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Dehydrating Fruits and Vegetables

Thom Mayer


Thom Mayer

Little Light Ministries



  • January 21, 2021
    8:15 AM
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Well good morning and welcome to the d. hydrating and freeze drying class on food preservation here also going to mention a little bit about salt brine pickling at the end so before we start if we could just start with a word of prayer. Had a gracious Heavenly Father Lord we're thankful for the harvest that we are able to bring in vegetables and fruits from our gardens every year and Lord we also thank you for the. Way of escape that you've provided for the times when we can bring in fresh fruits and vegetables that we can preserve those from the time when there is a bounty and so largest teach us and. Be with us here as we learn about some different methods of preserving food and we thank you for your love and care thank you for everyone here and. You with me now and say thank you these presentation and praise you and love you and she's name. Ok so we're going to start with the hydrating. And you know into in Genesis the commission that was given to our 1st parents to address and to keep the garden is really better translated. As to serve and preserve the garden when you look at those original words in the in the text to serve and preserve and in serving the garden it would serve us you know it's just an amazing lesson book and placed in this garden to learn of the character of God The Eden school as it's referred to by the Spirit of Prophecy and it was God's intent that. The children of Adam and Eve would leave the Garden of Eden to start their own gardens of Eden and to kid continue this this process well we no longer live in a garden unfortunately and we can just pick our food and eat it directly from the tree so we have to. Make a means of preserving that food. To start here I have a little I have a history in agriculture my great grandpa on my wildman on my Grandma's side. Ran a packing shed so this is one of the labels that was part of part of the company that he owned with another individual souls wild and brothers and Pac and Elliot incorporated in Cutler Calif Bluebird brand was one of the. Brands that they packed fruit for. Another brand was flash brand. That they packed for I love this old this is in the thirty's and forty's sold artwork from from that time and here's out front of the packing shed these are all trays of looks like either apricots or peaches or something and this is how they used to dry and preserve. Extra bits of. Fruit that was harvested in the field from their orchards in different orchards that they worked with and they just put these screens out on the ground I can imagine all that work that looks like a lot of work I mean it takes me a couple hours to fill up to Excalibur is and I mean this is hundreds and hundreds of trays of drying fruit and that's how they used to do it just out in the sun. The Although the sun kind of degrades the fruits not not the best practice there so we're we're going to start here is with some pros and some cons of dehydrated food. So let's begin with the benefits according to the University of Missouri foods that are dehydrated will not spoil the reason being because in order to grow bacteria and yeasts and mold need water something that dehydrated food slack. There are other benefits mostly to do with convenience campers and hikers will often pack dried foods to make them lightweight and dried food such as fruit leathers make an easy snack Moreover dried vegetables are simple to store and could be added to your favorite recipes in stews and so yeah I've done a lot of backpacking and. Every meal that we took was was dehydrated so that we didn't have to carry all that extra water weight. Some of the negatives if you're wondering about the effect of drying on nutrient value the food the again from the University of Missouri vitamin a and c. are minimise due to heat and air sulfite treatment which a lot of dirt dried food you look at are treated with sulfite. Causes the destruction of thigh a mine and this is part of the b. complex of vitamins so you lose a lot there and then of course blanch in the vessels before drying them which is a common practice. For vegetables anyway. Definitely destroy vitamin c. as well as be complex vitamins. And induces the loss of some minerals that said. Reduces vitamin a and c. lost during the dehydration and storage stages so you lose even more a little bit later. As you go through the process dried food also tends tends to have more calories as they have a greater nutrient concentration so. For instance 100 grams of fresh apricot contains about 51 calories while 100 grams of. Apricot are of dried apricots contains about $260.00 calories so dehydrated food end up losing about anywhere from 5 to 8 percent of their nutrient value and that as compared to canned foods which lose 60 to 80 percent of their nutrient value so there's a big difference there so you know the more you can dry obviously the better I mean. Anything wrong with canning food but you know for storing up some calories or whatever for the for the winner it's pretty much a former shell of what it was in the beginning because you're just basically cooking it to death and you lose all the enzymes and a lot of the nutrient value. In the canning process. Daystar we use a couple of Excalibur dehydrators these are this this is one of my favorite. Out there you can get him for anywheres from 282000 bucks. And then we also bought a Weston. It's a capital about as tall as this table here that holds about 24 racks and we've got it for 350 bucks it I've seen a range from 350 to 500 bucks and it's a decent dehydrator as well although the fan kind of didn't seem like it really moved the moisture out of the compartment with it were actually thinking of put an extra fan in there to move that moisture out of the cabinet a little quicker seems to take a lot longer in this in this cabinet drying in this cabinet so we don't even use all 24 rocks you know will load it up with anywhere else from 10 to 15 racks in there and gives gives some space. What's nice about the Excalibur it's got a little guy just right on the top but the temperature knob some different drying temperatures you know your herbs and living foods bean down there between you know 105 and lower. Anything above 105 you start to lose in zines That's the temperature in which you're going to lose enzymes so if you can dry a look at the lowest temperature possible is really best. To have me to the top of the list obviously you've got to be careful with the meats or not do you tie drain any meat so we're just and fruits and veggies and fruit leathers and so we keep it is as low as we can one of the things that really bugs me when I 1st got Daystar was how many heirloom tomatoes I would load up in the will barrel and haul out to the compost pile and just toss into the compost pile because we they were seconds we could sell the seconds fast enough they had cracks in the in the crowds and. We just you know we weren't processing them in any way and so I started taking the heirloom tomatoes up to the calf and and just lopping off the top the crown and and getting a couple of fat. A couple or 3 slices out of each tomato and dehydrating them and they and if you if you. Stop at a certain point I'll let him go totally hard you know this is really difficult to chew it in the end it turns out to be a nice like jerky texture the nice chewy jerky texture and. Just you know I was able to actually figure out that whatever our 2nd price was per been so like I brought in you know $50.00 worth of 2nd tomatoes I mean I was throwing away probably 30 to 40 percent of that tomato into the compost pile and the remaining 60 or so percent of the tomato that I was dehydrated in I was able to sell for that same. Seconds price so. You know I had a little bit of work that went into it but basically I locked in the seconds price. A dollar for dollar and gave those tomatoes a longer shelf life so here's a shot of some of our. Heirloom tomatoes with a little bit of seasoning on top you can season immuno however you like and that makes a nice. Chewy leather in the end so speaking of leather There's another great way to process. Fruits it's really quick you know I just throw of whatever we have like one when you're We got a bunch of free peaches and they were really not that great had a good flavor but the peaches were mealy and just not that great. And I just throw in the blender and I'm up with the skins in all dehydration into a leather and. And they were excellent I mean it was just the flavor was there and you know that there's leather and actually dried out a little quicker because they weren't as juicy peaches be you know mealy Here's one of our students Dana. Packaging up a bunch of fruit there before going to see this is a means for which we can take our students to g y c. To airside that to this conference here. Is by processing a bunch of food and bring in that and selling it at our booth so here's a bunch of fruit that we're packaging up. Kale chips is another great way to. Preserve a bounty of kale if you've got lots of kale Kumon kale chips there they're excellent It's a great way to get people off of potato chips I mean you know you make a good tasting kale chips and people are really they really. Are excited about how well and how. Amazing the taste is and that the method really is pretty simple you just make up any sort of smoothie you want you want to nice thick smoothie so this was part of the garden veggie kill chip that we brought this year we just throw some heirloom tomatoes in the blender some peppers some salon trow some sea salt and you know when you have a little seasoning that you want to do in there we do some sunflower seeds in this you the with fruit and vegetables you know a little bit a not. Complained of any not to give it. A thicker consistency so that it hangs on to the kale as you're massaging it in and then you just pour this pour this over the kale So this is actually main go here we did go. Lime and chili kale chips where we just blended up straight main go and actually apricot we put mixed apricot in with this and and then in the end sprinkle a little tough which is just. You know chili Lyman lime and chili seasoning that you always see at the Mexican fruit carts they always put on through and just gives it a nice. Nice sweet and sour. Flavor So you just pour that smoothie over the kale massage it in and spread it out on your on your trays The one drawback to the Excalibur you can see here of only getting 4 trays. In 2 you know there's $99.00 trays that come in each of these but the kill chips how tall they stand you can't you can't fit every trace you got to skip every other of the train you get the less than half the capacity of the overall dehydrator but have a couple of them and we load up our other one as well and and you know it takes a little less than a day or so to fully dry out you want to be nice and dried out so they're nice and crunchy So there's you can't really over dry kale chips. Especially if you're in a humid humid environment or whatever make sure they're nice and dry put them in an airtight package to keep them crispy one of the things that I wanted to really start experimenting with this last summer and I didn't get to I'm going to build one of these this next summer as a solar. And so I've looked at a lot of different plans and this is this is a plan that I had kind of thought in my mind this would be the best design you have a solar collector where you've got some sort of Plexiglas. Over a little box you know frame of some sort and have a have a metal grating in there that can absorb heat but air can pass through and then you know the air is drawn in from the bottom of this solar collector and it rises up and rises through the food and out the out the top of the drying chamber and that logically seems like the best plan but as I looked into this more and more this actually. It this system kind of works against itself as that hot air rises through the food and gains more it gets denser it gets heavier and it actually wants to fall back down and so you're kind of working against itself in trying to push that air through the. Through the chamber so you you'd really you would need to add a fan to the top of this to kind of suck the air and draw the air through the chamber and out the top out the at the vents in the top of it to really make this system work actually the the better design is something like this where the air is entering. Solar collector it's rising up through that solar current collector gaining heat and that it enters the drying chamber at the top and as it gains moisture it falls and so there's another kind of a you know pump happening there where the that convection then is descending through the drying chamber and then the back wall is a faults faults wall where there's a basically a chimney in the back wall and then it's drawn out from the bottom and up and out the chimney out the back wall. And you can find tons of of designs online. Describing how to make these and this was somebody's backyard version here of just taking an old hydrated and putting a frame in here and you know maybe they didn't have power and they were trying to dry their food out and looks like it might work but it would be better to build something like this this design actually was really simple. Where the drying chambers actually housed in that triangle space underneath the collector so it minimized the size of this and obviously made it a lot lighter easier to roll around your yard you know this is something you can roll right out into the orchard or out of the garden and process right outside and just put stuff right into it. He'd have to make you know since this guy made some custom frames this is Bigelow Brook Farm. He made a youtube. Class or a little demonstration on how to build this step by step really simple and a good way to dry out your food. Another even more simple version of a solar do you hide your hair is far infrared so do you hydrate are so you know. The advantages here you know using the sun and and not exposing the food to light. Obviously no electricity no no moving parts very simple construction and you compare surf routes investable as I thought this would be a really good design to have a few these out in the garden to just do herbs in actually so this was from a You Tube video just took a few screenshots here step by step I mean you could build one just from these few pictures here obviously just a frame he would attach a piece a tin to that frame you paint the one side black and that's the side that the sun is going to be coming through the Plexiglas onto and heating and then that's radiating through the bottom of the. Piece a tin foreign for red radiation. Into another frame where you have your food so you build a 2nd frame put a screen over it and put a piece of tin corrugated you know pro panel or roofing tin or something underneath that so the air can pass underneath that screen where your food is being held and he put a little flashing on the top because he found he couldn't the temperature wouldn't get hot enough with little if there was a little bit of breeze and too much air was able to blow through it so he put this little flashing on the backside and and. Stillwell's the air to escape from the sides and through the Corrugated parts put a little temperature gauge in there so you could get some data and see that how warm your your little thing is getting attached to 2 frames together with a hinge and you're off and running I mean this is a very simple design. You could build this and matter of a couple of hours probably and then you have a plexiglass polycarbonate top on this political handle on there and. It makes little greenhouse effect and here little temperature gauge you know it's getting up to 118 degrees Fahrenheit that's perfect perfect for. For outside dehydrating. Now I even looked up some stuff for people who are in humid areas even if you're in a humid area remember humid humidities is relative to temperature so you're relative to humidity inside a drying chamber if it gets hot it gets nice and hot in there the humidity is going to go down so that that. You'll be pulling off the food and and so you know do some experimenting and see if you can make one of these work and really humid areas obviously like where we live in the desert super simple no problem at all to d. hydrate just outside. Put this this little solar dehydrator on a on a 13 degree angle we found that that was the best angle to aim at the sun and then not so much angle that all your food just falls to the bottom of the of the little screened in. Tray that it's all sitting on so. 13 degrees here is dry and a buncha herbs in there put a little chain on the on the lid to hold it from flopping back when you open it very simple design. So that's dehydrating and dehydration is probably the most simple process that we have right I mean it's it's been around. Since the beginning obviously I mean that's an easy way I remember growing up in. Northern California and there were black berries growing just all over the place and my dad would tractor down all those Black Berries. In our back yard to the ground scrape them to the ground and they just would just come back like like with a vengeance every year those Black Berries were 5 you know feet tall just thick and my brother I would carry we take 2 to buy sixes and are to about 10 the plane and we'd throw one down and and and then both get on it and kind of stomp it down and then carry another one and put it down and then pick up our one behind us and we'd make trails and we just go all through this huge black berry bush in our backyard and picking blackberries I mean it was just like hard or one of our favorite fruits my mom a big blackberry pie and we ate half of them while we were picking and it always amazes me that there would be a Black Berry on their new be completely dried out and it was just perfect to pick that thing and it was chewy and it was like it was perfectly de hydrated right there on the on the vine. All right so moving on to freeze drying. We just got into this. A little over 2 years ago now we got our 1st freeze dryer and just a blessing former student at de star his mom called me up and said hey I want to make a donation to the school here at the end of the year but I don't want to just donate to the school and not know where my money's go and 2nd so I thought I'd call you and see what projects are you working on you know what do you what can I donate to and I say Well actually I was just on the Internet last night looking it freeze dry or you want to buy a freezer for us and she said yeah how much is it and so I had kind of calculated we needed about 5 grand to get the freeze dryer and a couple of pumps I decided to get 2 pumps after doing some research on the oil pump that's the cheaper pumps about $350.00 for the oil vacuum pump you have to filter in chain or change the oil every batch. And I was like that seems like an oily mess and. So I decided to buy the oil less pump as well and. That pumps about $1500.00 and so. With. Buying those 2 pumps the whole total came out to about 5 grand and we. Got this freeze dryer from harvest right here's the front page here from harvest right its website and they have a new year in Sale happening or New Year's sale I should say they got free shipping and say up to $400.00 if you buy a unit now they definitely come down in price. But this is a this is a great way to preserve food. You know if you if you freeze dry things you put it in a Mylar bag with an ob oxygen absorber in there you can preserve it up to 25 year 25 year shelf life and the on their website here they claim that you know you're retaining 97 percent of the nutrient value so you know you may lose 68 percent. Hydrating will hear you're only losing 3 percent and in the nice thing is the food retains its shape and color and so you know I mean I've d. hydrated cherry tomatoes and you know it's a lot of work cut all those little cherry tomatoes in half the hydrating them or even if you didn't cut them in half lane I'm all out dried them out in the end you got one little bag of raisins and no one wants to pay the value of those d. hydrated cherry tomatoes. And freeze dried them it's it's much more. It holds its value a lot more because it's it's puffed up it kind of keeps its shape and. It's got that nice crunchy you know texture to it and. Here's the 3 units that they sell these are home freeze dryers they also sell commercial units range up to the $10000.00 air range but these their small home units the smallest one being. Just $2200.00 or so and the medium one being $2700.00 roughly in the large one being $3400.00. I always suggest people get the large one you know you're going to spend the money spend a little bit more and just get the larger one you can only fit about 16. Pounds of food in this. Freeze dryer so get yourself a coffin freezer some of this mixture freezers and during the summer just be putting stuff in bags and freeze it and then in the winter when you have some time you just get this thing going and we are pretty much running 247. It takes about anywhere from $2.00 to $3.00 days in some cases watermelon takes almost 3 days to fully freeze dry but what's happening is it's a freeze chamber and it's a 10 hour freeze cycle it freezes down to negative 40 degrees. So it super cold in there and then it kicks on the vacuum pump and the vacuum pump draws a vacuum on the chamber and then there's heater plates under each of the trays they come on and they thought the food nice than sublimate which is the process of ice going from ice to vapor so it skips the water stage and it did in that vapor condenses on the wall of the chamber because the wall the chambers frozen and so in the end you open up the door and there's a big ring of ice around the chamber and your food in the center is completely bone dry. And. And so yeah like I said we have got 2 pumps because. And when my research I thought well maybe I don't really want to like change the oil every time so this vacuum her Euless pump looks really good but it was you know a lot more expensive 1500 dollars and we've rebuilt that thing 3 times they call them and we've sent it back and they've rebuilt it fails to achieve the vacuum because the Teflon rings in the piston start to wear out or whatever and it just it really hasn't lasted I'm actually thinking of getting rid of it and getting have a new pump now that has a little. Little catch that will actually catch the water because water will get into the oil in the air in the pump that's another reason why you've got to drain in and change the oil. And it's got this catch where it catches all that water and it says that you don't have to change the oil every time you can actually do 25 batches before changing the oil and that would be really good. One of the 1st questions I always get you know people look at this thing man the say it's going to cost a lot of money to run and it's actually not that bad. I found this guy on You Tube. Is a Web You Tube channel called retired at 40 and he metered this thing all the way through so here's a bunch of data on how many how much power it's using during the free cycle after one hour after 9 hours and you know after a 47 hour basically a 2 day cycle which is pretty typical they consumed 29 point one kilowatt hours and on the national average if you go with the national average for power that that cost is is about $3.49 for that today batch so it's not too bad actually. The other question I get. A lot is. Does it really add value is it can use this to for a value added process with all the work involved in you know the power usage and everything so I've done a couple of tests just for this for the fruit salad mix that we brought for instance I bought $34.00 pound bags of organic strawberries and $9.00 a bag so total cost of $27.00 so that's 12 pounds of strawberries and after freeze dry in them. They became one pound of freeze dried berries so. If you. Are your freeze dried goods for the wood the average that we kind of came on is about $4.00 per ounce so we've got 16 ounces there in that in that pounds of that $64.00 of product so subtract the $27.00 it cost me to buy the strawberries and the $3.49 to run the machine. You know you still profit 133. Dollars and 51 cents so you know you're doubling your money so even if you have to buy it so obviously if you don't have to buy produce and you just put it in the freeze dryer then great you're here or. You're doing good right so. I also do you know and strawberries are actually one of the lightest fruits in the end they really light whereas mangoes they don't they don't lose that there's a lot more fiber there they don't lose that that much I mean they lose weight but they're still they still got some mass to them. And I did another test right bought about $30.00 of organic fruit filled it up mangoes strawberries raspberries blueberries but and as you know bought a bunch of whole mix bagged all up and I had I had just with the you know bananas retain a lot more weight and everything's had a lot more weight in the end doing a mix and I had just over $100.00 worth of product bagged up from spending 30 dollars so it's definitely worth doing is in terms of a value added process and and a kind of like the small batch aspect we actually were donated a a large freeze dryer industrial freeze dryer and so it's an older one but. And we're creating a room where we're going to put this thing in we're going to set up a processing room. Down in our farm. And get get this going as is an industry for Daystar and start making backpacking food and all sorts of thing that's the great thing about a freeze dry like we put up all the food for for the backpacking trip for the kids you know we can make soups and rice and beans and you know whatever it is. That we're making in something like this works really well at the cafeteria you know anything left over you got a few portions here but not enough to really service another meal just throw it in the trays freeze it put it in the queue and and send it to the freezer and so the you know when the kids go on their backpacking trip they enjoy some really good food you just add some boiling water and it just hydrates right back to what it was like we did some applesauce you know and you can either hydrate it back out to applesauce consistency or you can add less water and make an apple butter out of it so real quick how something you can make out of out of an apple sauce and you can blend those apples raw go through the freeze drain process so in the end you have a you have an apple sauce that's raw not cooked to death like you do when you can it. Tomatoes cherry tomatoes grapes and anything that's really juicy with the skin like that you who aren't going to want to cut in half and so that's very time consuming so one method that I found you take 2 plastic lids from from you know like a gallon jar or whatever and you put all your cherry tomatoes your grapes in there and then you know you have basically make a sandwich with those 2 lives and you can take a knife and just go right through the between the between the 2 lids and cut everything in half very easily and you're basically cut and handfuls of stuff in half at a time versus a single one you can freeze dry stuff that you wouldn't normally be able to dehydrate. Okra is awesome freeze dried and it's raw and it's really good raw and. The slime that is in okra is very medicinal it actually cleans out your arteries and so in it only does that when it's in its raw form once you cook it it loses that medicinal properties so freeze dry. Is is. Is more beneficial. Here's one the students holding up a tomato soup that we were doing for the one of the backpacking trips you can see some rice and beans there in the bottom right corner and just pops out is this really lightweight wafer you can just break it into some pieces put it in some Ziploc bags you can crush it into powder really quickly if you want to make more space and. Just they're having we're having a lot of fun with it there today star here some peppers are another great thing to freeze dry they turn into this just beautiful full color chip you can dip in hummus and make chips out of out of. Bell Peppers they actually will go pretty flat they don't retain their their shape some things will kind of shrivel some things will totally retain their shape and almost marshmallow and enlarge a little bit just depends on the structure of the food I guess but here's the bowl of. Fruit salad that we did for this year packed it all up strawberries and bananas and apples and kiwi and blueberries raspberries some perceptions and made a nice fruit salad mix and really good so we have all this stuff over there at the at the Daystar booth you can he can check it out and help us out with our trip here that's how we pay for these things watermelon in the mail and is an amazing freeze dried food I mean it's straight up Candy at this point just this nice crunchy candy even if it a little bit of moisture we found like some of them would fill a drought and if there's a little piece that's not fully dried out the others will absorb that moisture and in the end you'll have like a marshmallow texture which is really interesting still. It probably won't last as long you know you won't have that shelf life but for just you know whatever we didn't throw it away we still ate it if it didn't fully dry out and I found if you just stuff felt a little like grapes they were still kind of spongy when I 1st pull them out I just put them in a Ziploc bag through an oxygen absorber in there and put them back in the freezer and they totally finished off I pulled the bag out and they were totally crunchy so I added don't fully know why that is but it works asparagus we have an acre of asparagus Daystar and lots of it and the only way we don't spray our field with anything to manage the weeds we just mow down basically a quarter of the of the field each week so we lose about 25 percent. Production because it takes about exactly one week by the time or money down the next section that sexually mode last week we're harvesting on again. And so before I mow it down I'll go out there and have the students come in everything and help me and will snap off every piece of asparagus in those rows we're going to mow down no matter how tall they are even if they're only an inch tall you know get those tips and and that's what we throw in the freezer and that's what we end up freeze drying is all that stuff that we otherwise would just we just mowed down. And I tried I did an experiment I tried dehydrating asparagus they turned into into the toughest little stick you can imagine you could not even chew it up but freeze dried it's fluffy and crunchy and really good we did a dull. Potato and all read all. So it's great like I said before like any leftovers you can throw through here and many just add some boiling water and it's you almost cannot tell that it went through any sort of process. So moving on here this is. A bunch of cabbages that we had one year the bunch extra cabbages and so. We've been making sauerkraut. And a very simple process to make sauerkraut this is a form of food preservation that we've virtually lost in our in our society. Really interesting documentary to go and check out called the poison squad it's a p.b.s. documentary and you can find it on Amazon Amazon Prime and it shows how like in the turn of the century when all this food processing the dust revolution was breaking loose on on on America. It was the Wild Wild West there was no laws you didn't have to label anything it was completely. Most companies were just a total sham I mean people were putting straight up corn syrup in a jar and labeling it honey they were putting formaldehyde in canned meat they're putting Cilla silica acid in in pickles and things like this so you know. It was it was a bad situation at the turn of the century in terms of processed food and you know it obviously the documentary documents how this scientist basically became the father the f.d.a. and brought in a lot of regulation and labeling and things to the situation. You know before this time Salt was the freezer was the commodity that people would use to preserve food so to make sauerkraut is very simple you take it's by weight your you want to you want to you want to follow this precisely 5 pounds of shredded cabbage and you add to that 3 tablespoons of sea salt and it's best to use a sea salt. Because the bacteria use the minerals and things that are in the salt so Celtic salt or. Some sort of sea salt derived unprocessed sea salt is best you can use pink Himalayan But you know pink Himalayan comes from a dry salt deposit so it's it's not all the minerals that are in the ocean and in the same proportions there's $92.00 minerals in the ocean and they're near there nearly balance to the $92.00 minerals in our bloodstream so this is it's basically creates a. Situation outside the body that's the digestion situation happening before you actually eat this food the bacteria that are on inside the cabbage colonize the cabbage the salt creates an environment for the beneficial bacteria to thrive and for all the spoiling bacteria that is botulism in harmful bacteria that would mold and rot the food dye. So I throw the salt in there you put it in a bowl you crush it with your hands I pound it with my fists and kind of crush up the cell walls and the cabbage and the salt draws the water out of the cabbage making its own brine and I pack it into a 5 gallon crock and pack it down pack it down I can fit you know I don't know 25 pounds or so cabbage in a 5 gallon crock and then I take a water bed. Food grade trash bag basically is what we use down at the farm to back up all our produce and I triple bag. Put 3 bags on the top and I fill it with water and put about you know 3 inches of water on the surface I don't fill the crock totally full you need some space for that weight I don't have the they make the stone weights you can use to but I don't have the stone weight so I just use water which basically fills the space and kind of seals it really well I tie up the 2 inner bags and then the 3rd bag on the outside I kind of envelope around the outside of the of the crock to just keep the other things out. And then you let that sit at room temperature 70 degrees or so for. $30.00 to $60.00 days we always do 30 days and. The bacteria take off and colonize that sauerkraut It's called a lactic acid fermentation process similar to what's happening in sourdough bread or yogurt if you've ever made yogurt. It's the same bacteria there's. A really interesting history around this. Like if you look at it back in the days in the 1617 hundreds you know people getting on ships and sailing for 34 months around the world or whatever make trying to make it to other faraway places you know these sailors were consuming about 3000 calories a day which came from salted you know beef or pork pound they basically to pound that a day a pound a hard tack biscuits a day they drink anywhere from a gallon or so to of ale or wine or hard liquor and and they had maybe some dried beans or rice dried race Ok they know fruits no fresh fruits or vegetables and it was not uncommon for. These ships to lose half their crew to scurvy is called the scourge of the seas and we know now it was a vitamin deficiency gave these guys scurvy in their teeth rotted and they had open sores and they suffered mental breakdowns I mean all sorts of things happen when you don't you're not getting the nutrients that you need and. The explorer James Cook This is Mary time records I mean you can go into history and look at this was a pioneer in scurvy prevention he fed his men sauerkraut and dried vegetable soup and it was not an option it was a command from the captain. This guy would bring $3000.00 pounds of sauerkraut on the ship with them and. It was it was it was it was a command you ate these guys ate the sauerkraut all the way to its end I mean they were sipping the brine out of the bottom of the barrel all the way the end and he never lost a man discovery. Why was that well in a cup of cabbage there's about 30 milligrams of Vitamin c. and we know that vitamin c. is one of the major. Vitamin deficiencies that would cause scurvy that's why. You know some ships realize that we've got to take a boat load the lines but you know hopefully those lines last because you. You you know if you run out can you you risk a situation where as the sauerkraut is preserved and not going to go bad so there's 30 milligrams of Vitamin c. in a cup of cabbage in 30 days after making sauerkraut that 30 milligrams of Vitamin c. rises to $700.00 milligrams of Vitamin c. in that same cup so this is this is a super food miss not the only thing that happens you know the minerals and the addition of the increase in vitamins. Taking place in sauerkraut and sauerkraut is considered a super food and so you know this isn't just some condiment that we're serving to you out there on the care hot dog cart. This is a beneficial super food that you know you learn how to do this you can survive a serious situation this woman on the right pictured on the right here showing my wife and I and and this is our friend Brenda in the middle here. Tatyana she's showing us how to make. Borsch she grew up as a child in. The north part of Russia. And. Forgetting the name of the country right now oh man anyway she grew up in the north part part of Russia where at one point they Kurdistan are one of those one of those countries up there. Where they put up a fence between the country and this region and Russia they turned off the power they killed all the scientists and teachers and anybody who had the brains and it was in a for survival situation for a decade. And her grandmother had enough sense they mean they obviously did live down the country that was a big plus and they always had a garden but that food run out they had a shed where they had 2 huge copper cauldrons that were recessed into the ground and they would. Grow a big patch of cabbage and in one they would have the cabbages layer in salt and in the other one they would shred cabbage and make a sauerkraut and when the other food ran out that's all they had they ate sour Crow sauerkraut for breakfast lunch and dinner and they got sick of it but you know what they survived they did not have any sort of malnutrition none of them got sick they had all that they needed from that one food is what protected them from disease and starvation while their neighbors and friends they heard about in the city were literally starving to death and dropping like flies they were able to survive this situation on sauerkraut. One study. Shows how a and this is something that has been studied to no end in Europe they demanded their raw sauerkraut they. I didn't want any sort of canned or sauerkraut made with vinegar they wanted a real sauerkraut and you know vinegar has just been the simple way to just bring the acidity down and can a food that's what that's why they're every condiment that we have on the shelf basically has vinegar in it. You know the laws just it's got to be whatever you put in jars got to be in a city of $4.00 or lower and so most companies just achieve that with with straight acetic distilled. Acetic acid bigger. But the lactic acid that's formed naturally formed by these bacteria will bring that that city level down well below that and be fully shelf stable don't know need to can it and so they've studied this and. They found that a total of $686.00 or so bacterium were discovered. During a fermentation process of course and all happening all at the same time and there's a there's a lot that start up in the beginning but by the end of the 2nd week the here's a list of bacteria that will part of this list of bacteria that are in a sauerkraut the lactobacillus also lactobacillus strains of bacteria lactobacillus plant terror being one of the most important ones these bacteria can reside in very acidic situations that's where they end up kind of dominating the culture and they will make it through your stomach acid and into your got. The lactobacillus plant tan for instance colonizes the very surface of your gut lining so they reside right up against the wall of your intestines and you need them shoulder to shoulder. On your Ville either the hair like structures in your in your gut where absorption is taking place because what they're doing is they're breaking down your food into its molecular level before it is distributed into the blood if they are not there and food and different things can come right up against this the lining of your intestines can irritate the intestines and flame the intestines and actually they're there they're not being broken down your food is not being fully broken down into its molecular components and food particles are then entering into the bloodstream and this is what is known as leaky gut so the gut is leaking toxins and food into the bloodstream and that causes a whole host of situations obviously later on so very important bacteria to have in your gut. This is just a. From Dr x.. Dot com as described in a 2009 report republished published in the Indiana or the Indian Journal of Medical microbiology the use of antibiotics immunosuppressive therapies in Irish irradiation among other means of treatment may cause alterations in composition and have an effect on the g.i. tract Flora Ok so introducing a beneficial bacteria species to the g.i. tract. May be a very attractive option to reestablish. Microbial equilibrium and prevent disease so you know the report also. 2006 published in The Journal of Applied microbiology states that probiotic benefits from cultured foods include reduced overall inflammation improve the gest digestive disorders like leaky gut syndrome. Also rate of kaleidoscope i.b.s. improved immunity better nutrition absorption prevention. Treatment of diarrhea prevention symptoms reduced food allergies including lactose intolerance and that's why you know yogurt and things actually people are able to handle more sourdough people who are even gluten free can actually consume that. And not have a problem improve high blood pressure or reduced risk of cancer reduced exit symptoms lower cholesterol on and on and on. So it's very important. Thing to incorporate into your diet. Some of these very beneficial probiotics foods that come from the bacteria that reside on and inside the cabbage and the fruits and vegetables growing in the garden they're there you're just simply multiplying them by orders of millions and billions. You know 2 to. Help your situation if you're really interested in something like this go to my micro biome dot com I think it's dot com might be dot org But my biker biome and all you can or you can google the American Gut project this is the largest crowd funded scientific study on the face of the planet right now. It started 7 years ago or so and it was. A microbiologist from California San Diego collaborative collaborated on this this project and. In 200-2018 when this article was written here but over 15000 micro biome samples from over 11000 participants mostly from the United States had a Kingdom Australia they've started collecting and they've collected way more now basically for 99 bucks they'll send you a kit or you take a cheek skin sample and a fecal matter sample and use in those in they tell you exactly what is in you know living on and inside you I mean that we are colonized I mean that that is the simple truth of the matter whether you understand it knowledge it or whatever we are colonised and by 10 times the amount of bacteria that are living on inside you then you have cells in your body so. Really interesting information on this website you just get lost in here what one of the interesting things just to should. Show you how important these things are there was actually a book as a book called The Forgotten organ and I mean these bacteria in your gut. Perform metabolic processes that have a vital organ in your system so you know not having them is critical for example you know you know you hear about Sarah tone and right in depression it's low serotonin levels lead to depression Well guess what 10 percent of the Saratoga is made in your brain the other 90 percent of Sara Tonin that your brain needs is produced by got bacteria in your gut if you're if you're got bacteria microbiota is messed up. And that's what this project is really showcasing and showing their results. You know you go to any 3rd world country and it's 10 percent bad bacteria 90 percent good bacteria in 3rd world countries where they're eating no processed food lots of fruits and vegetables. Very little meat. That's that's that's a healthy gut and in America were the exact opposite the snapshot that they have taken through this project of the American Gut is that the American got his 90 percent harmful bacteria and 10 percent good and so you know you don't have those good get bacteria producing that Sara tone in your gut you're going to be a depressed person I mean this is it goes for everything from mood to digestion to weight loss I mean the studies they've done with mice taking fecal samples from from from a fat obese person put it in a mouse and that mouse becomes obese while this mouse over here eating the same diet with with fecal matter transplant from from a healthy gut is not gaining weight and eating the same amount of calories they swap the 2 mice is gut bacteria through fecal matter transplant again and the mice over here gain weight and these lose weight super fascinating studies around around your micro biome So here's a quick illustration of just like. The comparison between the genes that are in your body in the genes that are in these. Little critters that live on and inside you the human genome contains about 22000 genes and everyone in this room we are all about 99.9 percent identical in terms of our genes. It's amazing that we have the difference that we do it would be 99.9 percent identical in our genome. They've studied the genomes of all these bacteria that live inside you and everything and there's 3300000 genes reported to exist in these genome so that's represented by this body here the toad just being the genes that are in the human system the human body and then the genome of these go back to. The entire rest of the body in terms of proportion and we are all about you know 80 to 90 percent different in the genome of our gut bacteria so very they're a fascinating study I mean. They're just. I mean the micro biome term didn't wasn't really a term until 2001 so this is this is stuff that they're just discovering I mean there are scientists who are who are gastrointestinal doctors who basically turn their back on Western medicine and have made statements like we are going to look back in a whore at our use of antibiotics and what we were doing to this organ. In our body is the gut bacteria and and I mean because we're putting into extinction you know basically certain certain aspects of our microbiome but to take the good news is is that within 3 or 4 days you can turn this around you know you can introduce beneficial bacteria in your system and then eating right obviously. Is the prebiotic that they call like beets for instance or one of the best growth promoters of good bacteria you know eating beets and beet juice and this sort of thing. So have you heard a key for teacher is another probiotics food that contains 56 or so different strains of bacteria. He get these little grains off oftentimes it's grown in milk but you can grow it in coconut milk you can grow it in in milk or you can get water Kieffer strains you just go online just order water Kieffer strains from Amazon they'll come they even have ones that are freeze dried I don't know how that works but they're there in a in some sort of dormant state and you throw a minute then a sugar water they all come alive and within 4 days you've got this bubbling probiotic drink that you can then inoculate fruit juice so you can take some of that put a little bit of it in just even just quarter of a cup of it in a quarter of grape juice kept it off and in another 4 days you'll have this really bubbly. Probiotic fizzy grape juice and. Again really really really highly beneficial. You know salt just one last thing here on on salt the Bible tells us that ye are the salt of the earth but if the salt has lost its savor wherewith can it be salted it says 4th good for nothing but cast out and tried and under the feet of men I remember reading this verse and not really kind of understanding it and you look at the history of when Christ made this statement. Salt was a moderate. Form of currency and. So there was always shysters right cutting the salt with other white powders you know rock dust and whatever kind of looked similar to salt too to cheat people basically and eventually it's been cut so much that you can actually taste it it's lost it's it's savor lost it's saltiness and it's no longer a beneficial salt it's not going to preserve your food I mean that's that was the big biggest. Value of salt not just flavor your food but the ability to preserve food. And in our day and age the way the salt has lost its savor I mean here's here's a jar of of. Morton's initials so to synthesize sodium chloride they've added some iodine to it which is one of the $92.00 minerals that's in the ocean but. Ocean water has 92 minerals it and it's those minerals that spectrum of minerals is very important especially when it comes to preserving food when it comes to even eating that salt my mother in law she can't she's very sensitive assault she can't eat salt and but she can eat salt that is unprocessed she has no bloating or or issues with eating a sea salt because it's balanced to her system I mean in World War 2 They were taking sea water filtering it diluting it out to the human salinity because the ocean is twice the salinity the human system and giving it as a blood transfusion and saving people they were taking coconuts and poking a tube in it and poking around your vein and it was an i.v. because coconut trees are drinking streets he water Coconut water is is near the identical to your blood plasma. So you know salt that has lost its savor it is no longer has that saving value you know and as Christians that's what that's what we're to be in the world we're to be a serving and preserving aspect that's what that was our job was our occupation given to our 1st parents in the garden was to serve and preserve and that is is our is our goal in life is to bring savor to those around us to bring people to introduce them to the Savior and and so. Very. You know it's an important aspect of looking at this situation and and it gives us insight into what this verse really means to bring savored to bring a saving value to those around us and so. I just pray that. As you research this yourself I mean don't take just what I say here for for. You know solid truth or whatever I mean look it up yourself research yourself. Look up some of these things and and decide for yourself this is something beneficial for you and you should you know possibly incorporated into your into your diet. Because it's it's a way of preserving food that makes food super food I mean what a beautiful preservation aspect that God's given us not only does it preserve the food but it it's an increase it increases the value of that food in terms of its nutritional value so. Yeah I hope that is helpful to lot of you and a close the word of prayer and then we can open it up to some questions. Dear gracious Heavenly Father Lord of pray that. We can be a saving preserving. Thing in the world something that that brings value to other people's lives that we can reach out with. The health messages that write our. And introduce people to you and so Lord as we go through. This process of trying to figure out how it is we can preserve our food in the best possible way or just guide us and teach us in the ways in which we should go we thank you of you just and. 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