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Pest and Disease Control

Darren Greenfield Timothy Hyde


In this class you will learn methods of pest prevention and what to do if you end up with a pest problem. Find out about effective organic spray options as well as controlling pests with beneficial insects. 



  • November 12, 2015
    4:00 PM
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My name's there and Greenfield and Timothy Hyde at the back we're going to Coty his class and going to talk a little bit about I.P.M. which is integrated past management. But before we jump into that because our gardens are cooperative work between asked and God. We work together. And God teaches us and he blesses us. So let's see what the Bible says about Paris and dealing with past and shooter on me twenty eight. There's a few verses the air. And it says now it shall come to pass. If you diligently obey the voice of the Lord your God to observe carefully all his commandments which I command you today that the Lord your God will set you high above all nations of the earth. Blessed shall be the fruit of your body the produce of your ground. And the increase of your heard the increase of your cattle and the offspring of your flocks. And all these placing shall come upon you and overtake you. Because you obey the voice of the Lord your God. But it shall come to pass if you do not obey the voice of the Lord your God to observe carefully all those commandments. And his statutes which I command you today. That all these curses will come upon you and overtake you. You shall carry much seed out to the field but gather a little and for the locust shall consume it. So as to the Lord. In both the. The spiritual realm and in the physical around the Lord has given us instruction on how to do certain things. We should be observant of his his commands and Imus for nine he says I blasted you with blight and milled you. When your gardens increased your vineyards your fig trees and your all of trees. The locust of album yet. You have not returned to me says the Lord. So when we dealing with past what should we do. We should go to the Lord right we should pray to him and we should say Lord is there anything you're trying to bring to my attention. At this time. When I'm dealing with these past and not let him. Let him show you it might be something that you're not thinking of. In second Chronicle six twenty eight to thirty one and phase when there is famine in the land. Pestilence or blight or mildew locust so grasshoppers. When their enemies beseech them in the land of their cities. Whatever a plague or whatever sickness there is whatever prayer. Whatever supplication is made by anyone or by all your people Israel. When H one knows his own burden and his own grief and spreads out his hands to this temple. Then here from Haven your dwelling place. And forgive and give to everyone according to all his ways. Whose heart. You know. For you alone know the hearts of the sons of mean that they may fail you to walk in or in your ways as long as they live in the land which you gave to our fathers. I've Well it's read the next one. There's one more Malakai three eight three twelve you're probably familiar with these verses. But this one says Will a man rob God yet you have brought me. But you say in what way have we robbed you. In tithes and offerings. You are cursed with a curse for you have robbed me even. This whole nation. Bring all the tides into the storehouse that they may be food in my house and try me now in the saves a lot of hosts. If I will not open for you the windows of heaven and pour out to you such placing that they will not be room enough to receive it. And I will rebuke that the valor of for your sakes. So that he will not destroy the fruit of your ground. Nor shall the vine fail to be a fruit for you in the field says a lot of hosts. And all nations will call you blessed for you will be a delightful lay and say is the LORD of hosts. Now don't underestimate what the Lord will do for you. It's amazing. I remember when I was I just had a garden. An hour outside our home in Michigan and. We had been reading through a book called over and over again it was testimonies of people who had. Started tithing and and had experience God working. Blessings and very difficult situations. One of the stories was about this guy that had a god on. And these checks were common in the meeting as prodigies. And he realized he hadn't been paying a faithful tithe I think that's how the story when he decided to do that. No I think what it was was he decided you know want. I'm not tithing on my projects of my God And so he started tithing on his projects and. He went out and there this strike dog I believe all several dogs came and chased away those woodchucks and he's an ear problems anymore. So I was walking outside with my wife and. We had a little god in there and they were rabbits that were getting in an eating stuff and I didn't have a fence around to that point. And I said to my wife I wish I had a gun so I could shoot those rabbits and. She was upset with me about that and I said well you know they were eating our projects. And just as I said that and we had made a decision after reading that thing that we're going to toss it on the projects of our God and. And right been. When I said that I wish I had a gun to shoot it I turn around and there came a fox out of the bushes and chase those rabbits away. So you know the Lord I think is very interested in working with us. And if we fight full to him. He can work miracles. To to chase away the past. Now in the great controversy and nature. We're told this. In this is child God It's forty six. Although the earth was blighted with the curse. Nature was still to be man's listen book. It could not now represent goodness only for evil was everywhere praise and monitoring earth and sea and air with its defining touch. We once was written Arnie the character of called the knowledge of good. Was now written also the character of Satan. The knowledge of evil. From nature which now revealed the knowledge of. Would an evil man was continuing to receive warning as to the results of sin. So we find that the natural world is a parallel to the spiritual willed. And what we see going on a nature between good and evil is also what's going on in our hearts and their lives. And we can learn lessons from it so as we deal with these pests then. We we can also be reflecting on what's happening spiritually in our lives and learn from the last quote here. This is from believe it is Bible. One Bible commentary. Triple one two man were to cooperate with God in restoring the diseased land to health. That it might be a praise and glory to his name. And as the land I possessed would if managed with skill and earnestness. Produce a strange is so to their hearts. If controlled by God would reflect his character in the laws which God gave for the cultivation of the soil. He was giving the people opportunity to overcome their selfishness and become heavenly minded. Kanan would be to them as even if they obeyed the word of the Lord. Through them the law designed to teach all the nations of the world how to cultivate the soil. So that it would yield healthy fruit. Free from disease. The earth is the Lord's vineyard and is to be treated according to his plan. Those who cultivated the soil which are realize that they were doing God's service. They were is truly in their lot and place as were the man appointed to minister in the priesthood and in work connected with the tabernacle. When I read that I was like well this is a holy and high calling you know. To to be growing food and working with God and nature because it's not just about making a livelihood. It's about Al lives being prepared for for him and and others as well. So integrated past management. I wish I could expand on that more. But we have a limited time so we will get into this I.P.M. program. It is an eco system based strategy that focuses on long term prevention of past all the damage through a combination of take me. Such as biological control. Have a tech manipulation. Modification of cultural practices and used of resistant varieties. Pesticides are used only after monitoring indicates they are needed according to establish guidelines and treatments are made with the goal of removing only the target organism. Past control materials us selected and applied in a manner that minimizes risk to human health. Beneficial and non-target organisms. And the environment. So it's a very gradual process from doing everything naturally that you can to cooperate with nature. To combat the past and only if you have a really severe infestation. That you resort to a pesticide and. And then you want to choose something that TOG it's only the past and doesn't. The environment that the plants are growing in or human human health. So the very first principle. It with this is starting with soil health. The class that Whitmire is is teaching on soil. Management and also oil health is an excellent class to take a few Obviously you're not in it because you're here. But if you can listen to the class and you can learn the principles. Take soil tests follow the guidelines. Apply what is recommended and get your soil. In the healthiest condition because if you saw a lesson in the healthiest condition it can be. It makes your plants healthy. And just like we have an immune system. Plants have an immune system that can combat the pace and disease as well. She want them to be in the best condition possible and that starts with soil health. Weed Control. Weeds provide habitat for past. We'd have a seat. Weeds drastically reduce the Ilda. So keep the weeds out of you've gotten work when they are very small when they're very tiny. It's very easy to just scuffed the. The do it and get rid of them but when they get bigger it becomes four or five times harder to get the weeds out don't let them get out get ahead of you jump on them and get them out of the. And you will reduce the amount of work and the problems that you'll have to that. I didn't include a slide here but I want to say is that the that we need noxious weeds were a result of the amalgamation of the of the davil he basically took things that God created Melbourne made a more or G M A practice of some kind and develop these noxious weeds. That a great paste. To us today. You want to eliminate stresses watering. If you don't supply adequate water to your plants you create stress for them and so you want to limit night any fall most stressed if you can. If you're growing. Cool way the crops in the heat of the sama. Then you want to have sprinklers of something that will reduce the temperature down and so that they don't have the. The same pressure that they will have trying to grow out of season. I like to grow things and season. I tried. Growing things out of season. And you spend a lot of time combating the. The. The problems that come as a result of it. So I don't have. I can't go into detail. But as far as like when you're growing tomatoes that seems to be a common problem where you have blossom and drop. Profit irrigation eliminates that typically. And the picture that I previously had there was a change the Omega. And attain C.L. matters a way of measuring and control. And knowing how much water is needed. Tomatoes need a deep watering if you just are doing a regular watering like you do for any other vegetables it's a shallow water in that usually a fix the top twelve inches. Tomatoes if the soil conditions are right will put their roots down eight feet. And so when they're trying to to draw up water and it's dry in the lower his own. Then they're not able to the more straight helps the calcium betake taken up into the plants and. So. That they prevent this blossoming drought and anyone who's grown tomatoes has had to deal with I'm sure. With this problem. So I can't get into more detail because of time. But if you do a google search teams see all matter. There's a irrigation company called Berryhill irrigation. They sell them. And it's well worth the money to buy them and put them in. This. The next principle is provide habitat for beneficial insects and birds and except your that can work for you in combating pasts. That will. That will be a problem. One of the things that is promoted with this I.P.M. Pro program is putting in hedge rows typically native types of plants and flowers. That provide habitat for beneficial in six. And it works these things like ladybugs You probably some of the ladybugs you can even buy them from some of the stores to release and that lead Ifans and other things. But if you put in headroom will plants that provide habitat for them. You don't have to go and buy the ladybugs they come to you because you've provided them with food and habitat. So. Plant some of these things flowers and so forth will provide that. And these ladybugs and lace wings and other in stakes will. Will go and ate the bugs and reduce the pressure. I probably should have said more about reducing the stresses because really if you've observed in your God and the healthy plants of the last ones to get attacked as the ones that a little bit sick. The ones that are stressed that the bugs go straight for. They target them. And so doing everything you can and. I may not have put much in here about folly of feeding Has anyone done folly of feeding when you do sprays and feed believes that the plants. The still mater on the leaves open up at night so in the evening is the sun's going down. They open up and they close up in the morning as the sun comes out. If you would do a follow the a feed of some kind of. Cal where I'm casting tea or compost TS and that sort of thing. They have is all the nutrients and they become much more robust and have a better chance at combating passion diseases this is a picture of a lace wing. And they will move in and start eating the bugs. This is a bit I don't know if you have them in your area but we have blue birds in California. In these an ace boxes. If you put an engine five eighth's hole in the nest box. Then only the boot bluebirds will move into them and they eat an amazing amount of of bugs. When they have the nest in the air and they feeding the young you can watch them and they just flying backwards and forwards continually feeding these little bugs that they've been catching off the plants. And there are other birds that will do that as well. Bat boxes bats. Will Eat moths and mouth so often. If you have an orchard and calling moths and other things. He put up. Boxes. The bats will go to work for you any them as well as the pay ski mosquitoes that bite you in your work and you've gotten so bad boxes are really Holly recommended. And they will reduce your pressure. Bon else. If you put up a barren Al box. Nest box or several of them. The bottles will move in and they eat a lot of the rodents. And the little pass a fact that I've read some of the statistics they eat an incredible number of them in a season and. So if you're having problems we have sweet potatoes and they like the little Vols like to eat and this is sweet potatoes and. The only reason we have not put up there by an al. Nash boxes is because we live right next to the old the farm backs right onto Route white tracks and a freeway. And the recommendations are if you're within a mile of of the train tracks or a freeway. Bottles fly low. And I fly right in front of traffic over trains and get hit and killed and. So it's not. We're not in the base situation but if we weren't I would be putting the men. But I'm sharing with you because you may not be in that situation. So another natural predator is. These different Raptors. And you can put up a poll that they like to perch on. And they will come and sit on top of it Paul and they will look down and see. Critters in your garden. And they will fly down and eat them so we did put up some poles and definitely. We would see them there. Sitting and looking and hunting. I was a bit disappointed we have gophers and. These go for snakes too and go for snakes a good to have and. But one time I saw the. I dunno it was a falcon. I think it was a falcon sitting up on the Raptor Paul and I was sort of swooped down and took one of the ghost of a snake so I said I wasn't too happy about that but. Anyway. They will work for you this book here is book that the University of California put out and recommend it. It's called natural enemies handbook. And it tells you all the different types of in six and. What a good and so these. There's basically three types of bugs that you could find in your god you going to have beneficial ones that are going to prey on the past and take care of them. And you've got ones that basically of the of they do no harm and they do no good they just the. And then you've got the past. Type so. Identifying them. Is really beneficial and sometimes it's so small you don't know what they are. And you can buy these magnifying lens these little about an inch diameter. Magnifying lens you want probably either a sixteen or twenty times magnification. And when you see something on your leaves. You know you go and you look at it in late it. Come into focus and you can see clearly what it is. And then with a book or online. U.C. Davis has a really good database on on pace so that you can help identify but that's California can be very different out here. And I think time will probably speak more about identifying your pace and what to do with that. So when it comes to spraying. The spray that we found to be most effective. And to do the least amount of harm is being mean or oil. And this is just one brain there's many types of Nimoy out there in fact. The active ingredient into this code as a direct and. And as a direct and is. It's a very small percentage of the of the Nimoy oil. And there is a product at the according the mix. And that they've basically extracted that the as a direct and out of the name oil. And it's very expensive you get a court and it costs about two hundred dollars for a court. But it goes a long way when you're mixing up. One of those Saulo backpack Spry is to hold four gallons Jenny put about two teaspoons of it in the air so it goes a long way. If you have a home garden cipher the safer brains I put out a name. Products that you can use that a lot less expensive. So this is the mnemonics. One here. It's produced by Citrus Peaceful Valley found supplies sell off and these probably are the places that you can get it from. So there's two other active ingredients in the moral that I laced. Act of his day in the as a direct and they sell on and million Driel. And this is how it basically works. As an MC cross regulator. Basically it works on juvenile home mines in sake lava fields when it grows and it sheds the old skin and starts growing. This particular shedding of old skin is the following one of a dice this. Or Multan has governed by an enzyme a Just So when the name components especially as a direct an enter into the body of the law by the activity of a desired. Is suppressed. And the lava fails to molt. And Dana it remains in the lobby stage and ultimately dies. If the As and if the concentration of as a direct is not sufficient the lava manages to enter the pupil stage but dies at this stage. And if the concentration of so Leslie adult on measuring from the puter is one hundred percent Mel formed. Absolutely sterile without any capacity for reproduction. As a feeding deterrent the most important property of name is its feeding deterrents when an insect lava sits on the leaf the lover is hungry and wants to feed on the leaf. This particular trigger of feeding is given through the makes it a recurring and peristalsis of the elementary canal the speeded up the lava fields hungriness starts feeding on the surface of the leaf. When the leaf is treated with a name product. Because of the presence of as a direct insulin and million Driel. There is an anti peristaltic wave in the elementary canal. And this produces something similar to a Valma ting seen sation in the in the state. Because of the sensation the insect does not feed on the name treated surface. Its ability to swallow is blocked. So if the. The in sick does not get the spray on it. When it if it flies and after you have sprayed. Then there's a repeal of and effect that comes as a result of that and. So basically mating as well as picture communication is directed is disrupted. Love A in adults of in six are repelled adults a sterilized. Love and adults a poisoned. So it's quite an effective one it's very broad spectrum and works on most in six. And it's not too harmful to you beneficial in six In other words. When you spray at the might not come back a little bit. But it doesn't eliminate them and they come back and works and how many with the I.P.M. practice you can spray it with a small hand spray or you can spray it with a backpack sprayer if you've got. You know a larger area. Or you can spray it with a commercial. Spray like you see in the picture. We've found that to be the most effective. They are MANY different. Organic and natural so pissed aside type of sprays out there. Another one that's quite common as pie Gannett. It's an extract from the Chrysanthemum flowers. And it. Where. It's not as effective as name. It's. And it's more expensive to use so I'm just sharing you. With you what we found to be the best and most of my stick fictive from cost and everything else. The other thing is the name does have some nutritional benefits so when you spray it on the leaves. It actually benefits the plant. A little bit that way as well. So as a result of these practices you end up with the beautiful crops. And the past the kept at bay and you enjoy your god an immensely and and gives you a lot of pleasure. So basically. I've given you a very fast. Overview of the R.P.M. With this isn't only into our class and tim has the. The next half of it. But other any questions like I could probably take a minute. Now just for any questions you asked for the. Yes they do. Yes. Thank you for reminding me. So the question was do they work on whitefly and yes. Yes it does work on white fly ice or hand here and then. He. Nico. Yes. He not. It's just purely a brand name it's an Indian product the name tree grows in India and it's a seed called that gets praised for the oil and. It only comes from India so it's just a brand name. Some American companies have got to Nimoy in their brand of that. And that's just one that I've used in this many out there that. What what crops where we spring with this. We with fraying. We've used that on. Primarily I don't have to do a lot of spraying because of these principles that I've shared with you. But when you're growing in high tunnels. You are in an artificial environment. And some pace flowers in that environment. So without cucumbers. We had a black bean knife ID. That was given problems and. So I would do a weekly spray on it as a preventative So if they start eating they get. You know repelled. If you wait until you have an infestation. You. It's more difficult to to deal with so I just once a week spray seem to keep them away and they were no issues with that. In addition I've used it in the orchard. I've used it on Kayal and Swiss chard and some of the greens. You know for a feds. But again I was growing them out of season and. And the woman. You know part of the year where the pace pressure is is really high. Maybe just share this with you if you. If you have to deal with a few probably do a feds are all female they born pregnant. And their effort every five degrees increase above. Believe it's seventy five degrees they multiply a thousand times more so the harder it is the great A The multiplication. So when you grow up they love the cool way the crops. So when you try to grow them out of season. You're going to really be combating them. Yes properly. Yes. I don't know in your area but in California these two that. That we grow as fellows as well as wild. What are the Callender him what he had set Calandra. We also have quite a brush and toy along. That seems to you know house the immense well as other beneficial and sakes but flowers in general. You know if you if you plan a few wild flowers. They will help. The question was what flowers or what Bush is would you plant for ladybugs to have a tit. Yes. I haven't had trouble with a food and. I don't even know what they look like. But I would try the name on them. But if they are not. If they coming in from outside. From outside of the growing area you could try some diatomaceous earth. I don't like to use diatomaceous earth on the growing area because it's like the last and very old like razor blades. And it's harmful to beneficial insects as well so. Prefer to leave that outside of the. The growing area. So if you see them trialing in from outside that would put put it across their past so they have to go through that all at the source with a coming out of the ground was something like that is one more question that I have to give the time to time. So yes. It will. It will knock back the beneficial in six but he is the difference. Of the question is why would name. Be. Why would it. So I restate it so I have have a clearer moment. Sorry. Right. Why doesn't the time of the as harmful. It's because of the residual effect I believe that the beneficial insects are not eating your plants. They eat. The bugs that each your plants. So they come back more readily. Because they're not being repelled by eating the plants. OK. Ways to thank you. The question was about a dance. A bit and the root zone of the plant. They use is from the roots. And right around the stem they'll be like a little pile and. You know your plants with the and they're not a surface I used to make sure the round. And it really hasn't helped that much. OK because I have seen that my parents' place in Michigan. But out in California I have never seen that but we do have some non-native Argentine and there and they are very symbiotic with a fades. And for the big issue for us because they think they have a massive network. But they all within different qualities of amps work together. And so unlike Tommy and holdings that are native for actually and to be cities that are native to North America. There'll be some competition between the different and the forms like act like a super colony. And they bring in the A fits as soon as they find a. You know potential host plant. And also about white flies. I heard someone ask a question about those. And there's. There are some beneficial insects that you can use the specifically target. White five. In cars the foremost it's a very small tear sort of quasi that lace it's a on the Cuba. Of the life I. And it will prevent it from maturing and that appears to coopt will grow inside of the developing white fly and kill it. And then. And the benefit of a beneficial insects like that. I'm like a lady bug. Is that in order for it to complete its life cycle. It passed so there's the tides. Away by Cuba. So those are very beneficial to natural pest control option. So as we are striving to restore the waste places on a planet that is waxing old like a garment. Challenges with passengers these will be almost inevitable as specially in the early developmental stages and other factors the development of the experience of the grower. As you're learning how to combat test. You're going to make mistakes. But you can learn from those mistakes. I do not claim to be an expert in this whatsoever. But I can share with you some things that I've learned. And the bulk of my experience has been using beneficial insects. To control the past. As Durham was mentioning the past populations to ten out of hand very quickly with a fit. They have it an extremely fast reproductive rate. He mentions how they. They are their reproductive rate is about one and a half lives young per day. And the females are born pregnant. So you can see how that could get out of hand pretty fast. In just a matter of a month. The numbers just guy rocket and. If you're noticing it in like you know once a nine day. Timeframe. You can do something about it right then and there. And she should be able to get it under control. If you're noticing the problem. When they're close to the twenty five day mark you can see that it's going to be a little bit more severe. If you don't get on it right then. Biological pest control is a bio effective method of controlling past using other living organisms. It relies on pretty ssion parasitism herbivore E. and other natural mechanisms. But typically involves an active. Human management role. And it's often referred to as I.P.M.. It's a fundamental component of sustainable pest control. And it works with nature. And the checks and balances that God created. And it dramatically reduces the need for more invasive controls and Pachmann properly managed. So here soon. Beneficial organisms that are specialist meaning that they target specific pest species. This is a fiddle E.D.'s a fit a miser and the larvae will feed on soft bodied small software and insects especially if it's. You can see it says. Up to seventy species of aphid this parasitic wast a Phidias cool money is like the in cars the other I mentioned for why fly. And that it only. The only way it can complete life cycle is by parasitizing on a thin these metallic looking a feds are actually mummified a food. That are going to pass and few more was. When using beneficial insects that is in streaming important to release them as soon as the past is detected. Once the past population gets out of hand it'll take much longer to achieve control with beneficial. If you how fat. You know thirty day mark. Of that a fit past pressure that's going to kill while for the beneficial to catch up there non-singing. Yeah. Those are about four millimeters five millimeters long. And they're not a common threat to humans. Fortunately. Yeah. Most of the time people use those in a greenhouse. Because they're somewhat contained. As long as you have a good habitat for them they should stick around for a while but you can never know for sure. And once once you have. I would say. Some a Phidias the a parasite present. They should stick around in that area as long as you have some natives around. But if there's nothing left for them to feed on. They will die out and. Her question was What will those bugs today. If you release them and. It's really up to the bugs we can't really control that. Exactly they stay with us today and when I was at Sunny's on a family farms. I worked with an entomologist on a. You know monthly basis. And she taught me about using banker plans. And a banker plan is when you take a crop that you're not going to harvest. So you might grow wheat in a pot. Wheat in a pot. Like you would we craft. And you infected with a model caught in a fit that will grow on that we'd. And it's not going to spread to your die. Plants like tomatoes or lettuce. And by providing that crop of wheat for those a fit you'll always have something for those a FITS to go to and a Phidias will follow along and parasitized and you'll always have a continual habitat for them. And the beneficiary has drove those all to provide Tabata and officials. So in order to detect. Your problem early. You need to be out in your crop. Looking for the problems before they get out of hand. So scouting is systematically walking through a green house for field. On a regular basis. They're examining the plans to determine the pest pressure. The population of the past as well as diseases and other issues. So if you have our enemy. The white fine. As anyone had any issues with issues with this past especially in the morning. Temperate and tropical parts of the country. They can become a real issue with. Many crops and. As you can see here. They can basically become like almost like a mold it looks like there's just a film of white over some of the plants. They can be very tricky to spray with like soap and things like that because they're usually on the underside of the leaf. And so too much control to my spring to be quite challenging but fortunately there is a beneficial effect that will pairs the ties them and that's the one I was mentioning in cards here for most of this will guy is one millimeter long. And he just goes around asking if you catch it and find a white fly to Paris to live in cars to Formosa. There are other subspecies but that's the one I've worked with the most. I do. I do not know exactly how much they cost but I have a link to a website in Britain. You can find out more information I think you can get you get little sachets to have parasitized white fly. And then they hatch. Once you release them. And I think you can get it for less than thirty dollars for a small package. So all of those black dogs are parasitized. What Florida. Here's the lifecycle of there was another small past. Is that you made a rustic buy you might notice on your tomato plants brown in color. Starting at the base of the plant gradually moving up. Sometimes desiccate in the leaves. Causing the fruit to be very ugly and tough. Another challenge with this past. Is that you really can't see it. And that's what it looks like if you were to get a close look at some slightly different species of might but just a few no idea of what it would be like. Karen mentioned using a scope or a small lens to magnify the. The past and. I've used this one for. Scouting and identifying the past many times. They work really well. You can adjust the focus. And they work great for identifying if you have crossed it might all you do is take a small piece of electrical tape. Put it on the stem. Where you think you may have some rust it might. And then put that on the end of the scope. And you can take a look at it if you see movement on the little mite. And you know that they're alive and they're still an issue. The thing is if you have a Browning It doesn't necessarily mean that there are might stare because it will remain even if the tests are dead. So it's best to take a look to see if you actually have it. So this is a company that provides many different beneficial. Organisms for sale. Arbor Coorg and. We recently in California we recently got some of these assassin bugs. And these are such cool bugs that just devour all sorts of tests to don't get that if they need it. OK. And here are a few contrast ing beneficial insects. Them on the left is a familiar one. A praying mantis. And you probably don't even see the one on the right. But on the top picture. In the left corner near the center of the plant you can see a caterpillar. Those can be pretty frustrating bugs to have on your vegetables and well I was picking basal couple weeks ago. I turned to leave my saw this. Web like thing with a brown. Mummified Tata tore. And those little black top so you can barely see were hundreds of little parasitic lost. They had just killed the caterpillar and. You know there's oftentimes beneficial things out there that you can't see. But by not brain. You're leaving a better environment for them. And it's just fascinating to me that you can know there are past God has a solution. What's beneficial insects and. If you go to that website or because you can see. You know tons more information. Other beneficial insects. There's a close up. So when you've invested hundreds or thousands of dollars in labor steeds and then Mint infrastructure. You're not going to give up. And given to those passages of fighting. He won't give up. Even if you lose the fight to the past or the seas are going to learn from the challenges. And you'll be better faced. You'll be better prepared to solve those problems before they come the next year. But because you're not going to give up during a fight. Those pass until you know you've exhausted every resource you have so. Were some other ways you can control the test. We don't want to use chemical sprays like I'm not saying. Seven a commonly used. Garden. Pesticide that's not organic. And it's a known neurotoxin that affect humans which will. So obviously we need to find last less destructive and potentially dangerous to the environment and to humans. Means of controlling the past. So some preventative control. To emphasize plant health and to follow good finance. To station practices. If you're getting tools and supplies from another farmer. There could be unknown. Pastor diseases coming along with those items. If you're visiting another farming or touching the plans. You may not be realizing it that you could actually be transferring something to your farm. And usually farmers are not thought of as super hygenic. I mean. They usually have dirt under the fingernails and things like that but to just be a little bit cautious about bringing something to your farm or your garden is a good idea. It's also important to start with quality. Heaton transplants. If it looks off. It probably is. And you probably want to avoid those transplants if they look like they might have a pest. You don't want to risk bringing that to your property. It's really important to keep your seat things healthy. If you don't then you're not going to help the plants and. Another concern is that deters So not only to have an issue with the past itself. The past. Can transmit the disease. To the plant. So that can be viruses. Like in Arizona we had a cute cure but yellow stunting disorder a virus that just devastated the cucumber plants and it was transmitted by white fives. So the white flies are one problem. But if we had that virus to crop just pretty much failed. So you need to be on top of those those passed from wind plants are really small in air. Sorry in California. We have had some issues with the virus on our to curb it. And squashes and. If those a fits are on those transplants from their small. Then they could potentially be getting the buyers to the plant even before it's in the ground. You can see on the right picture. That small green thing underneath the table. That's an eight. Bait station. Not eight and the station sees me. And those and so it's Argentina and would be up on a table. Moving a fence around. Like you would not believe. You'd have it and little talk on the table. One day and a couple days. For a fits. Everywhere on the plans. And we notice that they fits. I'm sorry the answer also likes the honey. In the normal beehive. So you can see put a little barrier for them there but we actually have not found a very successful way of controlling the amps. So that the best ways are trying to exclude them and and just to reduce the amount of pressure they can cause on the plants whether small. The way I do not know that. So her quote Her comment was that she worked with a lady in Oklahoma. She would put out. Born during the probably during the day when it's still dry. And the net and I after they had fed on that horn the korma to expand after they had you know gotten some waster in their system. And it would cause the ants to pop. And she's saying corn grits also work for that. No the Argentine and it's a very small. And it's not usually bite. It's not usually by people. But I don't know if it's even on the East Coast or the eastern half of the U.S.. It was recently. Accidentally introduced into California and it's been spreading some physical controls of past. Our road covers. Are you often lead with the recovers. It's a thin protective barrier. But the light and air through. But excludes the past. This works especially good for things like. Kale and broccoli. To exclude. Cabbage Moss. Screens and netting trapped. Pheromones and they were and flaming. What I would recommend a flaming its you might have like a trap crop. Where you're trying to bring the. The past over to a non productive crop. So we have a small bug called the big drop a bug in California that completely deaf to me. Members of the kale family. So we're growing a list on the flour. And they really like that too and so then we can just flame it. And kill the past in this trap crop some cultural to control. Crop rotation and cover cropping. It breaks up the predictability of always having its food source for the past. And I mentioned the trap crops. Providing beneficial insects habitat. Proper plant spacing is really important. If you have the plants really close together. It's just like an endless highway of food for them and. There's nothing to prevent them from moving from plant to plant. Some enjoy planting can be beneficial. It can be also logistically complicated. So I personally do not do much of it but if you have the option of doing. Long rows. Instead of a whole bunch of short rows than you might have some ways of breaking up the similar types of crops that are all tracks attractive to the same past. Timing the plantings appropriately. Will help to get the plan it's best bet it's growing by putting in the season that it grows best in and. Here's an example of a trap crop in California we have this bug told. Like it's bug and I believe it's also called the tarnished plant bug. You know if that's the case. OK. Be cause that. Very ugly. Marking and cap based damage to the strawberries. And it really makes them. Almost on sellable. And it kind of ruins the texture as well. And in the middle of this row here you can see the alfalfa that's been planted. And that's because it's like it's bug. It's very attracted to a file so by growing a crop that they like more than your food trough. You can isolate them from from the strawberries in this example. And that's another beneficial. That I'm not too familiar with. So when you do have to use insecticides do not go to Home Depot and grab this. This is not a page from ocean. It is a known. Neurotoxin. It's not it's not. It's usually a good bet to look for stuff that does stay on relisted. Those items would be approved for again accused Omri listed. O.M.R. I give it up the organic materials Review Institute or something like that. Yeah. So here are some examples of approved and. Biologically sound. Pesticides. You can use insecticidal So they're safer. And there's impede. Effort of even just using Dr Bronner so. NIEMANN products which include as a direct and. Many mixed. Hygienically. It's derived from Prince phantom of most. And repellent. There's some of that in the mall but also things like garlic oil flow of oil. It just makes the plant. Undesirable by adding that to the leaf surface. Plant based Go ahead. For deterring. I haven't heard that no. The question was Have you ever used ma filter. Mosque balls around your garden and. During commented that it makes it very unpleasant to be in your garden. Plant based or will it would be used as a list or fact and to spray on the stem in particular of a plant that will combat things like spider mites and tomato for us and might just suffocates them. It kind of sounds like warfare of some sort. At times when you're controlling the past. There are beneficial. Fungal and are killing. You can get root shield. It's a it's a beneficial fungus that the roots of the plant in warding off. Harmful fungus. There are beneficial bacteria like Spano said and BT But so if their gender is. BT is often used for cabbage. Sleepers and other tours. If you've got the Johnnies catalogue. Check out this page it gives a lot of information about organic and. Other. Recommended. Ways of controlling past. In this picture on the right you can see there's a small brown mark on the stem of it's made a plant. And that damage is caused by a bug called into Tate of Modesto's and I'm stuck from the might for a second but the bug right there. It kind of looks like an a food and it appears that into the start of the tomato plant. And while you're working with tomato plant. If you touch an area that's been damaged by that bug. The top of the snaps right off. So. You know what do you do when you find this bug that you never heard of never seen before. And I have been able to find this resource online. I believe it's bug Guide dot com Just search and bug eyed and you should go to find it. But it will have a lot of information as to identifying all sorts of insects. And then this one from Cornell University is. I believe this one is just tomato disease identification. But it can be a helpful resource. If you don't know what you're dealing with and it can give some suggestions as to what may be going on with your your plant. If you just search. The vegetable and the online. You should be able to find it. And it's from Cornell University. I don't have the link. Right here though. And here are two other links that I found really interesting. If you would like to check them out the top one is a whole bunch of information about pesticides and it explains. Conventional and organic type pests pesticides and insecticides. OK. Grasshoppers. What to do about them. From my understanding with grasshoppers often by wrote a chilling Dean was growing area. And the surrounding area. Before the grasshopper season starts. Can disrupt the nymphs in the soil. We had those in Arizona. And they got huge like there was no grasshoppers like this big. I I had never sprayed them. I know there would often just kind of give like a extra buffer. And we just knew that they were going to need some of that. But I mean when you have a hundred foot row. That's different in a home garden where you can't really provide as much of that. Yeah. I I have heard of people using guineas and chickens. Is that you're going to say. Yeah I believe Alan Seiler has guineas. Specifically for that purpose. And I would also try. Insects netting or Agra Baan as like a protective cover. I have seen grasshoppers chew through netting. So if they're really desperate. They may just go for it but a lot of what you do with organic pest control. It sometimes just trying to make your plans. Look less desirable to them or. You know restrict their access to it. Yes. I do not have a lot of experience with squash bugs. However I know that insecticide also are often. Effective at controlling them. You can also get beneficial. An official name a toad. That will parasitize the larva in the soil. Do you have any experience with. OK. So the question was What about squash bugs and deer and has heard to recommendation of using bitter melons. I've also heard that they're very attracted to the Blue Hubbard Squash. So that's worth a shot to see if they will. You know go for some of your like. I don't know how many people like that are melons but it's like an acquired taste but if they like it better than give it to them. And then you can also of concentrate your sprain in your control in that area because her more likely to be there are those the brown mom really didn't stink bug those are a nasty pest. You know I I don't how much experience with those Irish. I'm sure like a lot of farmers. And probably all of the California. You know. AG departments are trying to figure out ways to control them but those are pretty pretty difficult path. Does anyone have any experience with brown memory did sting bugs. Yeah. And next convene beetles. So there are a seasonal test they don't last the whole season. OK. Yeah. Multiple times in a season. I mean maybe in the North Face have. You know one. Life Cycle proceeds and I don't know too much about them. But definitely. Giving it a shot with an early planting. Maybe trying some different varieties to see if they go for one first. And you could also used the agro bond as the soil warmer. And it just kind of keeps those plants a little bit warmer at night. So you could get the green beans in a couple of weeks early maybe. And the other questions. Or comments. I'm still in a lot of it is is learning. As you go. And. And you know it's going to get farmers in your area and you know really developing relationships with people who have more experience. Because I've learned that. I feel like my. My crop is a reflection of my experience and my. My character. And so as time developing these I want to. You know find a solution. So that I can improve. Each year and each season and the other questions All right let's close with a word of prayer. Father in heaven thank you that you provide the garden and nature as a source of so many object lessons and truths. And what you want to teach us for our own spiritualized. And thank you that in spite of the new house. Many solutions and. Most importantly this we should of a new world. And redemption from this sin corrupted planet. And we thank you for that. And as we return to our gardens. Whether that's next week or next spring. I pray that you will help us to implement. Effective control. So that we can really be a testimony to those around us. Your goodness to him he would remove the power for yours this media was brought to you by audio person. A website dedicated to spreading God's word through free sermon audio. And much more. 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