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Logo of AdAgrA 2018: Something Better

3. Market Gardening: How to Meet Your Market Demand

Michelle Lesher Larry Lesher

Conference

Recorded

  • January 17, 2018
    10:45 AM
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How to meet your market demands so we talked about the marketing side of it going to Farmer's Market having a C.S.A. selling to restaurants or host sale Great so now we know. How to sell it but now we need to know how to grow it which is the tricky part. Maybe not tricky but by God's grace he shows us all these things so how do you meet your market demands deciding your reflection. There is going to talk to you about that. So. I said the site in your reflection in the reason a reason I chose to sort of frame it that way I wasn't sure if I wanted to say it that way but I did. What you put out there is a reflection of who you are. And if you're. A follower of Christ it should and should look like that. And quality. Is key. So I wrote quality quantity. Or both. And ideally it's both but in my mind if one of them has to go it's quantity. Because quality. Will go a lot farther the quantities going to come if you do the right thing the Lord has promised he would restore this he would work through us. To heal the lands that's the promise to Israel I accept the promise at face value I accept it as fact and so if I do what I'm called to do I will accept that as fact and so what I'm concerned with is the quality that leaves the farm because what the quality is is a picture or reflection of who I am and I should be reflecting Christ their body agree with that. Their body understand what I mean by that. And so. There's some some basic principles that you want to ask yourself about how you're going to achieve quantity and that is how much land do you have so that can determine how you work that land for me one of the questions that was fundamental for me because she was at work I was the farm I was the farmer I was the Harvester I was the planter I was the bed prep and I did have help but I was there every day a lot by myself and so that's a limiting factor and so we had to look at our limiting factors and be realistic that a good friend when I started farming actually started farming as a partnership with him and another young lady and every year he had this this amazing farm. He says it is so easy to plant a lot of food and you have this huge garden. It is so much work to harvest all that fixed. So you can create a whole lot of work if you don't understand every one of those seeds is going to turn into something that has to be managed. If you see what I'm saying I did so I'm going to think about. Ability to meet the end of the process not just the planting part of the process and I just wanted to reiterate. That when I was able to quit my job in June it just changed the whole dynamic of the farm so being able to do it with your wife or husband or your children it's just it's huge it becomes a lifestyle. And you see the joy on our faces in this picture we had planted onions for four seasons and failed every single season and onions are very hard to grow I mean they're very hard to seed they're hard to plant they're tiny and they're close together and you would do it one year they failed the next year they failed in year four I'm like honey can we just stop planting onions and he said well we'll never know if they're going to grow if we stop planting them. So he was facing us and I can guarantee you they fell if we don't plant them so he was faithful I was ready to quit well last year we had onions we are so excited this is like the the the highlight of our season last year and it just goes to show if you don't give up just keep planting things I mean you want to be wise about it but it was through years of building the soil and really tending to it properly that we finally got an onion harvest out of it so yeah what manpower do you have that's a that's a really key question because what you plant is going to require a lot of that manpower down the road so keep that in mind with what you decide scale wise. If you've grown stuff before. And you're not new to growing things then you have a reflection you can look back on you can look at your past and say OK I've a successfully done that before and what does it entail and you base what you're going to do on that obviously. Economic viability so we've had to take I like to grow a lot of things I like to experiment with things I like new foods and so for me one of the most difficult things was cutting things out of the farm so this year I told you we went and cut a third of the farm out and so we had to take a really hard look at OK we grow six different kinds of cucumbers that might not really be we put living cucumbers on the table every year and we come home with living Q Cumbers often see I really like then so we kept growing them but I think we've decided to not grow them this year because really nobody buys them and I could live with all the other kinds of cucumber so and so like really narrowing down even if you cut a lot of stuff out there so I mean thousands of options and so getting that down to a practical viable economically viable solution can be very difficult because for me I also don't want to just grow twelve things that is not a viable option for me either and so having a high diversity garden but intelligently select. What you're going to grow and be purposeful in selecting it we want that cucumber and that cucumber because the to hit specific needs one you want so we chose to do so you along it's an open pollinated I want open pollinated cucumber. It's an English style cucumber it trellises Well people don't it's a kind of an unusual cucumber so markets like it and we can educate our customer base around it which we have done now it's a delicious cucumber and it grows well so these were OK that helps us make the decision let me cucumbers to grow really well they come on later it comes on at a different time that's useful. But no one really buys them we've sold him we've told him about them it's just not something people are interested in do we really want to grow that continue to grow something that no one really wants so those are hard decisions to make and so you just go to have to bite the bullet make that decision so real quick just to clarify so I have a question for Larry Larry what made you continue to plant the onions year after year if they kept failing. The news are extremely profitable one. If you grow an onion you're going to sell the onion. If it actually bowls people buy onions and they pay a good price for onions it's if you bunch on your hands if you get a storage onion you're going to compete with the grocery stores and if you buy onions which I assume you do you know that they're not that expensive an item but if you bunched three onions together with the green tops all this on it's a dollar an onion it's a three dollars purchase is not a good and OK OK So. We talked a lot about how you're going to grow the concept here is just to reflect on that you know before you're planting it to be thinking about how you're going to sell it that's our next line OK And then what do you we talked about that so this isn't only about providing produce for the community we want the farm to be sustainable we want it to be able to feed us. So. We eat the food that we grow we live off of the sweet potatoes and winter squash that we grow we live off that all winter I do a lot of canning and processing and the hydrating and freezing and we're living off of this food that we are. That we are growing so you have to keep that in mind also you have to think about if you just grow for things then those are going to be what you're going to be eating as you go to the grocery store and spend a lot of money and we're trying to negate going to the grocery store and spending a lot of money so we want to grow what we like to eat all right so that's a small sort of little recap of doing what we're doing so we're going to get to some practical stuff. So here we're here the practical for not getting their fertility so when we got there like I said it was it was pretty awful so it was a it was a learning curve for me it was like I have to do something right now so I started learning about soil science and how to to get nutrients back into the farm whenever you show up at whatever property you show up at I can almost guarantee you if something grows and it probably will it is lacking nutrients. And when do you realize that you are nourished. Spiritual lesson You realize of the time of crisis when you're not nourished when you don't have proper character. When the crisis comes characters revealed it's not developed and so this ground was shown this ground was showing it had a bad character and so I said OK Lord how do we Hill this this ground how do we make this ground. Righteous and so the first thing you want to do is know why is it wrong to soil test and not just any soil test I'll tell you something about soil test soil test are not all equal you need the soil test report. A total C E C A T C E C That means. And I'm going down to the nitty gritty so. We have twenty five minutes to get through this and I'm going to talk quick There are classes on all these subjects that are go into more detail but I'm going to have to talk to you about some detail I would point you to Kinsey agricultural. They will give you a true soil analysis the numbers that come out of that soil analysis match William Albrecht's numbers those are the numbers that pretty much everybody is basing their recommendations on but they're not doing the same test so they're getting different numbers. To correspond and so a lot of times you were like Why did soil testing I did the recommendations and it didn't do anything to things when you decided you were going to send any more tomorrow you were perfect and didn't send any more right. No. You expect your ground as soon as you throw some minerals on it all of a sudden to be perfect tomorrow it's unrealistic it's not a realistic approach and so we have to approach this in a realistic sense it's going to take effort work and perseverance to heal that ground and we're going to make mistakes along the way and we're going to have to. Learn perseverance that was wrong and you will get. The proof is in the pictures there so those are the soil test that I recommend you do because they're going to give you right numbers and good recommendations just like what do you do what do we call it righteousness by what. You've got to have faith in something and you're going to put your faith in something and you can trust me but I wouldn't. I say test all things hold to what is true and so I'm giving you information I think it's good solid information go test it go prove it but Kinsey. Is a good starting place to go look OK. It's a little more expensive. But you might want to talk to Whitmarsh I believe he has a booth this week he's doing consulting he can explain some stuff to you more detail and he has two lectures. There's a round table discussion on it we've given we're affording a lot of opportunity to get that is a starting point you need to know what you have and what you don't have if you don't know what you have and don't have you can't address the problem you can't put your knowledge of shotgunning trying to see hopefully I got it right I'm going to throw something at the this and and hopefully it works but if you've got high calcium you're like Oh look I've got broom sage everyone tells me if I have bruises I've got I've got I need calcium and you start going lives them out there you're produced perpetuating your problem and so you need to know what your problem is so you can address the problem that's the first I mean that is fundamental and key. The second thing as soon as they tell you what you want you're going to be like OK I'm going to go down to the local Co-op and they're going to be offering you some crazy stuff and you've got to be discerning about. What stuff is crazy and what's not crazy and so you're going to have to figure out clean amendments and you're like wait a minute what do you mean clean amendments I mean when things are money and they come with a lot of stuff and you can get some bad stuff from people and so you need to do some research council with some people who have already done that research you don't need to reinvent the will and so finding clean amendments is going to be critical and extremely important. Lank Castor AG is over in Pennsylvania Lancaster AG is a is a good source they are reliable source they do a good amount of testing of what they're getting and where they're getting it from so that most of most every product I've ever gotten from them and I ask them a lot of questions and sometimes I'll go back to the mine source to try and find out to make sure it's what I want. They're really good company Seven Springs is also a good company a soil consultant is a very wise investment so if you go to Kinsey AG I think what's a test Allan thirty five or thirty five through Whitmore It's fifty three you can see if you do the consulting you get the test for thirty five and twenty five from with Maher So it's a five What is it five dollars more. Five dollars more ten dollars more. Absolutely so Allen says make sure that they have your worldview so if you're going to get somebody to consult for you and it's not a bad idea I have a consultant that I work with I work with Whitmore McConnell He's a seventh day adventists uses Kinsey model he follows the model and so I have am able to not just say OK I got my report it tells me to do this and they will call Whitmore now and say what Mark you told me you want to do this this and this but so I'm not using any animal manure or any blood meal or bone marrow or feather mill or any animal products. What if I use this product how can we adjust muscle analysis around to use Tennessee brown rock while. Well instead of whatever you know. He helps me he can actually then work me through that process and sort of help me yeah it's priceless in my opinion. The other thing is if you're looking for trace elements like Cobalt and live them and they can be almost impossible to find. But Castle Valley Farm when shown spider L. is there he started sourcing stuff out of Brazil and so I'm telling you that you can call Castle Valley Farm and get clean sources of cobalt in Mali. And that might not make any sense to you right now but write it down because you're going to know what you're going to you're going to want to know where to find that. When you do your first solo reports make sure when you do those sort of ports you want to find out about Molly and cobalt everybody here knows about the twelve. Is it B twelve important for a whole food plant based diet OK Do you know why you need to take a supplement. Because it's not in your food do you know why it's not in your food. Because it's depleted in cold balls Sino COBOL Woman B twelve. So we want to actually nourish people we want them to have a functional mind that means they need proper nutrition we need to address all these issues I'm going to run out of time so we so that we add B twelve to our dirt and we had we had the the basis of the twelve. So we're going to talk about application because then you're going to get all these minerals you're going to like how in the world I put a pound a coal ball on an acre field that's an impossible. You know how do you do that. And so application becomes very complicated in my estimation so you can liquid you can most of these are going to be able to be liquefied and you can put them in a backpack sprayer on a boom sprayer on your tractor and go out and application rate you know if I put my pound in a sixty gallons of water now I spray it on my field and you're putting a pound down to the acre so you know you don't want to overlap you don't want these things there are powerful minerals and so. You want to be as careful and evenly distributed as possible so so you have you can put them down by hand so you take that cobalt and you mix it into all your other minerals and you can blend those and this is what we did in a five gallon bucket for one hundred foot bed that's five feet wide and I go out there with my buckets and I put I'm doing six beds of salad mix one two three four five six buckets I go to pick it up and I go down the row and hand spread it this year we bought a drop spreader a drop spreader is basically something that has wills on either side there's different models and ways that happen has slits in the bottom and has an opening gate you just that gate to a certain rate it'll drop at a certain rate and you can drive over the bed in the destructive down in lines you have cones spreaders cones spreaders are a big huge cone the first year I did it it's like a big V. and at the bottom is a will that spins a little hands that sling it out as it falls out the bottom so there's different methods to get that down they don't all work equally there's a pendulum spreaders they have a little thing that sticks out the back and kind of bounces back and forth and throws your minerals that way what I've learned to do and what you'll learn with farming is you do the best you can with what you have you might not have all these you know we did it by hand for four years until we bought the drop spreader because we didn't have the money for it and then you just learn to really like meditate on the Lord when you're hand sewing all this stuff on so many acres and it's really good X.. Sighs and you're out in the fresh air and it's actually quite enjoyable I started enjoying it so so I'm running pretty quick and the reason why is I want to I want to make sure that you at least get the information you can go back and you can research to stuff the Internet's an amazing tool write it down go back what's a dress better look it up email me call me emails not so well call me if you know her compass compost compost is great stuff if you need it compost can be high in phosphate if you're high in phosphate you don't want compost right. So you need a salt us to know what you want you need to when you go to get compost you need to ask them Do you have a report on this compost if not. If you're doing this for a living you should probably take that compost and send it off to a lab to find out what the world's in that compost before you put it on your field because you may find out it will wreck and rethink you're doing we've heard a lot of stories of people buying compost and then it just introducing a ton of sea weed seed to their to their farm so it's important to buy a good quality composts and like Larry said a good quality compost you ask the people there they will have an analysis on their compost already a good company well. So. So. So we did as we started bringing in Alaskan Hugh mates so we actually bought Alaskan soil and brought it down for a biological knock Elance and we make compost tea out of it and so compost tea is a good way to get biology down on the ground we bought a microscope we look at the the original material to see what the biological life isn't it turned around we grew it and we put food in that brew that will actually cause that microbial life to grow and expand. Brood up we bought a bear this year and we sprayed the compost down on the fields and that we're not killing our fields of biology to try and bring life back. This is our brewer that we built this I didn't buy it I actually bought to tank and put all the components together. And so this one actually has a whirlpool in it which restructures water. The water naturally like rain when it falls it does a whirlpool motion if you ever look in creeks and natural flowing they don't just flow straight they have I mean they do flow straight but they have whirlpools in them constantly and so water wants to be structured that way so we did that in our our water. And so compost tea is a wonderful source it can be a good tool you can create bad compost and bad compost tea and so you need to consider what that is I have a recipe if anybody's interested in my recipe I can share that with you I was going to put it up on the screen but it wouldn't it just wouldn't Oh I did put it on this actually to get it in there so that's a recipe. As compost I used the last can you mate if you get to compost you can use you can replace either way seven pounds. Still cut oats two point two cups coconut sugar sugars you want to low. Glycaemic index sugar you don't want to high sugar because the sugars actually can create too high of a biological explosion and then you end up getting an aerobics situation at the end of the process. And so I use coconut sugar liquid kelp all of oil so oils are good to feed fungi and so that's why the olive oils in their. Human acid in full the casket and then at the end of the process when I'm done brewing it you can add my car as a fungi. And you can also add in I do it about nine and three eighth's of a cup nine and three eighth's Cup at the end of the brew and that. Will basically be a good thing to spray down the hill one of the other really cause of the cool things about farming is that you become a mechanic you become a scientist because a repairman very creative thing in so Larry built the compost bird and it's quite awesome thing that he did there and it's it's been an experience for us it's been challenging because it's not just like oh it's a quick thing to do it's so easy and you just brew it and then you spirit you know it's like a three day ordeal because it's a timing thing you wanted to be alive so you have to spray it pretty quickly after you brew it it's a very short window of time if you want to do it right. So with that being a little bit more tricky Please do not hesitate to contact us if you have you know specific questions about that yeah I mean it's alive the whole premise here is that you're creating biology and living things and you. Have parameters they need to live in so we have a bubbler in there that's oxygenating that water to keep the water at a high oxygen level so you you you need to. See me afterwards we will talk about it. Microscopes are expensive. If you go to Elaine in homes weds website and linking him and she has some very good she's probably the most knowledgeable person on biology that that I know there and I'm sure there is better but she's really good she has a recommendation for microscopes on her website. That's I just bought her recommendation it was I think I found it on Amazon for five hundred dollars they aren't cheap but if you're going to put biology down on your field you probably want to know what you're putting on your field. And you want to know if it's working you want to be able to Elaine in him. Yet. If you look or up show. Yeah so a biology laning and it'll come up. So. You've got your fields all prepped up well not prepped up but. Fertilized and so you got your test and so you need to probably order some seeds. So reputable seed companies are imperative if you go to the local hardware store and you buy the packet that was from two years ago because they didn't sell it and still hang it on the law you probably are going to get good germination you want reputable seed companies that have guarantees on their well I say guarantees they've done their best to make sure that their seeds are going to germinate properly that when you buy a rouble a seed you're not getting weed seed you're actually getting a. Given. Dear. So I'm going to see is a very reputable company Fed cosies while garden seed Johnny selective seeds and I use Baker Creek selectively they're good company. They really have a lot of variety that you just can't get anywhere else as there are there their biggest plus in my mind is that they have things that you won't find anywhere else and they're great for small garden they're really good for small gardens like backyard gardens because you can try really a lot of cool stuff that they have I just want to add in there the flower seeds so I'm going to repeat those again for people that are taking notes so for the the produce it's high moa. Fed Co wild garden seeds Johnny seeds and Baker creek and there are more those are just the ones that we order from the flower there's different types of flowers so you get you can get Dahlia tubers their seeds flower seeds and there's also chromes So there's different things for flowers that you can buy. I have wonderful Mennonite neighbors that I get a lot of my Dahlia tubers from but there are a couple there called Wild willows farm and they're in Indiana they're a great resource for Dahlia tubers. Glocken or is a good resource for dahlias as well they're kind of larger quantities so if you can get twenty five larger quantity you're going to get them for less through Glocken or and then Geo seeds is a good one for flowers and then Florette farmer also has a lot of nice seeds she's kind of expensive but she has specialty ones that are hard to find other places in her pictures are very nice and with the flowers look like what I say the same about Baker creek if you see Kellogg's or free so if you want to just a good catalog to look. At the pictures to decide what you want to grow. Baker Creek has beautiful seed catalogues and we spend hours hours upon hours picking out what we want to grow doing inventory on what we have. We you have to look at what you have from the year before and then you have to look at the dates on the seed packets so I always recommend as soon as a seed packet comes in the mail write the date on it because they don't always have the date and some seeds I mean if they're not viable you're going to be wasting a lot of time seeding things that aren't going to germinate and that's why storage is important as well you want to make sure to store them in a cool dry place that's dark. And then using a spreadsheet to manage inventory is one thing we do with our seeds we do an inventory on what we have. What we want to grow and just you know it will do what I put the spreadsheet together and so what we'll do is kind of get price points from home all in Fed go in different companies and that way in the program I created it old tell me which one is cheapest and it'll tell me my totals as the in. So next. And so. So I'm really sorry that we're talking kind of fast but we're going to run out of time so seeding and transplanting So we talked about fertility we talked about ordering the seeds in the different seed companies so now you're going to actually start seeding the seeds so the starts mix so most people most normal logical people go out to the store and buy a starts mix but we're growing with a standard that's called began Nick so we actually have no animal waste. In our farm so we've been making our own starts mix it has been very difficult I'll just be very honest it has not been easy to grow and began to take. To create began to mix that helps that plant to live through as long as it needs to live through before it goes in the ground we have gotten a better recipe through the years. Which only talk about. Pre-made specialty blends because what we used to do in Seattle so we could go to this place specialty soils and tell them what we wanted them to make and that was great because then you know we could work with them and they knew how much nitrogen and how much phosphorous how much potassium and we could figure that out through sources and then get a specialty blend it make that doesn't happen in Indiana and so the next thing is you go to bag next if you're anywhere if you don't realize it everything pretty much has a charge in it and it's usually not labeled on the bag and so for me I call the company and I say OK what's the charge and they say oh and I have bone mill blood mill other mill and it's not on the blissed So if you're trying to avoid those things it's in most of the the Starks mix and you may not see it on the ingredients list you got to call them and ask them about that and so we started doing our own blends. And trying to figure out what the ratio has to be to those nitrogen quantities or those phosphorus and those potassium and other trace elements they're going to get that plant all the way to the place where you can transplant it have a recipe is a recipe and process you know in progress and it works well the other thing you would can I think we can see we're not considering enough of his water when you water stuff do you have by carbon it's in your water and we did a soil a water test to find out what our water was what was in our water do we have high sulfur do we have is it a high calcium water is it an acidic water because that's going to have an impact on your starts real big impact it's a small cell in the water has huge influence on it so those are things to keep up we have one minute a slide from here on out. So this is a picture of our living room so year after year we've started our plants in our living room so we plant pretty awesome right everyone wishes their living room looked like this right so this share he built me a starts house a heated starts house it will show a picture of it here in a minute. So it starts makes is important the different trailer trays that you purchase you can do so well blocks timing is important learning like you don't want to see a bunch of stuff early and then it gets so big before you can actually put it out there because that can cause a lot of stress like tomatoes is a perfect example we always want to early tomatoes but if they get too big for the cell then you have to transplant them onto pots before you can put them out again that's a whole other process you have to do you have to think of space so you really have to try to think about timing and when things came once they're seated how many days in this is where the seed catalogs are great most of you probably already know this a seed catalogs going to tell you length from germination to to transplant list or to harvest. Some of the trees on what I do want to add on trees does. Their soil blocks Oh yeah so these are soil blocks go back. Oh yeah so here soil blocks that's how you make soil blocks that's really great the Air Print they have certain challenges to them handling them can be difficult making them can be quite laborious. Alice's torture hid it for years I stopped doing it. But if you do US soil tray Mosel trays have a solid their salt round rather octagon you know they have these shapes to them and you see this topic sure here they call that root wrap. And that is once you do that your roots are going to want to grow like this now and not down in now and so they have their problems and so. You timing on that you want to make sure the way that one of the methods that we do to know when a transplant is ready as we pop one out and say OK the rich are fully developed they need to go in the ground now before they start rapping and that's a good way to sort of see what's going on. This is our sheet. When we seed so we put the dates. How many flats we seeded sorry what it was how many cells total from those flats that we seeded who did it because something happens I want to find out why they did what they did. And if we're really on it then we come back and say what was the germination So you know you have a you don't have one hundred sell trade but for mathematics simplicity the one hundred tendon germinate you have ninety percent germination right so now you know those seeds are still good and viable You might want to make a note if they didn't if they weren't viable and the new seed order more you know replace whatever. When they went in when you transplant them in the bed if you can keep this much data it's great we obviously you can see ours is not not kept. What bed did you transplant them in and Michelle who transplant that out when did you harvest that initial who harvested it and that way you can start to have real metrics and start to see what's working and what's not working. Prepping beds so after you've soil test that you've gotten your you put your movements down you're going to prep your beds up. You got your starts going and so starts are almost ready to start prepping beds so after the soil test your hand spread or you drop spread or whatever you want to mention tarps here still betting you have to be way out ahead of all this so way back when you're ordering seeds even you saw some tarps over those beds it's going to kill all that grass down it's going to kill the the root systems on that grass a lot of times you can take that tarp off and you have some pretty nice dirt to work with it if you use landscape fabric water gets through if you use solid plastic it literally keeps it dry you moisten it when you start you in it when you start and it'll just sorta be a nice nice consistent bed and obviously rain will seep in the edges and stuff but for the most most of the bed be nice beds. After you get your still better whatever you're going to do so if you do still bad you may not have to do primary tillage for us we do primary fill it with a spade or a video on here we're going to show you just a second of a spade or. Most people use a tiller probably. You don't want to powder riser soil. You want to try and leave it you want to nice clean bed to to seed into so you want to do it shallow as you can to create a seed bed but if you start just working that soil over you're destroying your microbial life your any fungus Hi-Fi in any heifer that has developed micro rise of fungi you're just it's dead it's there's it's gone and so you want to be intelligent about your tillage and you need to do enough to make it functional you can do the job you need to do but you really want to try and incorporate process these that eliminate that as much as possible. I'll show you the what we do and I'll give you some tips on what we plan to do then and your way. Start jumping ahead. I'm OK with six minutes it's OK. So we weigh the pros and cons of tractor B.C.'s permanent raised beds those are different systems by which we would have a bed system. Where from where you lost me so sorry the different tractors that are out there like this gee this Allis Chalmers G. is a wonderful tractor because it's very lightweight you know we don't want to compact the soil that affects the microbial life as well so we're very careful in our bed system we don't walk on our bed system ever because you don't want to compact the soil and that's where the tractor this detractor is very nice because it's very light it doesn't compact this so what I've done is I try to use I use a tractor I recognize a tractor can be very damaging and so a lot of people have gone to raised beds I also read spirit of prophecy says still deep until often and so no till system you've got a man is that correctly most people using a broad fork that breaks the ground deep that's a practical system I think it meets our requirements as I understand them and so you can have these permanent raised beds and if you're interested in that there's there's folks out there that can teach that that's not what I do so I can't tell you you know it's not my experience I can't really share with you I can point you to you know John Martino different folks that are working in that system. But the B.C.S. is another good option. All the systems will work but P.C.'s is a walk behind tool tractor. People are using them successfully I'm not down on any one of these systems you decide what's going to work for you and where you're at in your situation we use a tractor because that's how I've always done it and I'll tell you how I do it and why I do it we create permanent system our tractor paths our walk paths and we always drive on the walk paths we never dry. On the bed I would say never it is hard pressed to get me to drive on my bed though and so we're trying to create that same idea in that tilt of a permanent bed. Weighed pros and cons you know the B.C.'s tractor is very light you can get out there if it's wet my tractor if it's really really wet I'm going to wait till dries up the ground firms up or else I'll make huge ruts in the field and ruin everything that I'm trying to maintain and so. The G. That's another one of the tools the gee that little tractor you see there. Oh you're on the spade or OK So this is a spade or it's a mechanical shovel you see it should go here yeah and it literally digs ten to twelve inches deep and some work in the ground deep creating a spear smear no plough hand and it's just so you can see the field how grassy it is and what it turns it into so it's a primary tillage tool it's getting most of my grass turned under it's working the beds deep but it's not creating any any hard pan. So we'll come in after that and we use a tiller I would like to move to what is a what is known as a power and you see who's driving that truck. That's my life. So we try to do it shallow and you can see it's very difficult to control the depth of that thing so eventually we plan to move to what's called a power Horo it has a roller basket on the back that actually allow me to work the ground at whatever depth I set that roller so I can work it two inches deep create a shallow seed bed and I will be destroying all that microbial life underneath power Haro. Yep. Just. Two minutes for fourteen slides so this is what I'm just going to ask everyone. We can stop on time and just not me it looks like outlets are going to hit some of the highlights and we're going to skip a little bit of stuff here I want to look at transplanting And so we transplant by hand for a long long time I mean if I take my fingers and have transplants and lay them on the ground that's it my finger in the ground I see my finger in the ground in transplant the transplant in every transplant means I'm bent over most of the day which is fine I love it it's wonderful I like touching the plants I like touching the dirt it was great but we bought a Hatfield transplant and it looks like this now now we're go something like this can you play that. And show you what that looks like. So here we go this is transplanting. So we do a little bit of social media we're on Instagram. I got the most likes out of this thing like thousands of more likes And I've ever had on anything I've ever posted on Instagram it's an awesome tool it saves your back and it's just cause. It's a Hatfield transplant or. It's very quick so it's a very useful tool because you people are so transplanting the seeds that you start and the next option is direct seeding So there's different ways to direct seed also use different things you would direct you to different things you would transplant obviously things you would transplant would be like brassicas things that are bigger and. You know things that are easier in that sense and you want higher volume and denser plantings you would direct carrots he will do transplant here as character Tapper and you need a more complicated process people doing there are ways that you can do but start you know generally speaking you would transplant things like salad mix turnips radish. Top soy carrots be brazing mix. So another thing we've learned through the years is germination when she directs seed something it's pretty delicate If you don't keep that seed bed moist then those little seeds can't pop through and so what we have done especially with our salad mix is as we will put Roe cover over the beds right after we seed in water and that sort of protects them like if we get a heavy rain then that row cover helps to protect the little seedlings so intelligent germinates we keep that row cover over the bed and keep the bed moist and then once it germinates were moved the row cover and that's helped a lot with our germination So here's a picture of the greenhouse you see the rose that's using the direct Cedar. Well and then this is an example of different types of irrigation Alan is going to talk a lot about irrigation so we're not going to go into that very much but this has. Gone on. Friday session six so we've talked about planting direct seeding now. This is what you see when black groups it's a metered watering system so if you have shorter hoses you run circles those you know all. The waters here a bit here those are supposed to be a pressurized system so that in the midst of a certain pressure in the water more evenly so then you have the plants in the ground and you've watered them and then all the weed start to come what do you do now. So we have some of cultivating equipment that we use so this is our G. set up with what's called beet sweeps and this takes some skill Larry does this I don't do this so that's one form of cultivation this. There's also hand tools. The ground cover these are some pictures of the different things to use for cultivation. Sorry. It's one of the things you can. Burn holes in it and you don't last as we've had it for three or four years it should last a year or year and then I'll mention here in this big picture the two ladies there that's my mom and Larry's mom so they do a lot of hand weeding hand weeding is very therapeutic it's actually my favorite thing to do you see this bed and it looks terrible and then you hand weed and you see that you save these little plants and it looks so nice and clean when you're done and they spend hours together hand weeding and they talk and they you know think about God and things of nature so handwaving is a wonderful thing and then the wheel her in the top that was a present for Larry on a special occasion and that has saved a lot of hours we'll hoser really good investment. Are here going the wrong direction. So we're actually out of time Allan an operator going to come out now we have a just a few more slides that are on like production and what we grow in our who poses just are you OK with us going a little bit over in the break time is that OK with everyone so that we can get through these sides sure anyone opposed to that raise your hand OK we're get so. It's fifteen minute break so if we go into that for you know the break goes much launch it's in ten more minutes so I can just get five more minutes and then Allan are you're going to come up for fifteen are we good with that OK So Fielden who passed production. Just go to the next for me. The main things there is you're going to help with Disease Control because it's a controlled environment you're going to protect the plants from rain we put the fabric landscape fabric down in the greenhouses so it protects the dirt so like with tomatoes there are very high disease probability and tomatoes and they get a lot of the disease from the dirt so if you have row cover or not row cover landscape fabric down it's going to protect the plant from getting dirty thrown up on it or splashed on it you can control the watering much better you can control the temperature much better. Trellis saying is important because it's really helps with air flow we Charlus all of our cue cumbers. In the greenhouse in the tomatoes in the greenhouse because it just really helps them to be up in tall and they get the airflow and it's less disease it also helps with Season extension right now we have turnips radishes a root spin it in taught sewing greenhouses at home and we're harvesting off of those and selling them through the winter and eating that food through the winter. So. Ellen is going to you're going to talk about Susan in. Succession planting right Allan OK So Allan is going to go through I was telling some people he's got a pattern of like the deed to maturity and how you plant it with the expectation of it. There to maturity. So next is harvesting so we use. The salad greens Harvester it does saving a lot of time so what does show you a little video about that it works really well with a roof. It saves us a lot of time. You can imagine we actually harvest with a knife for most things and we want to cut that by hand with a knife all of our salad mix is hand cut. If you can get beds that are clean without we need and rule as fast growing it's easier to do that is a very very time saving device. And John of the dice in your house is available here at the conference he invented that OK Next I'm just going to show you a little picture of the flower harvest that I do. So I just give bouquets in mason jars. And. Like I had mentioned before they do really great at the market. And then next we had to include a slide of our cat he loves to harvest with us he works really hard out there in the field see as you can see but that's as picking a root. And then the salad harvester there this is just going to show you a little bit about processing and packing. Correct. It's. The end product. So it took five to ten minutes with the Harvester would have definitely have taken me maybe two hours by hand so I want to talk about this for a minute when you come in from the field there's a couple things when you're harvesting in the field. You definitely want to be considering that the plant isn't laying in the sun and when you're harvesting stuff even if you're tucking it under like Be sure you don't lose them count you need ten bunches and twenty months is thirty bunches we use twist ties we can out thirty of them we get in we're going to bring in the washed ation there should be and should be all there when you get into the wash ation you want to decide does this thing go in the water or not hydro cooling is fundamental it's something if you have greens and you don't put them in water even if they look good and you put them in the cooler they're going to wilt and so water they need to go in water don't leave them in the water too long but they can be in the water for quite a while. And you want to get them fully hydrated back when you pack I'm going to pull them out we use a salad spinner our salad spinner is a bag we scoop it out with like a laundry sack we put it into a a washing machine because the washing machine can be bleached and clean and you turn on the spin cycle and it's like a great great big salad spinner and you take it out of that you know go into a bag it's in a wax box that's how we do it we do about seven pounds in those boxes that folds up and that goes into a cooler and it will crisp our salad mix will last as most people if they start right at home it will last them two weeks. And so you compare that to what you get at the grocery store and this is the difference between process and something fresh in. Correctly. How well it will hold for people so Allan and Aubrey are going to come up now. This is our planting plan they're going to talk a lot about the planting plan and I just want to show that last picture of the farm isn't that pretty. So hang here please fifteen ten fifteen more minutes. OK So we are super excited about succession planting and what we have to show you today this is like. I think if I'm not mistaken you guys are the first to see this type of information so this is extremely fundamental to being able to meet your market demand and. We're just really stoked about this so hopefully you'll find this extremely useful and it will stay view a tremendous amount of time this is a really practical tool and it's a political for all zones as far as your personal growing zone so. Are is going to take it on starting here so anyways I just want to say I'm just super excited so. So why did succession planting matter. Why does that section succession planting matter well when we think about it we think it's one of the things that really separates the market farmer the market gardener from the home gardener it's kind of one of those things that separates the men from the boys because it's not easy and a lot of folks just don't just just just prefer doing it off the seed of. What's the word off the seat of their pants yes something like that flowing flying by the seat of their pants that's it. But when you're starting you don't have years and years of experience farming it's not exactly a natural thing to do to be able to figure out even though it's incredibly important because unlike the home gardener you just girls whatever comes up the market garden or the market farmer has deadlines to meet clients to please all these different kinds of things so succession planting is vital when it comes to having a successful market production essentially you want to plant on time to harvest on time that's the basic understanding of succession planting but the big question is Well how do you know when to plant. And Alan the genius that he is has come up with a very nice his her a lot you know he's. A very special new tool and he was explaining it to me and it's free it's a free special need to all right now are giving it away for a limited special time whatever. So he was explaining it to me and I'm like. I am not I do not possess the genius abilities that you do we've got to figure out a way to explain it to those who have my mental. Capabilities so we teamed up and I think we have created a version that combines his genius with my limited understanding so hopefully it's easier for you to get not the you're not geniuses but you know just in case just in case already if I can get anyone anyone anyone can get it OK yet so it gives beginners a leg up you can essentially take this tool and use it to start figuring out successful succession plantings on your own production which is incredibly cool now just a little bit of disclaimer we worked on it the last month or so so it doesn't have years of trial behind it there could be some things that still need to be fixed I was like Alan I'm really scared to release this now and he's like it's now or never. And said he was this is were you are experiment and we have a feeling that it will be greatly successful but they'll probably a little be bumps along the way so Alan is going to explain like how you start to figure out using. And I will say that we have use this tool to a less accurate limited degree for the last three years on our farm and we found it relatively accurate so I'm hoping that it translate to you guys because I translated the information for this graph from a grow or Eliot Coleman actually in zone five to my zone so they can translate there and hopefully I can translate it back you see what I'm saying and you're going to define what zones mean yes it helps Yeah yeah OK so my turn. OK So so the overall idea of succession planning so let's just hypothetically say that you are when you're wanting to sell lettuce for it weeks that's what it says says eight weeks can everyone see that it works OK So that's your season and it starts at a certain time and it ends at a certain time you know this is a very simplistic model and let's say the. In order to do this in this is what I found for lettuce for lettuce specifically you'll have to decide in your own area how long the crop can actually hold in the field viably because there is a there's a finite period of time because lettuce after it gets to a certain age it's going to bolt and go to seed in that's going to get better so you have to get it in that sweet spot where it's mature but not over mature so for lettuce we found here in Oklahoma which would be very similar for you guys here in Texas for those who live in Texas it's about two weeks you really don't want to push it more than that so I want lettuce coming in two week intervals so it starts this week it goes two weeks then it ends and the next one comes in so it's very simple I need to have how many successions. Four successions to cover my eight weeks very good and you guys are smart OK So so that's the idea and you know I used to think it was a simple is this OK so I want it to be available for two weeks so that means it needs to be mature. At that time therefore I take the days to maturity on the back of the seed packet and I just you know go backwards in the year forty eight days and I plant then and I should have lettuce in forty eight days right simple enough right well this is how I thought it was but there's a bit of a problem there's something called common planting time and that's when people that sell seeds intice a pate the people that grow the seeds they sell when they're actually going to grow them and so for here in Texas you're looking at your common planting time is going to be roughly from April fifteenth to July two thousand and five Most people don't grow fog or gardens most people don't grow really early Spring Gardens or in most people so it's right after the last frost every point puts or stuff in it rolls through the season they're done works and so this is good if you're just a gardener because you're not worried about how being things in the uncommon times. Area you're only worried about when it's commonly available or when it can commonly grow so that's the important thing your seed packet is only accurate those forty eight days to maturity are only accurate within that common planting time now here's the question what happens when you want to plant in the uncommon planting time where it's colder on either into the season and there isn't and it looks like this OK so we have what's on the seed packet we have one we want to but there's this blue unknown of like how many days before now do I have to if I'm going outside of the common time window I actually need to plant this thing well that's where this special new tool comes into place a succession plan teen graph OK so we're going to work through this and we're going to show you a picture real quick this is what it looks like in this look this is going to look overwhelming Don't be scared we're going to walk through it in a some simplified version but this is how powerful this tool. Well you'll see you'll see so. This is what it looks like OK so it's like whew anyways but that's what it looks like now we're going to break it down simple version kindergarden No just kidding so this is this is we're going to just quickly walk you through this so this is own eight which is in the Dallas Fort Worth area OK Very good that's where we are right here and these this graph is going to tell us when we need to plant stuff outside not new costs not with any extra stuff just outside in zone eight OK now if you look here April fifteenth. Sorry OK So let's start to understand this graph OK So basically what I've done here is I've translated this is this is a small grafters only eighteen weeks in this graph the other graphs or the other spreadsheet has fifty two weeks so don't worry we haven't shorten the year or anything the other one will have more but this is just for the sake of example so we have eighteen weeks here so this is the first part of the year I and my planting time. When I say oh I want to plant a crop in my scheduling on my farm I eliminate all the dates and I just go to weeks because it's a lot more simple change from year to year so I do go on a week bassist I'm but we have so those That's what those record you know first week of January second week of January third week of January fourth back in January I write these things up here so now you kind of know the months and how they relate to the weeks OK. The date the months yeah I guess they will vary but the weeks there's always fifty two weeks so anyways so how this works is is that we have this graph right and so we kind of know where we are in the stream of time of the year and we have the week numbers to go along with it so now you kind of understand that. Now I will point out here these numbers that are above the weeks but below the month indicators those represent additional weeks to maturity so let's say I take the first week of January and I want to plant my lettuce I'm going to have to I'm getting ahead of my shelf are to Anyways those are the additional weeks to maturity come back to that and I'll point out here that since this is after the third week of April since that's after April fifteenth for this area it goes to zero because now what's on the back of your seat packet is actually going to be accurate so that's a common planting time right very good so now we kind of under Does everyone get get this any any kind of little clarification we're good very good hey we did good are here they understand OK so now let's do an experiment so let's say that I want to have my lettuce lettuce crop forty eight is to maturity in zone eight let's say I want to have that available. Week a teen which is the fifth week of April it's it's a little scary because sometimes months share weeks. So let's say that. I want to have then OK what do I need to do in order to know when I need to actually seed that thing in the ground in zone eight well this is how it works first we're going to divide forty eight by seven to get a rough estimate we want to convert it to weeks so that it's just blocked up so it's it's six point eight five we're going to go up to seven right so we go back well look it takes us to the second week of March there week a leaven But look at above what we call Leben it says to all that represents two additional weeks to maturity that's going to push me to week twenty not to week eighteen so I could if I planned then it's going to push my projected harvest date two weeks further into the year and I just can't have that I have to meet some sort of deadline a chef want something for a special event my market starts at a certain time it's going to be late it's not going to work so what do I do well. We're going to show you. So what we do is we've got to count back the number of blocks or the number of weeks until the number we count back equals the number above the week so let me show you here's my little arrow OK So we count one block what's the number above it. So it's not going to work two what's a number not going to work three but the number. Four Oh look at that it skipped us again it says five five six six six OK six six now it was. So that's when we need. That's when we need to plant the. That. OK let's go back let's go back let's go back OK. Let me try to explain. So it says to you because here let me take this this way. So if you plant any time in this area you don't have to add. Any weeks. To get forty eight days to maturity but if you plant here it's going to bump to you two additional weeks this direction so this isn't oh I need to plant two weeks early this is if I plant here it's going to come in two weeks late two weeks later than I wanted. So then the idea is you need to count back until the number that you're counting equals the number above the week. So this doesn't have anything to do with OK this is this only tells me if I'm planting here where how many additional weeks I need which is going to two weeks for them and one on one so the lettuce will actually come to harvest on week twenty instead of week eighteen but we need it on week eighteen so then being here because this is the this is the forty eight days on the seed packet then we start counting back to say one one so this is one week but that doesn't match here two weeks but it doesn't match here three weeks doesn't match four weeks doesn't match five weeks doesn't match six weeks and it matches the six So that is then when you plant. Because it. I said we need to try to draw in a circle because what essentially is happening here with the way the temperature is that temperature to someone. The way it's working is when you look at the year and how the temperature works it actually does this kind of swoop type of thing during your year so you're needing to pull yourself up further. I have a suggestion let's keep going because we're going to do a couple more examples and I think it might start clicking a little bit more. Yeah yeah you. Want it on. You know so. We're going to have it on the on the website that missed the ad insist AG org dot org We're going to have it up there I'm going to send the links and then we'll have each Yeah so just keep going by the end of it if you still don't get it talk to us one on one and will work on explaining it but I think it's going to start making more sense with a couple more examples it took me a few examples so there we are Week six so to get blood this coming in a week eighteen we have to plan it six additional weeks look beyond the forty eight days in this is for outside this is the pitot side without any additional protection right this is just open right so I don't think that oh well I put real cover it's going to mess it's going to we'll talk about how to calibrate for that. Can I talk about zones will pick OK so I should realize but I should put this in just a little bit earlier to clarify what zone are you Does everyone understand the concept of zones OK So let me show what I would recommend It's an incredibly great resource if you google interactive map U.S.D.A. plant hardiness zone now they actually have it where you can go in punching years it code and it'll show you exactly where you are and what zone it is because sometimes it varies for example this Glen Rose area this is actually zone seven B. Dallas Fort Worth is own way and you would not think that this is a different zone then. Dallas Fort Worth area but it is it's a zone up from half a zone up and the zones are very accurate there are satellite images taken by NASA and they update these and they are constantly shifting and changing based on mean averages so it's like this is really good information so I'll just say that so there's thirteen zones. Currently that's what they have divided into and they're divided into half zones so you have one A one B. two A to B. three A three B. So this is a map of the United States you'll see the top it's kind of hard to see because of the resolution but one A is at the very top kind of in that cold purple E. lavender color yeah like northern Alaska and then. Then it goes all the way down to thirteen B. which is we have a little bit of it maybe on Puerto Rico so that kind of gives you the idea of the of the stance most people are growing in between the zones and zones drastically affect how you grow just like you know in New England they can only grow a few months out of the year and then it's no Every rest of the time and we can grow much longer and we hardly ever have snow except for like yesterday. So these are the zones idea and I recommend that Google Maps not the Google map but the interactive map it's really really really interesting. We have created these special graphs for Zone today to thirteen B. because I figured that people who are living in zone one A and B. probably don't have access to computers or gardens or you know they're living in well. Yes So probably not relevant. But passive he drastically affects our little my special graph and how it functions because here's an example of passive heat this is one layer of row cover on on low hoops and each additional layer that you add of passive heat adds one and a half zones to your current zone area so what that means is in Oklahoma we where we are in Oklahoma we're in zone seven B. If we add a layer of. Of row cover on a low hoop we then translate to seventy eight a. Right so now we're in zone eight B. which has a dramatic effect on when you can actually plant things in shortened times nine zero and a half yes. So like I said I think it's still you see yeah it gets a little tricky so then outside is one zone and inside is a zone and a half to the south. So then if you have to like this is a real cover in on are low hoops and then you have a hoop else on top it's an additional layer and a half to the south so outside a zone. Eight inside is nine. A. And then inside of that is own eleven nine point five What is nine point five one OK this is this is back to zoning for the Dallas Fort Worth area. So then how does that affect our little special graft. Cured time if you explain So basically this it's the same process guys same process your baseline is still going to be your baseline there are a few exceptions and I can talk about those. Maybe I should well let's finish this it's not going to affect anyone here let's just put it that way but OK so we have our seven weeks then we're going to count back one. It's not one it's two two it's three three it's three so what is it this is when you need to plant under one single layer of row cover that's how much bump it gives you three weeks bump it's tremendous It's basically what it does is it's it's leveling those extremes that your zone makes in bringing them down sorry it's leveling those extremes that you're zone makes so so for instance think of a flat down here as zero additional days to maturity if you go into the fall those days additional days to maturity will grow in the course in the spring they grow as well when you're coming in and but it's courses warming up so they're starting to decrease the ideas that that row cover basically instead of it being such a a steep hill on either end it just kind of levels that out a little bit it softens those curves OK So what happens if we do a double layer of cover with a greenhouse inside a hoop house what does that do for us. Oh yeah OK so one. Two two two So it bumps a week the thing is is that the closer you get to what your seed packet says the the less of a jump it's going to make for you if that makes sense because your baseline is all the always going to be your baseline it's just how close it's getting you to that baseline I don't know if that makes sense that OK the next OK very good. OK so that's how this graph works so you can see the differences zone eight this is what you're looking at is additional This is the unknown zone now we know what it is it's six weeks here it's three here it's two this is how powerful season extension can work on leveling those curves for you or let's say that you planted something and you didn't quite you planted it late for some reason let's say you meant to plant here in zone eight but unfortunately because of some certain situation you were you were three weeks late Well I know that I'm still not going to be late because if I one put one layer of cover on I can bump that and I can make up that time in the spring of course in the summer it's its level so you're not going to make up the time but yeah that's how powerful That's how much difference this this this stuff can make and that's why these spreadsheets are so. Awesome OK So anyways what's OK and of course all of this where we are translating this information from some graphs that Coleman made. And that was over twelve years of collecting data from the wintertime so these Remember that these are a guide there are mean average of someone's climate which means that it could be a little warmer for you one year it could be a little colder for you one year the idea is that. We can't predict the future all we can do is try to take the averages and get a mean average of our experience and then base off of that because every year there's going to be slight fluctuations so they're a guide they're not like. Written stone but the idea is to get you close and. Yeah and then the next thing is there's a snowflake. OK anyways it doesn't matter. It's not an important part it's just anyways so crop considerations one thing to consider here is that even though you are putting these row covers on OK and you're tweaking your environment you still live where you live and you might still get a polar vortex that comes down or whatnot that can can really get colder than maybe what it would ever make it to his own nine so there are still some situations in which you need to be careful that this will work well because for like lettuce and kale and stuff those are Frisco tolerant crops they can freeze unfreeze if there's a crazy thing that happens during the season and you get a really cold snap or something that's even unusual for your zone. These things can freeze in and freeze OK but if you had tomatoes out there they might not do so well so you want to be careful on how far you push these graphs as far as what they'll do for you if that makes sense so. What I would do is I definitely would not plant and this would be a rule of thumb but I wouldn't so let's say I put a single layer of row cover. I wouldn't consider and I know that for the zone and a half farther south there last frost date is let's say let's say mine is March fifteenth where I am well in a zone a half it's April fifteen let's say OK then if I'm putting a single layer of Roe cover I'm not going to go any farther back than what that actually moves me so I won't plant before March fifteen because that's the only amount of protection that that layer is going to give me I'm not going to plant that any before that because it's not a coal tolerant crop so you have to does that make sense you just got to be careful with what you do as far as that's concerned. And. Is there anything else. OK so we're done. Right so the question was is that the row cover is only for freezing temperature so when you remove that during the day well that's true but I might not depending on what's under it because that's a big that's a big thing if it's tomatoes I probably won't until after my frost date in my area now if it's lettuce and stuff you might be able to get away with that but the thing is is that what we're wanting to do here is that the only time you're really going to be using row cover is when you're wanting to push your season outside of its normal boundaries and so you're going to leave that row cover on especially row cover because row cover also has a way of self venting itself OK where it's not like a plastic it's actually permeable It's like a blanket so you can get away with leaving that closed usually with RO cover with plastic that's a different story plastic. You might need to vent as well if you're using that as your single layer does that answer your question OK yes ma'am Yeah personally for me so the I. Try to remember the question the idea is that would it make any difference if you're removed like you wouldn't want to remove it during the day because it would skew your numbers is that what you're saying if you remove the row cover I mean yeah that's I mean the idea is that with the row cover is that you're taking in solar energy during the day it's resting in the soil and then it's like a cloud over your crop and it's holding that in at night so if you're not taking advantage of that solar energy and collecting it then the row cover is not going to do you as much good. If that makes sense so yeah and then this only works with two layers let me say that when you go beyond two layers you're the light that you cut down is not going to make up so it's not like you can continue putting layer on layer and when I'm in zone thirteen now and it doesn't work that way it only works for a minimal amount so don't go beyond two layers it just you just don't you won't get the light and you're going to start going the other way. Yes or. OK so. How could he do we know how many weeks to take off for one and a half zones Well this is this really depends on what zone you are so this is how the graph works First you have to find. Yeah so first you have to find. The zone that you're in in this case it's zone eleven let's say OK let's go back to the other zone OK. Yeah go back to zone eight so you have to find out where you are right and where you are will depend on what zone you translate to and the zones are I believe the increment of five degrees difference they're called hardiness the zones are based on cold hardiness which basically means that. Let's say it gets to this is just a negative fifty degrees where I live OK The difference between you know that wouldn't Well let me let me put it this way let's say I get to negative ten this will make this will be a little bit more reasonable to say get to negative ten the difference between negative. And that would be let's say zone let's say it was known six A OK so the difference between zone ten A and zone ten B. is five degrees so even between zones there is these five degree block differences between them OK what Coleman did is basically because he says one point five zero nz. What we did is that we had to find the factor that corroborated with each of those five degree differences in the factor is not in the graph but we have that factor in basically we calculated the factor of church oh boy this is really this this gets complicated. Yeah maybe I should answer that question privately that's just really technical question I'm sorry it's a good question it's a good question but it's it's not so simple Yes Larry. Yeah the weight of row cover I mean and this is this is where it comes back to comes down to mean averages OK And the idea is that there's going to be a little bit of difference between maybe the weight of row cover you use versus someone else. Here's here's what I would say there are weights of row covers that are meant for bug protection they're not meant for heat and then there are weights that are meant for heat so I use one ounce per yard row cover on my farm to one point five OK the differences between those two I believe are negligible when it comes to this graph Now if you're using something that says pest protection that layer will not count it has to be a layer that's actually rated for some temperature difference OK And so I can show you guys personally and catalogs what I use what I order and and it's going to be close enough remember we're this is not just a science it's also a bit there's factors in here that we're going to tweak we're just going to get you close to where you need to be and then you're going to have to tweak these numbers maybe slightly for your particular situation if that makes sense we want to get your foot in the door because for me this was overwhelming it's like when do I plant to get what I need and no one has any graph that can relate between zones this gets you started this gets you close this gets your foot in the door. It's this these equally additional weeks to maturity the ones about and I'm so sorry for those people on audio verse that can't see this graph it's going to be difficult but we're hopefully going to give our slides so they can go through. OK We're going to close this meeting for right now guys if you have any questions you can just come up and ask us personally. Yeah let's say a word of prayer and then we'll go to Father in heaven we just want to thank you for the stay for all this information and Lord for the opportunity to share. All this stuff so that other people might be able to make a. Quicker success of their farming operations and we have please bless us as we go have lunch and. Mayor will be done during the rest of this conference and we asked him in. 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