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Weed Management

Stephen Meyer

Description

This class will cover management practices to prevent and control weeds, including crop rotation, cultivation tools, and flame weeding. 

Presenter

Stephen Meyer

Owns company Growing Resources

Recorded

  • November 12, 2015
    4:00 PM
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You have only Father we thank you that you've given a SOP or ten a T. to work with you in the garden. What a fantastic world and universe you have created. Even after six thousand years of sin. We're just in your creation. And we are dealing us afternoon with some of the challenges that we have in the garden so we just pray that your wisdom will be here with us. That each person will feel they have gotten something that they can use in their gardens. Thank you Lord in Christ name Amen. OK weed control. As one of my favorite topics and of course you know you read through the Bible in spirit prophecy. You find out that the challenges that we have. You get that idea when God was talking to Adam and Eve right there. After they had sin. The challenges that we have are for us to overcome. And in that overcoming it is recreating us into what we need to be. So those problems are some real blessing. Say as part of the curse. That is for man's and woman's say. And so we control is a challenge. But we're we're told that when we see difficulties. We should use our God given ability to overcome those difficulties. So that's the whole idea. We find intelligent tools is not that it's not work. But we become masters of it because we use our minds so that's sort of the mindset that we want to have. As we as we go into this. And then I'm sure. You know each one of you represent some specific questions and. And we'd problems so we'll try to get those answered this woman here is already smiling so you get the idea. OK. Here's factors that affect weed problems. Soil imbalances you know you can see certain we'd like broom grass. That tell you that it's. Poor soil my brother was pointing that out in the gardening class room grass in West Virginia. You know you can just see it growing on the hillside you know that's poor acid soil. One time I was cruising along the freeway in northwestern Florida. And I looked over here on the field over there and it would just read with sorrel. That was wild sorrel. That was going to seed and it puts up these little spikes. Red and so I just knew that's an acid soil over there. And and so certain soil conditions can encourage certain we'd So it's good balance your soil with a can on exchange capacity. Type soil test. And that will maybe lessen your we pressure from my experience I'm still working on get my soil perfectly balance. So don't expect too much in that area. Then of course the other thing is the amount of weed seeds in your soil. So you want to. You know not let your weeds go to seed. Because you're going to be dealing with that for the next seven years or are something like that. And that's where the thing on the bottom there which I'll show in the next slide. Tarps really helps with that being careful. But you know just careful called evasion is worth the extra extra work. Not letting those weeds go to seed. And maybe when you're around the. Up organic matter. Being careful about how many we'd see. And as in a course there are some parts of my garden have so many weed seeds in I'M ALREADY. That a few more we'd see does make a whole lot of difference. Then a really big thing is rotation. Which is a practice of changing the crop from year to year don't just plant cotton cotton cotton there whatever. But don't just go corn beans corn soybeans really have a rotation three four five six seven years and especially if you can have it inside. And then you break it out a sod the weeds grow in your garden. Many times don't grow in a hay field where it is just kept mode and. It's a solid stand of grass. It suppresses the pig We then the Lambs quarters. And that kind of thing so when you break it out a sod. Then you have many times many less weeds. Because there can be other weeds in their prey new weed sometimes like thistles in Colorado or something. But that really can break the. The life cycle of those weeds. But in many of our gardens we don't have that luxury. Say we're just very intensively. Growing a garden. But there were rotating and there's where you have this thing. Of alternating hard to weed crops like carrots beets and so forth because they're slow germinating small little things that grow slowly that we just get ahead of them and to pick them out of the weeds. You alternate those with what we call cleaning crops are easy the cat. Keep we free. Crops like potatoes. Cohen sweepin those are ones in my garden that function that way because you can keep them. Well cultivated. And then they grow up and shade out the weeds I mean sweet potatoes if you get a. Right. They just solid sea of leaves and. In general you don't have a lot of things will come up to except in Alabama sometimes. Certain kinds of not grass would come up through. But you can count on it you could look there in my garden in Alabama used to work at U.T. pines. Sometimes you'd see here. You could see where I grew the sweet potatoes last year. The next year you go out there just the sun's coming up. And it just shined. And an area that had been tilled maybe a month before and it hadn't had anything planet or maybe it had some planted it hadn't been called evaded for a few weeks and here all these pigweed and they turned toward the sun and the bottom of their leases read so that wherever those sweet potatoes work. Is just would tend to look at red. But you could see where the sweet potatoes were is much cleaner. And so then that's a good place to point your carrots The Because you have a lot less. We need to pick out by hand. And of course the minute you guys know I'm going to never really tell you about flame weeding which will help you with doing your carrots too so that's going to be. That's going to be a good share of the time but I soon that's why some of you came years. And then of course have an arrest year. In part of your garden. You can put it into a perennial green manure. Like alfalfa or clover. Maybe red clover some like that it does give you that climax stand. And you can just keep it. Mode for for maybe from the fall of the six year. And I'll show you how to do. Between the road living mulch where you plant the seeds while the crop of the six year is is growing Let's say you. Sprinkle your seeds in there so without any extra work. You very little extra work. You have planted your green manure. Then it grows over the winter. Into the seventh year the spring of the seventh year comes up in the summer of that seventh year you just keep it mode and that'll suppress all those annual weeds that want to come up and make make seeds and so forth. And of course if it's a legume it's fixing nitrogen and building organic matter in the roots in the tops and what you keep Mo ing off. And then it grows over the winter of the seventh year. And then you till it under. And let it grow up in the spring of the eighty year and till it under a course in good time to wear to break down before you need to plant your crop you know you get good seed bed preparation. Maybe a month before you going to play your crop. And there are two weeks if you have the right kind of equipment. And so that green manure has been growing there for basically a year. A half. Plus. OK so you really built the organic matter. The night Judge and if you have a relatively good Ok so well. I can guarantee you if you did that you can plant just about any nitrogen demanding crop like corn cabbage or whatever. And it's got the nitrogen it needs to just grow the crops you know you can take a picture of it and use it in a in a chemical fertilizer advertisement. It's that good thing. Plus that you know organic matter. And we'd suppressions say. So that's a very good technique. In the process you're resting your land which is God's plan for sort of restocking. The organic matter and the nutrients and all that good stuff. So that's a very good you know these are intelligence tools that you're using doesn't really take any more work you just planning. Using your brains instead of just you know busting your knuckles on OK. And here's another one that. That we've learned about from man up in Canada. John Martine for D.A. and his book is back here I recommend if you're looking at market gardening. It's a very good. Good Book and. And also he's a good friend of mine I've never met him but he put my flame Wieters in his book he has one of my flame leaders. And he says more positive things about flame leaders and I can even bring myself to say. So he just some days I just love him and other days. I. He sent me to many orders. OK tarps. Here is. When you're done with the crop in a certain area your garden. OK your early crops and you're so busy canning and freezing. It's easy to leave that part of your garden it just grows up and we'd say. The early peas or care better whatever goes up in Weeds is looking pretty nice at some point you had it all we did. But then is your harvesting it didn't even notice those weeds are growing around the edges and before you know it it just made a whole bunch of seeds we have one weed in West Virginia called shaggy soldier that exists fully disclose so fast that we call wild Buckwheat there in West Virginia. So you just put this tarp over the beds. Wherever that part is would necessarily have one TARP. The big you could cut it up and make you can get them from Jonathan deicing or. And also you can get him locally from. Like Southern states they call him Sylia tarts for putting over. Silos. And they usually white on one side and black on the other if you're concerned about overheating your soil. But the white side. If you put the white side down and. And it just encourages it's nice and moist and break down those we'd So it's much easier then to kill in whatever. Crop residues and we need is just like very mellow and so it's a good way. To kind of keep it there already to tell up whenever you're ready for your next crop. And actually I've used tarps. Not this particular kind of tar just a regular TARP which I wouldn't recommend because they tend to break down in the sun and then they disintegrate in your soil OK. But I have spread that over areas that were just black berries and we have ironweed unstick weed in West Virginia. And I was going there and lack that with the weed whacker and the machete. Just whack it down I was going to plant raspberries and there you but you know all these prend you know weeds if you plant raspberries in there you have black that while black berries grow in your raspberries. Pretty seniors till the whole thing under stuff so I just put this tarp over there for a good part of the of the summer. The year before I was going to plant my raspberries either I was going to plant in the fall and spring so I put in the summer. Just put it over there. And after you need do it for a month or two during the active growing time. Preferably toward the in the spring time. When they you know the Black Berries and so forth a been saving up their energy over the winter. And now they need to get more energy. So they put up their leaves. Well if you put the tarp over and they can't get any more energy than their roots will die. But any time of the year when you have a month or two of warm growing season time. And you don't let him get a light. They'll give out. Except some ways very tough so you know. You'll learn what you need to do to your we and your Klein. Now I put it over this for a month or two. And boy you take it off there and everything's dead it's just a whole bunch of organic matter. And you just you know. Plant year till you're stripped there and plant your raspberries and just take care of all those prey knew we'd gone I mean there might be some weed seeds in there stick we didn't. And we but it really is a good way to cycle. A wild. You know. West Virginia. Corner of your garden or new area. Into perennial berries and for it. OK then here is another one and then this is again where I want to use our mind and deal with this. So in your garden. You want to be doing cultivation not. We control are not pulling the we. When you start see and we'd the need to pull man you've made a lot of work for yourselves. Is just your way behind. You need to be doing cultivating before you can hardly even see the we. You want to break up that crust. And on the morning of a sunny day type of thing. OK And then we just die. And there's no problem. So easy. And the tools for that are stirrup Oh. Where's my story of how here. And I was in pictures these to stir a poem and oh we'll stirrup cultivator and they have some. Back here. There are several brands Johnnie's has a you can hand out those Johnnies catalogs maybe. And this is my main hoe that I like. Stirrup Oh and it's a Swiss stirrup. OK. See how it has this kind of Bodo blade if you want to just grab one of those and. You can give it back if you have one OK. But if you want to just have one in your hand. During our class. Then you can stick it back on the table and give it back to these guys. That way you can look at these well we're talking here. But it has its Bodo. You can go into the hardware store here in the States. And you get what's called a hula hole or whatever. But it has a straight. Blade and it doesn't work nearly as well this goes in nice and deep. Except it goes very shallow right here where you're going right I mean you can nudge right. Against a carrot plant. See. So you can go zipping down the side of the row and up this side of the row. And it really leaves very little. And you kind of can. If it starts loading up with reeds. You just kind of this one flops a lot compared to mine. That you can go like this. And it'll unload the roots and stuff off of it. So it's a really nice nice. Typo. OK And then what page of these on. Yeah. OK. And then here's called a colon. OK. And this one is really nice. This one if you try to go between lettuce plants. It would just rip the stirrup how it was ripped Elisa let us especially if the lettuce plants are getting very big. But this when you go ride in there and slice. The soil just like with that one slice through the soil. But you won't be going under the under the leaves. And just the way this blade is it is really nice and you can stand upright see it's not this kind of breaking your back type of thing thing. And you can get in a certain cadence and you put on some classical. Maybe you know waltz tight music and you get a certain canes going down the road. You know. And. But with this one actually a lot of the time depends on what kind of soil you have and how many. But you can do care. As fast as you can go down and keep a straight. Thing you just go right down the care row that fast and he's done. You know it's really nice. Now if you have a few more rocks in your soil. Like I do in my garden. Then you have to do a little bit more like this to work with the rocks been in Colorado we had that beautiful silk soil. It has really really great. OK we'll go on here then with a show you some that I've got here here's a push. Stirrup Oh that I made myself. OK. And. As the same as a fourteen thirteen or fourteen inch wide blade. So for the average. Row. Let's say you have thirty inch. Rows between your corn rows are being rows. You can go up and back in the pathway and you've basically done the whole pathway. And then of course you come with a hand hoping go right next to the right next to the plant but you know up and back when we first bought this we bought a ones that are in Johnny's Swiss stirrup of our Swiss push stirrup Oh he's gone all these other little little narrow hose and we thought we were going to do it right down the in between the care. Rows in the bed and all the stuff. Once we got gone with it we just left that wide stirrup on and that's all we ever used and we have to all those other fancy little gadgets in shed. OK so. But you know you might have a different taste in doing it but that's what we found saying boy you can cover so much territory. With so little effort so many few calories and energy expended to get that kids love this kind of thing because they. You know it you know you can feel they're getting it done and using their brains instead of just you know. Breaking their back or whatever. OK. And there you can see it kind of has. It also you can go like this and it will flip back and forth and so it cuts both directions. And there you can see it from the front about how wide it is and. There you can see the blade a little bit more. And that's in our greenhouse a watermelon just happened to be there it's not. We haven't crossed. Peppers and watermelons yet. Thirteen or fourteen inches wide. I think Johnny Sutton of Johnnie's has how either their blades there. But Peaceful Valley Farm Supply. Also has these and they. They sell a variety of wits and. Johnny's probably has it in their. In their. Maybe their website. Twelve inch. Yeah. That's not quite wide enough for me OK I want to carry a cover a lot of territory. OK. Here is some of the different hose and there you see the stirrup Oh that one is gone or I just take the handle off whenever I travel internationally. I put that in my suitcase. And so that ho head is going around the world a few times. And you can see it starting to wear a little bit. Some. They say they have these files for sharpening. I never sharpen mine I don't want to wear out any faster than has do. And basically have enough rocks to sharpen it in West. OK And then you see the old cotton Hova here that's nice for hilling potatoes or something like that you know it has its place. OK. But for hauling in the care of bed or something like that you want that stirrup Oh. And then you see the one between the cotton hole in the stirrup Oh. That's the one I use the use when I'm doing general hoeing in the garden or hoeing between. I don't have one of these Clinton your hose here. I left mine at The Valley but that one is the one I use for general hoeing in the garden and for hauling between the lettuce in the beds and so forth it. It sort of does the same thing but it's you know you can buy it locally. OK And so instead of a big wide blade like cotton hoe you might say. It's only about this wide sea and it works but you can still pull some soil with it. So when you say with your corn I should have some slides here. But let's say you have corn and beans. OK. And use it up and down the pathway. With that push called evader. And then you come with that one. And it pulls just enough soil. So you can go along like this and you just angle a little bit like a road grader say. And it will just shove that soil in under your beans. Leaves you know just when there's the first. First leaves. And just cover all those little weed in there if you're doing it in the cultivation mode instead of waiting till the weeds are are this big. And of course I plant my beans and corn with a with a push planter like they have back here somewhere. And that leaves a little depression. The row. Then so then the beans come up in this little just down in just a little bit. So that then when I go rolling my soil in there. It just rolls that in and covers those we need. And you know you can do the same thing you'll see how we do this with a cultivator. But in a home garden. You can do the same thing with a with a hose you have that idea. And then on the right hand side there is a a little one that I use because many times I plant my salads. Very narrow rows only two or three inches apart a whole bunch of rows on a bed. And so that when I use for going in there. Even when the salad started to grow. I just can go in there and do it and you can see Johnny's there on the page in Johnny's catalog. They have what. What letter is that there in the side of the page here. Yeah that one. I guess that's be OK. Isn't pretty close to my crude one up there. Is the type of hose that would answer to that he she is maybe the second from left there. He would be pretty close. Maybe. And then there's a subtle wire. Why are we need or. And that's nice also for working in small areas but I'm always afraid with my Rocky so that wreck it up if I just had a hand one OK and here's just a few shots that show you see there you can just go right next to those plants. And just about nudge against them and. And so you just you know the very little weed left or right in a row. And if you turn that stir. Just right as you go along it will it will push soil. Into the row. So that the really great. Really great tool you know it's not the cheapest toe in the world. But once you've bought one of those. You will just be so happy spend that money. We all spend money on things. And so this is what you spend at and there's my crude little thing and you can see that. You know relatively narrow rows. It's really nice for getting in there with those kind of things and here we're going between the Let us let us plants and it'll even slip under the drip irrigation. You know see just go down through there. You don't have to pull the drip irrigation all out and everything. Because you have to be careful because if you're not careful you make a hole and in the jet. OK and then flame waiting that's another one of those intelligence tools and. And so show you a few pictures pictures that. Maybe maybe have a question about this cultivation before we before we go on. OK we're going with flame we then. Why better keep moving here. OK here we are planting. Our. Our carrots for Rose on a bed this is out of the in valley. With this earth way. Push planter. And it has all kinds of plate so you can plant beans peas. Okra silence of or. And it's really nice little tool that you can. You know it's cost seventy five hundred dollars. But if you watch for it in the yard sales. You can get it for you know. Fifteen dollars twenty five dollars. Like that it's an earth way. Push planter. OK And. And then here we kind of clip several of them together so we could have even spacing for for mechanical cultivation with the tractor. There the clips OK. And then we would put the floating in the first planting in the spring. If you have floating row covers. You can plant two to three weeks earlier than you would otherwise plant. OK So you know if for where you are let's say for us in West Virginia to plant. Maybe in the march is about what you can do with carrots and it might be so cold they have a hard. Will you then. So that would sort of be middle then the marches and you would usually paint carrots. With floating row covers. You could plant them. Beginning of March to the middle of March or something like that. Yeah floating row cover is just spun down fabric that looks like the stuff that women put in. Interface that they put in to get more bulk to the. Whatever something they're selling and. But it's just a real send fabric it's in the Johnnies catalogue there I think Page two hundred. And for this purpose. We use The point five five. Out spur square yard. I think it's called ninety or G ninety would have. What is it there. That's a second from the top. AGRA Bon. A G ninety. Yeah. And so you just spread that over your bed we use the eighty inch wide. Stuff. And it's relatively relatively cheap and Agra. AGRA Bon is the best brain that I've found there's some other ones like cover ten or not so great. But you just put that over your beds of carrots beets let us anything you want to get going earlier. And you're too weak to even plant two weeks earlier than you would otherwise or be just plant the regular time. It will it will get you to harvest almost two weeks earlier just because you put that over. And it just keeps things warmer and but the rain will go through it it will. Ventilate itself it's really really great stuff and. OK. There you can see how we have it spread on the on there to get it. Get it germinating. OK And course you can plant the carrots just in your garden. By hand. OK. And then this is the flame leader that. The first one we made. When I was over in Europe. Is teaching at European Bible school and starting a course over there. I toured a lot of organic farms in Europe. Seems like every other farmer had his own flame weed or that he had put together so then I ended up. Back with my brother Jol in Colorado and he had his plan a quarter acre of carrots. Every year and his apprentices would basically spend a week on their hands and knees. Weeding those carrots. And so I said Joe You need a fleeing leader still in the shop when we made this one. And then the the way you do this is you. You have to have a stale bed you have to plan into a stale bed so you till your character beds or your beats whatever slow germinating vegetables. About two weeks before you're going to plant. And then when you plant you don't kill again you plant into that state. Bed. That's given two weeks for the weeds to already start germinating. Before you plant. The new plant. And it takes you know week to ten days or if it's real cold almost fourteen days for the carrots to come up and just before the carrots come up. You run the flame leader. Over these torches. Over the the bed. And that kills the fast germinating weeds that have already come up. And then your carrots come up into relatively. We'd free beds. Really get you ahead of that first generation the weeds. Which makes carrots so hard. So you can see here. Then the seals will care rows they're OK. And then you can see the weeds. That would have been in the care. If we hadn't slain that right there on the row. Because you want to always make sure you flame before the carrots come up. Otherwise. You know. Carrots are gone. And we're just so happy. Oh boy that saved them so much work. And so here we are with the stir opposed just taking care of the we'd And of course. This guy standing on the carrot bed which he should never do. OK. The one on the right. But in we had four rows on a bed. And the other guy in the middle here stand in the pathway. And there you can see our stirrup oer doing the pathways with the push. Cultivator I should say and then is enhanced are opposed to take care of the weeds. But you can see it is somewhat rocky soil in that particular. But we grew beautiful carrots the best tasting care. I mean just. Super anyway. We are so happy but then we found sometimes even in dry Colorado it started raining like West Virginia or something. And the carrots. Would not want to to die they would just I mean. Not the carrots but the the weeds. And so yes. Hoda them. And then it would rain the afternoon and they would just want to just keep growing so. So then we came up with this we just flame the whole top of the bed so we came up with a few no manifold of torches. Do the whole thing. And you don't need to burn the weeds all you need to do is overheat them and it ruptures their cells. And they still look green after you run the flame leader over. But they kind of a glassy green and. Then a few hours or days later they just turn block and and die. Now some people are kind of nervous about having that gas tank on their back. But I just tell him with anything happens. You won't know what happened. So now we make sure everything is safe. You know about the hose and him. Right. And you'll find the soil has enough mass to it. And you're gone. You know. One foot per second down the road just a slow walk and. So it's just for a little bit. That the flame is on there. And the Europeans have done their very preoccupied with. Take care of the microbes in the soil so they've done a lot of research. Whether it will affect the microbes or how much it heats the soil and doesn't do that. So here is a bed. That has not been hoed or anything. Then you can see you know nice rows of of carrots with sensually. You know we'd free. Between the rows except. You can see here. These are some maybe these were. We didn't get flamed. OK. But you know you can really zip up and down in that kind of thing where there are any big we need. And here you can see there. They're just going right along. Hello and there's some weeds in there but they're the second generation little weeds. OK. Except you can see right here. See this green patch right here. Those are Sissel. And flame weeding will burn the tops off that the celebs but they just come up from the root so you know. Flaming is not for everything. It's not for your corn and beans you know people call me on the phone and they want to buy a flame Wheater and when I find out what they want it for many times I sell them because they want they think is going to flame. The whole garden and live happily ever after but it's always easier and cheaper to cultivate. Then it is to flame. But for this kind of slow germinating things that are more challenging like carrots beets direct seeded onions. And that kind of thing. Really makes it all the difference in the world. OK Just a few more slides here these are direct seeded onions which you can't really see but he can see this is how many we would be in the bed. Here's a row Here's a row Here's your hours. I guess one two three four yeah. And there's how many we would be in the bed if we had slain. And again you can see those the souls that really the bane of our whole thing there and in Colorado. OK And then. Here's one that we took a long time to get around to getting the weeds that were in the pathways. And so you can see this is about a month after we planted the carrots or maybe even more maybe a month after the carrots came up. And that's how big the weeds would be in the bed. But you can see this still pretty weeds free there hasn't been a Hoda at all nothing and been done to it. And that's probably how big that we need to be if we hadn't. Flamed. OK And then we did one on the tractor with seven to nine. Torches as really made us like afterburner on a Jap crew. And it's. As really the all-American toy you know. Burns fossil fuel. Makes noise. Silence avoid that. Here's what you can do in your home garden. OK. You just go into your husband shop and get this. Propane torch like these are soldering pipes and all. And you put this fan tip on the end which comes with many that the kit is for burning paint off of furniture some like that and you put that on the end tape it onto the hope handle and light it turn it up real good. And you put it. You know run it right down the road carit say and. Because that's where you needed the most time is nice to do a whole whole bed but. But in a garden setting. You know. You don't need to add or you can buy a single torch from northern to I don't even sell a single torque single torch from Northern Tool or something like that it's a good good way to try it. You know in in your garden. And here's what we did. Yeah if you just. If you just kill your kill your bed and plant the carrots the same days you tilt it and then the carrots come or just for the carrots come up you flame it. And carrots Come on up there won't have gotten enough we out of the ground that you killed. A lot of weed so they'll be still coming up with the carrots say and so you look at it you go. I don't think flaming is even worth the time let alone the gas and all that the money so if you but if you do that stale bed technique then it's just like night and day. So it takes a little bit of. You know. And one way to know when the carrots are going to come up course I don't trust any of the things I want. I get down there and dig in and. And you learn the. The anatomy and physiology of how a carrot sprouts and they you know they put this route. Down from the. Here's the CD Put the root down. And then they start knuckling up and pulling their their coddle Eden's out of the carrot seed and they come on up so that's just when they put that root down that's when you want to flame. Again. But don't wait too long. Otherwise. You know you kill your carrots. But a good way to sort of know when the carrots are going to come up the plant beets and care. At the same time. And when the beats come up. Then you know the carrots are almost ready to come up. But still I don't trust it down there still taking that little jumping. OK. Especially if you have you know. Three hundred foot beds. And you look your princess is in the eye the next morning when you missed because they came up with the carrots came up overnight. Yet here we are going to Nepal. To work with my brother Joel he was working with a famine. And so we thought well we do flaming over there so we made a methane digester here's the here's the digester and put in the methane into this tank here. And took about two weeks to fill it up two weeks to get going and then two weeks to to digest and then we did it like this and job wrought this head Strat back from the pollen is the first visit. And so this is the third world version of the space shuttle. Made me he made me nervous. So you're around this I did imagine back up against a thorn tree and. Anyway we with two weeks of methane production from that little thing. We flamed. Over one thousand feet of single row. One thousand foot of row of garlic. With that sense. So it can be. You know it can be more ecological than using propane is what we use. And of course remember we're doing all this for the carrots and beats and. And those kind of things. OK. Any questions on that before we move on to some of the things. OK. OK most is. I use my mulch. Mostly on long season. Things in my garden. Like tomatoes. Can low. Watermelon. Q Cumbers big plant. Those kind of things. I don't most my carrots and peas. Those things you know. You do all that work the motion and it's all done and and civil. But course controls a weed. Conserves moisture is organic mulch maybe controls erosion builds the soil. Because inevitably breaks down. Improves soil structure all those worms like to come up and just you know. That's their food is organic matter. We already mentioned this do the longer season crops is good for putting around. Fruit trees. You don't want to snug it out to there too much. Good for small fruits you know like with our raspberries. We just take our grass clippings and put them on the raspberry row. And it's just makes those raspberry just so happy and all that nitrogen just makes them grow. It's really great mulch fertilizer. Combination. And of course one of the biggest mistakes with Moss is people will plant their early tomatoes and most in the same day the soils. On the cold side and they put all that moss and just keeps the cold in so many times I would just keep my tomatoes cultivated for the first several weeks or even months. And then when the soil warms up. Just before I put my cages on or something like that. I put the motion there and then go through the rest of the summer to have to worry about the weeds. Course that's where a inorganic mulch is nice down here we have the plastic. OK. Because it will heat the soil so you know for your early crops tomatoes melons. It will not only control the weeds. But it will warm the soil and and speed the crop so you have. You know plastic mulch and floating row cover is really you know gets you going fast in the spring. But then there's a course. You know usually you can buy it in the Johnny's catalogue and I didn't look up the page maybe somebody can find the plastic mulch. And it comes in rolls. OK. Four feet wide rolls and you just roll it out down the bed and tuck in the sides course they have these mechanical. Most layers that roll soil on as it goes down the bed. But you just make little little ditches with your HOA on the edges and tuck the motion there and you know put the soil over the edges and. So I used to get. I think a six foot long rolls. And then I would cut them in half with a power hacksaw so I had three foot because I didn't want to spend that much money for I just needed that right where the plant was OK and. But I usually don't use plastic mulch in my garden. Somehow I don't like using plastic. It's kind of you know a college E. thing. And I find so many other ways to deal with it so. But it can help you to get a earlier. Earlier crop and on things like strawberries. You know the deicing years and tell you that they can do the kind of strawberry culture they do without plastic. Even though they like to find some other some other way. Yeah. My experience was in Alabama we had a lot of pine needles so I used. I did a lot of mulching with pine needles. And there we are soil tended to be relatively neutral soil so it's just the way it was sandy soil. But I use a lot of pine needle moss and I never sought to be a problem. If you till whole bunch of pine needles into your soil. Then you can you know. Change the Ph. And but just put it on the top if your soil is already sort of sliding into being acid or low in one thousand June. And then use an acid low nitrogen mulch you know you can just one more notch down the low. PH road but. But if you have a concern you know you just get your soil tested or. Sprinkle some lime under. But I haven't seen that. To be a big problem. So I'm doing soil testing on a regular basis and. And really putting on those amendments. And so if you're doing that is not a problem in Alabama we had leaves and pine needles. If you just put on finals you need to put them on really thick otherwise. Depends on the type I knew was I guess. But are longly fine needles. The sun will still get through and the weeds will grow. So we found if you put leaves down first you can put relatively few leaves down and it will. Shade out. The create a mat. But the wind would come and blow the leaves away. So we did we put the layer of leaves down to cut the sun out. And then we put pine needles on top and it just worked great things and pine needles to me look more beautiful than than leaves anyway. And so that's the way you can do or straw and hey works well but sometimes you can have weed seeds or you can have we see. And so I've done in strawberry patches and different things where I'm also a straw. And it just turned into a wheat field. So sometimes and to avoid that you just take and water those bales real well even break them up seeing get more water in there and put a tarp for a plastic over it and really let it sprout those. Wheat. So you don't end up with that. And then bark and wood chips I don't use those in my garden. You know vegetable garden. I usually use those around my berries and trees and things like that because many times I till my mulch in the fall. As a part of my soil building program. And you know. Bark and that kind of thing. But some people. You know found ways to do it and just put extra nutrition in your soil. And they make permanent bark pathways but that's not the way that I do. My. You know. My garden. Some people have a religious conviction against what is that called back to even that what is it called the method that really promotes. What they call back the. I personally I think they that's kind of neat how they're doing that. Except that they're promoting it. As the answer to all saw problems around the world everywhere. And from my experience. The soil is so different so many different places. And I've tested soil all over the world and found. You can count on almost every soil will have a definite deficiency in one or two trace elements. And probably in calcium or magnesium or so forth and so at Eventually we put on huge amounts of compost for multiple years and beautiful really build up our soil. But it had still some real deficiencies. And so if you're really eating out of your garden. You want to make sure you really have a balance or. So for that. You know I would say only little comment I would have to make. OK now we're going to show you the whole thing about a living mulch. More we're going to have to sit through these because I've probably already run time. OK formant. OK here we are planning it with a tractor but I'll show you here in a minute how you can do it with just by hand. Here we're planning a corn and there in Colorado we had the irrigated here we're cultivating it. And we had these guards that would protect the corn as we rolled the soil in around but same idea you can do with a huh. If you do it in a cultivation you don't see any weeds there see because we're breaking the crust. Before the weeds are big enough to be able to see em. And we're covering those we just snuggle in the soil in around the plants and covering all those little weed so that's your idea. And there you can see we had a whole thing and it all floated all those shoes floated with these wheels and. This was this girl I would trust her with my cultivator tractor. More than some of the guys that were apprentices. She had that nerve to go fast and drive straight. OK And then when the corn is about knee high or something like that. You just sprinkle clover seed in there. OK. Or alfalfa or that kind of thing Sweetclover. And then you cultivate it. The last cultivation. Just before the last cultivation. You sprinkle your green manure. Seeds in there. But you have to keep it really lead free up until then. Because after that you can't hole are called of AM and you can go in there and chop out a lead here and there. But if you're hoping you're killing your green manure. I've got. OK and then course keep it well watered which in West Virginia you know. Most of the time. We don't have to worry about that but this how you do it in your garden. Say you just take and you get the feel the need to sort of measure out your this much. This much. Seed should go down fifteen or twenty feet. Then you start doing because you just start. Say I need. I have a pound here I'm going to spread over this much. And you get halfway across the garden you use it all up so you've got to get the feel of how far because it goes through your fingers really fat. But then you just cultivate it with the stirrup Oh push. Pushed or oppose or just with rake it in if you've already are detail just rake it in like this because it only has to be in a quarter of an inch or half an inch. Something like that or you can set at least on a Troy build rototiller. It has a thing. A thing on the back kind of issue that you can set it different depths. So you set it so that it only tails maybe that deep it's kind of tills the surface. And it's a very good way to last cultivation and incorporate your green manure at the same time or you might do a deep call you know you might do a go over it with the rototiller to kill all the weeds. Then you sprinkle your seeds. And then you set that shoes to go real shallow. And just because if you set it shallow it might not get all the weeds. And so we've planted. Our crop and we've done or are green manure crop. And we have done our last call division at the same time doing this and corn beans cabbage. And if there's some crop that grows real sick like carrots on a bed you know they just grow up the carrots are just fallen and shade everything you couldn't plant. Agreement or in between those those multiple rows on the bed say. So you have to know in your garden. What part of the garden. You can plant this living. Living mulch. And then the corn grows on up. And just like and there's growing down and meet the corn and by the time. We're harvesting. You can see it very well in here but that's about ten inches high some places. Six to ten inches high. By the time you're harvesting the corn. And then it can keep growing until from last and say you're growing your organic matter and your nitrogen for next year's crop. While the corn is growing so the sort of get into the best of both worlds. And he didn't have to do a whole different operation at the end of the season. To plant your green manure. Which sometimes just because it is a whole nother job. I don't get around to doing it. Yeah. You. You do. Really good job of cultivating that crop. Until it has gotten up to the point. It is going to. Go ahead and grow you're not going to cultivate anymore you've gotten ahead of the we need. And if you by that time you cultivated it. Two to three times and you basically work to weed seeds out of that surface. There will still be some weeds it grow. And it depends if you're in Colorado you have different weeds in West Virginia or in Georgia or whatever so that you know you'll find out how well this works for you in Texas or whatever. With the also the green manure is that will grow. Yellow dock yelling has kind of a yellow root. Yet some of those perennial weeds. The best way I've found is. I mean a small garden you just dig him out. But on a bigger scale. The best way is tart. Type of idea. You just put a tarp over it for. We had to do that was comforting because it had taken over one third of my brother's garden. Before we came and then we took over the garden and we. We put tarps. Over that come free for a whole growing season. In order to kill it out so you can have to dedicate that part. Or you just keep it killed. You never let it grow. Green which is hard to do for some like the soles. You know. Yeah. Yeah. In that case. Yeah. It is especially if you do it with the road a tailor. OK. But if you do it with course many gardeners don't have this. If you do it with a field cultivator. It will just push those things up on top and but still it's very difficult. You know. Because you do and if your market garden you do in so many other things and and to get around to go back there every week and kill it again so it never grows any green for basically a whole growing season. Plus all that telling is burning up organic matter. So that's where tarps. Are. Really nice. Really nice thing but again you have to dedicate the best part of the growing season. To kill and. So just depends how important that is do you tried like six mil TARP. Yeah enough grass because it has not. And that have a lot of energy in them and it puts up a pointed thing it'll go right through. Black plastic motion I know it will go right. Go right through it. If so there it again. There to just keep it. Just keep it cultivated is. That's that's what you have to do. OK one. One or two more slides here I think exist way you can mow it off and just let it grow on to the next year. And then next year you just tell it under course most of you don't have big rototiller like that. Here's what we do with this plant and broccoli and cabbage here we're cultivating with the stirrup Oh push called evader. And again you do it really good job especially when it's getting up to that point where you're going to spread your seeds. You make sure everything's we very and. And you keep it watered after you've planted it. There you can see the clover coming out between the rows there of onions and kale. But we didn't plant in the bed of onions or the bed of kale and. This is our broccoli and stuff. And there you can see it grow in there in the cabbage and actually can't see it but most of these heads of already been harvested. OK OK. We forgot to give out the flame weeding technique. And we have a couple questions here before we wind up. Yeah yeah yeah. So that's what I was thinking. You know there's some. There's some. There's some trees. That suppress have that kind of. Suppressing things like black walnuts. In West Virginia. So you might want to talk to the extension service. You know because I don't know anything about Texas. But just walk in here through the juniper woods I get that impression. So you might want to talk to the locals. Local yokels. Yes sir. Yeah they're in Colorado. It's a lot better than in West Virginia. Have any other questions. Yeah yeah yeah kind of has a bunch of little stuff. She was one an Asus Garden Weasel which kind of has little times I don't know if it's in the Johnny catalog or not and you can push it and pull it and it kind of. It's like a spy tooth. Breaks up the ground so it's breaking the crust. OK. Now for me. You know. Once you have a stir a po. Then you might decide that that C. with the stirrup Oh you know it's been broken and sliced centers and. Where was this I would be depending on the type of soil. Oh did I really break up and I mean some of those we were just a little bit big or do they still have the root going down through easy. So. But. But in in the sense that it breaks up the crust is killing no eats and of course. Let's be more area to do. OK. Anybody else. OK. I hope that will help you have some ideas. To use in your garden and be more be more successful. When we wind up here with the prayer Lords were working. Looking forward to the world that doesn't have any of these kind of. What we call leads. But everything works the way you originally intended we. We can't even picture how that will work but we think you're preparing that for us. So we just pray that you will help us to be diligent in working our gardens working the gardens of our hearts lay you break up the fallow ground remove the weeds and prepare us for that. Where that right here and there. Thank you this media was brought to you by Audioboo a Web site dedicated to spreading God's word through free sermon audio. And much more. If you would like to know more about audio or sermon. Leave. W W W. Audio person or.

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