencing the afterlife notice the two gods here you recognize this one thought with the Ibis big again and Horace they're pouring on books over the Queen the Queen 's been erased her cartoons were her name appears is not been completely erased so we can tell it's her this is the race in the center here beyond as the symbol of eternal life is being poured over her as she is prepared to enter the afterlife we find that in images throughout here are a some others and images throughout adjustments image is a race not all of them there is one where she is still appearing in notice you stress primarily as a man there complete with a beard this particular instance who did this Egyptologists agree that it was probably cut most of the third finally getting his revenge on his and to Captain suppressed all those years when he should've been the king of Egypt cut most of the third and this is what the Metropolitan Museum of Art 's book said to him just in two thousand and six there was a scholar from the University of Chicago 's Oriental Institute that was contemplating what may have been the cause for Hatshepsut 's demise and what may have been the cause for this saw problem at the end of her reign the interesting thing is that this happens not at the beginning when Hatshepsut disappears from history but twenty years after she is already out of the picture at the very end of taught most of the third 's reign right at the end and this is what Professor Dorman says after fifteen years on the throne that's both his co- regency with the chaplain and his sole regency on his own time it also can have had little to fear by way of challenges to his own legitimacy or comparison with his former coal region the need for the proscription that's the erasure the need for the proscription seems to have arisen toward the end of his reign and to have vanished shortly after Amenhotep the second roller two years before Todd most of the third 's death at least that's his estimate we don't really know the timing and short duration of the attack on Hatshepsut 's image and name suggests was driven by concerns related to what the wild succession and classiest once Amenhotep was securely enthroned it has been suggested that toward the end of time most of the birds life there were two contenders to the wrong one the ski out of the top of side dynastic line of the King himself and the other representing the Aqua five bloodline to which accept such directly belong through her mother the proscription of Hatshepsut widget that have been initiated in order to fix this credit the legitimacy of the rival and you're thinking right now what rival who came back after the burning bush from Sinai Moses what does he do as he comes into the courts of Egypt he asked for his people 's freedom and then he does something amazing the Farrell says Google sent you anyway and who knows maybe that Pharaoh was thought most of the third or maybe it was Amenhotep the second were not really sure but it was his childhood rival titles averted tells you why Moses may have delayed and made excuses to God for going back any right areas he standing in the court of Pharaoh and you just points to his brother and sister Erin do it in error and what are the new cast down the serpent out of this staff and what is it do it turns into a serpent and what is the serpent do it eats all the other staffs of the other magicians that create serpents have you ever looked at an Egyptian what does a half on his four head a cobra serpent using the mask of King thought to show it to you we don't have time to talk about all of this is into most of the birds to miss the serpent that is leaving most of the third his body through the stages of the afterlife the serpent is one of the key deities of ancient Egypt is the protect Robert King and now Moses is basically saying my God through throwing down that staff is more powerful than any serpent that Egypt can produce and of course that was the prelude to tend very vicious plagues beginning with what the Nile and water being turned into blood does that say something about the God that we serve he is powerful but also tells us something about Egyptian history and where all of these stories may fit in do we know for certain that Hatshepsut is the Princess that rescued Moses know but the more I study this period of history and eighteenth dynasty the more the pieces of the puzzle seem to fit in so it it it teaches me anyway as we study the word of God and as we study ancient history and the increasing materials that come out of through archaeology and through these various avenues the more we can have confidence that when the Bible speaks it speaks with authority and speaks with the reality of what is taking place during those times now I have some more slides here that we didn't have time to get into but we have two more presentations one is coming up at just next and that will be on Hezekiah Isaiah and the campaign of Sendak read the king of Assyria to Jerusalem that event take place no other this was this was a little bit speculative today but the next presentation there is no room for speculation we have more corroborating evidence from Nineveh the capital of the Assyrians from lactation the city that was attacked by the Assyrians and from the Bible than any other event in history all of the will converge and it was a fuller picture of that campaign and the the siege of Jerusalem that took place that and then right after that we can have a break again another ten minute break and then we get into the question of the gods and goddesses of ancient Israel we have some really amazing things to share as well so thank you very much any questions I don't hear other people letting out yet but I know some of you wanted to tell the seminars yes yes well again I didn't have time to go into this most of the images in these tombs were actually carved in relief and then beautifully painted what I think happened here with the stick figures is that this is too much utmost of third was prepared very rapidly we don't find this kind of style in any of the other eighteenth Dynasty tombs and so the stick figures to me represent here's a certain again museum in the aunt connects to him look at the altar above the serpent said here the on again being the symbol of eternal life vis-à-vis the these this could be indication William Shea has has argued anyway Doctor Shay that this is an indication that this tomb was prepared very hastily and that perhaps taught most of the third was in fact the Pharaoh who died in the Red Sea and caused his tomb to have to be all shall we say the finishing of the tomb to be accelerated to to receive either the body or a substitute of the body of the king all right I'll let you go if some of you want to stay that's great but this time to switch out and out we will be going to our next presentation which will be on

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