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The Ideal Soil: Biology

Whitmar McConnell
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Whitmar McConnell

Owns and operates Golden Moment Farm in Means, KY


  • November 12, 2015
    4:00 PM
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Father in heaven were once again we want to thank you for your presence we want to thank you for your desire to help us understand and to know you and we just pray that we would by spending this time again. Know you a little bit better in Jesus' name amen. OK. So there's anybody have any questions on on this process. Before we move on from it. This is how this is. This is how you achieve. Humus building in a circle through the direct experience of that soil the direct input of that soil rather than bringing overtly out onto and in applying to your soil. Some other compost or some other manure material. That was grown on a under different conditions and so the character of it's going to be different than whatever your soil is. This is your ultimate objective if you have to. If you have to use. Organic matter from other sources just be very judicious judicious about. What do you need. And make sure that what you're getting is what you actually want to be applying to your soil. Well of course you have the initiation of planning to put planting the plant. And that is the the seed and then the plant germinates. And it immediately after it gets to a certain point and when it starts photosynthesizing it been a media begins dumping those photos those sugars. Into the soil. To build the. The biological community. That it will need to provide the resources it needs to grow into and to bear fruit. And then there's the steps to it that you first do have the bacterial explosion then you have the all of that the microbial metabolized metabolized where produces a result of that the plant can then use in it and produce a little tremendous energy efficiency. And for as a consequence of that it has surplus Leopard's they can be dumped in exuded into the soil or dumped into the soil. I thought I had to have another when he said I only had everyone. And it's from those lip is that the fungal part the fungal populations. Explode and they digest that down and that's what's actually broken down into the actual human. Humus is forty percent oil. Leopards that. That's when you. When you understand that you read the parable of the of the ten virgins. You understand where the oil in the lab is there was stored up. Now you have people they have situations where it's not stored up because they didn't. They didn't think of it. In those terms. And so when the crisis comes. There's oil to draw from. There's humus to draw from it all and nourishment that comes from it but if it's not there. There's nothing to draw from the My but I'm built a little bit there but not enough to carry you through a tearing time is that as a parable. That you're not only. This is this is the press down and overflowing principle. There's more to give than is needed. When it's properly done. There's more to give than was needed and that's what you store up in the soil is human and a lot of people say you can't do that well you can't do it because most of the conditions that they're trying to do it in are not sufficient to do it. God wants is a whole lot closer than we are. He wants is a whole lot more fruitful and we are. But it requires us to be more like him. In order to achieve that. And that's the same case here you have to have the correct construction in order to achieve this. Speaking of the biology I guess. Someone asked me. I guess that it's being shared in another class that. That biology. Is the means of achieving this. And I don't. I don't want to contradict anybody. And I'm completely open delicious inning to anybody else has the say. But I've never seen biology be able to create some create something out of nothing. And so you're. We're going to talk about biology in here. Because it the final key. It's a it's a critical component of bringing the soil to fully fully functioning. A fully functioning state. But it's not the fundamental principle. To bring it up there's other things that are required in order for that biology. To fully function. And to. I just let me just pose I haven't observed. I haven't seen that happen. I've seen I I've used a lot of compost he is a great material. And when you get to that place the. The world record holder for the largest vegetables uses compost tea Amanda grew their world record quantity of the Tate of hundred pounds off the one plant. You have three to five times more photosynthetic energy. We're not even close folks. I mean there's. You remember the grapes hold out of the promised land. We can do a whole lot more. We can do a whole lot more. So. So these materials are important but they're important in their priority. They're important in their place. And we get ourselves into trouble when we try to put something in a place where it doesn't belong. So you can do a lot with it. But the question is do you actually getting to full full functionality. Are you actually getting to the place where you're going to you can bear fruit some thirty some sixty some a hundred fold. And that that's my objective. And my objective is I wanted to work in every situation. And this is another step. Thing that I've just observed is that. Sometimes it works really well and other times it just doesn't work very well. And whatever. You know that's that would be for us to say well you know Jesus is able to save some people just not able to save other people. And we can't come to that conclusion as. As Christians we can. Jesus can save everybody. Jesus can restore everybody's life. And so I don't. I don't want to be a controversy I'm just trying to communicate to you how I see it my perspective on it is just like. Some people might have thought that I was criticizing compos. In organic matter but I wasn't criticizing I was wanting to put it in its place. And it's priority. So that it could actually fully express its purpose. Rather than being limited because there were things that were necessary. In the before hand. You have to get the chemistry right so that soil can breathe and what the silicon breeze. Then the carbon fertility and the biology. Will be fully functional and to do everything for you that God intended them to do. Your experience. And your witness will not only be to others but you will be building that all in a lamp. At the same time to prepare for a time when there won't be any opportunity to put anything in there. And so I guess is that says. I get hammered all the time. From these different from these different directions. And so it's not new to me. And like I said I don't want to. I don't want to create the controversies I you know people. You know how their perspectives on what they think that that's just you know. As ice. As I've experienced it. Over the last twenty five years is sometimes it works great. To do that for there's other times it just doesn't work. And what do you tell the person it just doesn't work. How many of you seen that video back to even the idea that you can mulch and that's just going to solve everything for you to have a friend in Colorado. I don't think you'll my me sharing a story I won't tell you name. Who watch that video I when that video came out I got about one hundred phone calls in a week from people asking what do you think about this when you think about that. Well I had a friend on cholera and he already knew better but he found. You know if. If it sounds too good to be true. It's probably not. And so he he bought into the idea. Even though I told him previously that based on his SO conditions the. That was Lapsley the opposite thing she should ever do. He had heavy soils that didn't drain very well because he had high magnesium hikes Tessin soils they were tight. Locales him it wasn't going to drain. So he brought compost in any put it on then he put them all and dug it in then he put mulch on top of that and. If you know Colorado we only get about twelve to fifteen inches of rain a year. Well it happened to be wetter that year I think we got twenty inches instead. I was actually out there anymore. They got about twenty inches of rain and it a lot of it came in the summertime. And his yard turned into a swamp. And everything died because they didn't have the conditions for that to work. Mulching is another tool that can be a great. Tremendous asset. Applied under the right conditions. But whenever somebody put something out here that says it'll you know one thing is going to just solve all these problems for an adult one size fits all thing. I would be very suspicious of it. And so he came to me I was out at the convention it even Valley. And he came and I tell. I could tell when he was walking to that was at the lunch time he's walking up to the table I could tell by the look on his face he was like a dog walking with his tail between his legs. To ask me what I thought. And everything I just I knew when he came in I said What did you do before even said anything I said What did you do. And then he that's when he told me all about it. He did not have the chemistry. His soiled could not breathe. It would not drain. Because he didn't have the chemistry there. To open that so up so that could breathe. And so any applied out and if you listen closely I said. The problem is if you. If you have a ear that can hear and you listen I got the video so I could watch it so I could answer people better because I had heard of it and I didn't know anything about it. And if you listen if you have a ear that can pick up what's being said you pick up several things in the video they were cautionary things that. That the average person wouldn't of wouldn't even picked up. And so I have. I have people who sell products. Ask me how can I. How can I sell more product what what what advice could you give me to tell the growers so that they would want to buy my product and I and I said the number one thing that you need to be able to do is tell them when your product will not work. And you should not buy it. Because there's all kinds of stuff out there and in their place in their sphere. They can do really well. They can give you tremendous advantages but outside of it. You're going to waste your money. Half the time you're going to create problems for yourself because you didn't. The foundational. The foundation has to be laid before these other things can properly happen and. So just want to throw that out there so that we can maybe clear up any confusion or or. I don't I don't want to start any conflicts so please don't start a war between a space. Go back where he said No I said. I've just given you my perspective on that and it's up to you to decide what you think about it and which way you should never just trust and everything everybody anybody says. It's not it's not me. But it's the information that I'm sharing with you. And if. If it you. You do your own due diligence and determine if that's that's the course of action that you believe is appropriate and right then. Then you. You pursue that but whether it's me or somebody else. Because just because they say it doesn't mean it is true. And we can have good intentions. But the road to hell is paved with good intentions. And so that's not the did let's not go just on good intentions. You have question. Yeah that's John Evans I know John Evans. I know is brother. Roland too. He produces a compost take it. Using the Alaskan humus it's a great great product and it works really well but if you try to use compost tea to compensate for the lack of proper mineralization and pour off city. It's not going to do it. It's just not going to do it for you. I mean I've no I haven't seen it consistently do it. OK so let's move on to this then compost is not compost and less it is properly composted a lot of people do a lot of things that they call composting. But it's not. Sometimes they just have a sit and pile there. You know a lot of the compost this. Used commercially in agriculture is coming from feed lots and big large dairies. And they're using so many drugs in Kemah and antibiotics and hormones and all kinds stuff like that that the stuff is dead. There's there's nothing there's nothing in that manure to compost it. Unless you add some kind of inoculates and some other material in there to feed the organisms it's not going to compost and if you put it together wrong and you don't have a great combination of materials and I didn't put a drop. You know I work. It's beyond the scope of the class to to go into. How do you compost. There's lots of tutorials out there on the Internet you can. You can go and look at that are very good. On How To Look what material so I put together how do I put it together so that will. It'll properly compost. You need that the you need that material to heat up. That's telling you that the biological the biology is exploding in there. They're generating the heat. But if you don't. If you don't have a cup combined. Properly. It's not going to properly compost. And so you need to know how to how to do that. I just point that out because I've had. I asked that I am quiet about the material that was. It's a company thoroughbred resources that. That produces compost. From all the horse farms in the Lexington area there and about the blue grass there. They contract to haul all the betting out and in the manure and everything in the compost and I inquired about analysis and everything and. I want to check some out. And it was so strong of ammonia. It was a way over there was way too much. Nitrogen in proportion to carbon in. And it needed to save about another year or two before anybody used. It should have. If you get combo stitch it should have just that earthy you know what that earthy smell is you know after it rains you Doug does the oil is shit. That's acting on my CD that smell your smell use is coming from them. But it should have that earthy smell if it smells like ammonia. Or it doesn't smell like anything. I would be suspicious about what it actually is and what condition. Condition it's in the carbon the nicer to nitrogen ratio of finished compost should be about ten to one. That's where it should fall. It could range out of that a little bit. It's just a target if it's if it's. Lower than that you've got too much nitrogen in egg. In that material still. And if it starts climbing much beyond I mean go up to maybe twenty to one that's really getting up in the high end of it that if it. If it goes up. You know up in that range and higher. You don't have enough nitrogen there wasn't enough nitrogen it's really not full thoroughly compost it is really not thoroughly broken down. And again it might need to sit for a year before. So that there's time for the nitrogen fixing microbes to. To get the nitrogen and need to finish it. The ash content should be low. In the compost. If you have a high ash content and there was me there was a lot of soil added to it. Now you can you can add all you need to add a little bit of soil as an inoculation But if your ass content is really high. And I can't remember the number that you're targeting there but it should be more than like twenty or thirty years something like that if you start climbing up. Beyond that. Then you've got a lot of soil they added a lot of soil to it's not really compost. Well as anybody ever PATA bunch of glass grass clippings up and they matted up and they started stinking. Or they caught on fire or that there is there are certain combination of green. I mean usually would identify it as green material is going to be nitrogen sourcing material brown material is going to be carbon sourcing material. The have to get a little bit of familiarity with how much cut what the carbon the nice nitrogen ratio is of certain things like sawdust might be one hundred to one. So unless you add some some nitrogen material so that it's going to take a long time for that to break down into a six condition that you can actually apply to your soil. Whereas you might have grass clippings the ratio might be five to one. That's way too narrow. It's way too much nitrogen. For the process and so you need to mix those materials together and try to requires a little bit of homework. If you think you can go out and do this and disna not really invest any time or energy. Effort into it. You need to educate yourself on some of these things in our to intelligently apply them. If you want. Good outcomes. If you want your your your soul to do well in your crops to do well everything. And that would be on a tutorial for example on how to build a compost pile they'll tell you you know how to kind of combine How much of this material how much of that material. And everything. It's basically trying to get yourself into and a ratio that fairly close to that. And we're going to look at that within winners we're going to look at in just a second. So that it will. It'll it'll break down into humus or true compos. Even if it's not humus yet. Fairly quickly. Rather than what you need to know I'm a go OK I want to mix this but it's going to this going to leave it there for a year because it's going to take that about that long to to get where it actually needs to be. Another thing you need to know is where there are other ingredients added a lot of times composters will add calcium. Different types align to it sometimes they're just adding to line. And they don't know whether it's high calcium lime or her doll a medic line that they're adding to it. It enhances the bacterial action the calcium in there will enhance the bacterial action and help to break down quicker. They're adding that sometimes a lack of rock phosphate to it. To incorporate the phosphate and calcium into there because that'll also enhance the biological activity and accelerate the breaking down of the material. If they're using those materials you need to know whether they're in there because that'll increase the phosphate levels of the link crease of calcium levels and potentially the magnesium levels. And if you're already in a situation where you have more of any of those things the you really need. Then you need to ask us questions about whether or not this is going to be appropriate material that add. Add to the. So ill. Most people don't ask any questions at all anymore and they they think compost is wonderful just find a local source and pile it on and a lot of people are finding out that's not true. You can get away with that for a few years but then eventually things start going wrong for you and you start having problems actually a lot of Amish and Mennonite who use they. You know that we live in an Amish community actually. And they'll use their manure. Because they use horses. Values their manure and nails. To keep it on their gardens. And it winds up their phosphate levels go to high their potassium levels go through height stuff stops produce in. They have all kinds of disease in past pressures. And so a lot of these. They get themselves into trouble because they think well you know that's that source will provide everything for me to keep piling on I save my neighbor. Before his got that bad he decided to have me tested. Garden and his pastors this year. And he was right on the border. I said don't put any more manure on this garden. I said it. It's great but you're at the you're at the edge where you're going to go over the top and it's going to start causing you problems. And so. He listened to me. Educated him a little bit so he would understand what I was talking about but he. It was reasonable to him and. So I said. You can put it out on your pastor your pastors. Still needed so take it out there and start spreading it out there. You don't have to get rid of it just use it where it's appropriate to use it. OK. I know people have different preferences and ideas about whether they want to use animal products or not use animal products I'm going to put these just up here so that you can. You can see the different options that you have and then you can choose. You know what you. What you want to do. These are the different types of manures that can be composted You can also apply and is as manure. You can apply them directly to the field to do you have to understand he might have to wait a little while and I would recommend waiting a little while until it's fully broken down and an integrated into the soil. Horse manure. Is what they call quote a hot women or it breaks down really fast. It's about a thirty two to one carbon and nitrogen ratio is fairly balanced so. The phosphate potassium and. Nitrogen in it is fairly balanced. We you see a thirty two to one. It's going to take a little bit for it to get down to ten to one. Ten twelve to one. Cattlemen or no cattlemen there can come from two sources it can be from dairy manure. And it can be from. You know feedlot manure the dairy manure. Well this is a Carbonite your ratio is a lot lower. As higher nitrogen in it than horse manure does was closer to her humans formation when composted. Because the carbon nitrogen ratios are closer to the ten to one. It has higher potassium content in it in especially if it's coming from a dairy and dairy manure. And you have to be. You have to be mindful of that. Poultry manure is another what they call Hotman or broiler menorahs fairly balanced layer manure is usually high in calcium. Why would that be. They may know. They're feeding oyster shell to him so that they can. That so it'll strengthen the eggs. And a lot of that just winds up passing through the the chicken and it's into the manure. So it's always going to have a higher calcium content to it. If you need calcium it's a great source for that would be a material that you would want to seek out. You have a question is probably lower. Yeah that's why they supplement in a commercial laying off. Yeah. That's why the commercial operations put the calcium in their course there. They're pushing them. Like a factory. They're pushing to get as many eggs as possible and there's just if they didn't supplement him they wouldn't. They would be producing very many eggs. Turkey manure is a good source of Cal. Copper I brought that up and we're talking about copper they supplement copper to turkeys because of their problems with aneurisms. And so if you need copper and you have a source of of Turkey manure. You can get copper a problem. Probably quite a bit cheaper than it would cost you to buy. Copper selfie. Especially if you can use everything else or need everything else that Senate. Sheep manure. Is a also a Richmond heard similar to poultry manure but a little lower and nitrogen. Hogmanay or. If you can get I mean it depends on where you are I'm just putting these all on here because not everybody. As somewhere where people are raising cheaper or poultry or cattle or whatever. Hog winner is higher phosphate content. So if you know if you are slacking phosphate you have plenty of potassium then your preference would probably be for that kind of compost because it's higher and that. Naturally higher in phosphate and lower in potassium relative that. If you're. If you need to Tassie a man you don't need as much phosphate within cattlemen or would be. Would be a material to lean to so that you could slow down the increase of the wine. While increasing the other one is a little higher rate. And then there's. Then there's the yard in food waste. That would come. You know the scraps coming out of your garden or long clippings. When towns. Shred chip up trees. Leaves leaves from your yard. Although it can be variable depending on the materials here actually putting into the into the compost. If you're putting a lot of vegetable waste. Stuff like that that's going to be higher in nitrogen. Or the green grass clippings compared. You know combined with that is going to change your carbon nitrogen ratio. And that's that's whether you make it in the compost that there was also castings that are produced from these waste where the Burma culture where they had the earthworms digest it and produce the castings. Let me say something about earthworms castings right here. People of the idea that if it goes through the God of a worm that it all they just balances it all out for you it just makes everything. Good. What it does it makes things more available. But it makes more available what they're not. It doesn't magically balance it out because it went through the GOT of earthworm. And again here. Please and I big ole way saying. Attacking the earthworms here. Earthworms are a tremendous asset in the soil. And they're good indicator that your fertility is getting better. When I you know. I actually went from having no earth worms. To earthworms all over the place. And you don't even know where they come from because when I swear this. This farm we have in Kentucky. I can find here Thrones. In the ground and. This year we were doing out there are digging of potatoes and stuff like that there were earthworms all over the place. So there are tremendous asset. When you get to the conditions where they can be a tremendous asset but they're not going to balance your soil out for you. They make what's available. What's there more available. But they don't change it's its relationship to anything else they just make it more available for you. OK Is there any more questions on that we're we're going to finish this. Well. Easy it's fresher material. So I mean even creature things like it with it with a trip up tree branches and all the leaves were green on it and fresh in its green in there you probably have you have probably quite a bit more nitrogen in there than. If it sat there for. Or they did it in the middle of the winter when. When it was dormant. You wouldn't have as much. But it's generally the fresher it is the greener it is the more color it has to it is an indicator of of higher nitrogen content that the BROWNER It is the dryer it is indication of higher carbon. Allies some of his volatilize ing is just going back into the air. Sometimes sometimes is wonderful I just put my father in law had a tremendous need for potassium and calcium on these areas where they were in really bad shape and he thought you could just test the whole area. He said Well can I use this ash I said yes or. So we just figured out what the content was. And then I calculated out how much to put on where and he put it on. So yeah can be a tremendous benefit but if you put it on you didn't eat it. He already had too much of those things then now would be a good idea. So it depends. That's why you need to know what. What the conditions are the you have not what somebody else has because somebody could say well I put my what ash on air and everything just grew like crazy those wonderful Well it was most likely was deficient that stuff and put it on it just made to do a whole lot better. And then somebody decides well I'm going to do that too and I throw it on air. And he already had plenty or too much of that need just went over the top with it and. Well man nothing grew in my garden what happen. Now going to. That's why we look to each other for our example. We get ourselves into trouble because what we need is not necessarily what somebody else needs. OK. That's going to move on to water now. I recommend that you have a tested once a year into you get a good track record. Do you know what. It's Carrick what the characteristics are and. You've got it brought into a position of balance that usually takes three to five years to really understand what's what's going on now. The biggest the biggest drag on that is. The biggest drag. Is the liming materials the calcium and magnesium but within the last ten years that's really dramatically been the time frames been shortened because they're now doing the pelletized lines where they're drying it to a three hundred mesh finest and then are building it into a pellet for you to apply that a breakdown in six months to twelve twelve months six to twelve months. And so you can have those materials applied and to where you want to be within six to twelve months used to take. You know three years to get that done so that's one of the most limiting ones. The other thing that limits is some things you just can't be put on and more than. You know Max there's Max. Maximum amount of the should put on it at any given time. Sometimes you can't put things on until other things are straight now. And then you can start putting those things on. So it's good I I test I grow high value stuff. Some people. Because there's some things that I grow low value stuff but everything I grow I consider high value stuff. And I for sure grow a lot of high value things and. So there are some type of times when I test twice a year. Every six months because I I want to know exactly what's going on and what I can do to make sure that I can keep that that. So system. At its optimum doing what it what it needs and providing to make sure it has everything that it needs that everybody has to do that. But once I guess they want to have a track radio if you want to go to every other year every third year whatever that. That would be up to you as an individual. You know how important information is to you. I test every year. Because I want to know what's going on on a regular basis because you can have. We're going to talk about the environmental influences you can have environmental influences will come and wreak havoc on your on your soil for the last two years in Kentucky we've had record rainfall. And so it's. We had a lot of. We had a beautiful potato crop. And then it started raining when quit. And just started late and all the nitrogen out. And just kept of the soil water law because it just never had a chance to really dry out. Or even to get all of the the gravitational water out of it so that there was a marinate. And so it kind of the potatoes kind of bit the dust so I you know I know there's going to be. Anything this way to blow when you have that much rain. We had as much rain in a couple months is it would take eight months to get normally Allan's not in here but Alan can speak. This to they had all the rain they were supposed to be these you guys have the same situation where you had. So. You know things things can happen that can affect. You know they can affect your soil and so you have to take that in the mine when you're. There is a lab at Sperry allows through Kinzie Ag Services Kinsey AG dot com. If you want to do the modeling that I'm sharing here. There are other labs out there. I don't know how to do use their numbers. To tell you what to do. To get to this. This condition. My condition is it needs to come to the place where it's fully functional the disease pressures gone the weed pressure's gone and the insect pressures gone. If it hasn't gotten to that place then it's not where it needs to be because those things will be eliminated by a fully functioning grow. So system. OK so I just put this on here again. While we want is on that this. Half here is poor space but half of that pore space you want filled with water. And these are both both representative. Representative of the Holy Spirit. Both of them. Of the will of God or the Spirit of God on that side. They're both fluid in the way in the end it means that they can move and go places where. Solids can't go. Everything. All growth happens in a medium of water. And if you don't have that. If you don't have that moisture there and available. It will. Things will go well. This is the water cycle. I just pulled this off the U.S. Geological Survey. Stuff just to give you an idea that water is in motion. It's not it's not just like the air is in motion it's. It's moving and. The key is to keep it where you need it on a regular basis. And not leavin and. You not have it available. OK So we need to look at soil water we need to look at the three categories of water because we want to know what we're shooting for is we want. Optimum water levels in the soil but we don't want more water than we than we need there. And the three types of water are what they call Hydra scopic water is a microscopic Shoma water surrounding the soil cartridge. Particles and has a strong molecular molecule or attraction. Water cannot be removed by natural forces. In other words you can have water in the soil that the plants can I get it there. They're competing with the with the attract the electro chemical attractive. Forces of the call AIDS in the soil particles. And once it gets close enough to those the ability for the root to pull it off for the micro the pull of the they can't do it. It's. And we will worry about the technicalities on the bottom there. Capillary water is water held by cohesive forces. I don't know if you and your. You remember your chemistry class in and high school or whatever but cohesive force is a kind of attracted to each other so the water's attracted the water is kind of held as a result of that. Between films that by cohesive force if you tween films of higher Scott. Hydro scopic water. It can be removed by air drying or plant absorption. Plants extract capillary water until the soil capillary forces equal to the extracted force. In other words the hottest topic. It's down the hive scopic water. That's what they call the wilting point that's when your plants will start wilting there's water in the soil still but they cannot get it. And so they start wilting. And then there's gravity water water that moves through the soil by the force of gravity. And that's that's. Let me just mention one about of feel capacities amount of water held in the soil after excess water's drain in it's called the field capacity of so it's on there is how much water can actually be held in any given type soil. But this gravity water. This is water where the field enters not a picture on this but where for a time the field is saturated. In other words there is no air and it. If they stole the water but it can't be held by electro chemical forces attraction. And so it just keep the gravity just pulls it down through the water and it takes it out of the. Out of the soil. This. The problem is we had perpetual gravity water in our field this year. Because the. It was just so much rain it ages. And we have a heavier soil and so it. It takes a little bit longer for that to percolate through it and move through it. But if capillary water. That you want you want to be at that level which is what they call field capacity. You don't want more than that you want less than that. And so it's really important that this gravity water can actually move on through the soil. And if you don't have the proper raw proper porosity in this oil instead of having twenty five percent of that poor space filled with with air and twenty five with water you may only have ten percent filled with air and forty percent filled with water that's not you. That's not optimal conditions. And so what you do when we talk about the chemistry. Your chemistry is determined by what the the texture in their soil is and what that can exchange capacity is because it lets say you have a heavier clay soil. Are you going to you're going to want more paper or space or less for space. You know a more porous space are going to need to do something it's going to open it up more. They need to be opened up more what if you have a sandy soil. You want smaller poor spaces what you're trying to do is get optimum capillarity N.S.O. you want that water to be able to move around in that soil. But not saturated. So that there's no air exchange. In there. And so that's where the chemistry comes their nets where you adjust the calcium in the magnesium ratios. Depending on how heavy the soil is. And high. The high exchange capacity to to get the poor Ah city in the water. Capillarity at their optimum level. So again. Proper chemistry is going to give you proper porosity. And it also give you. Proper capillarity In other words water dynamics in your soil will be optimum you can hold the optimum out of water without pushing out or excluding the porosity airspace in its ability to breathe. Yeah. We did and when we were doing the chemistry part of it. And just you know quickly. Calcium flocculation the soil. So it takes the clay Callie's these plates and turns them face to edge or edge to edge. And that creates poor pour space. Whereas magnesium takes an aggregate some face to face. And so that makes it tighter. Right. Well. At three feet you would be hard pressed subsoil. There are machines that can actually go down four feet but they're pretty expensive near the pig. These reclamation know what your ultimate goal is you've got to get enough of a zone. They can. That has that porosity so that the water Elise move down. And hopefully live. Move laterally to get out of the to get out of the growing zone. But the ultimate goal is calcium is heavy and it works it starts working its way down. And so this guy like in Illinois he's been working on that for you know quite a while and eventually. This whole this whole process works itself deeper and deeper and deeper and deeper. As long as you can you continue to maintain the upper the upper levels of it. It doesn't happen overnight it doesn't happen in a short period of time. Some. Some people to drain tiles and there's another approach that you can use you can use a soil conditioner. And so conditioner breaks down the surface it. Tension in the soil and it can actually move water through. Even heavy saws like that but what we consider heavy. When you get there bright chemistry there. I I was out of a field on a farm. This summer. And it has that Sharky gumbo clay this. Blackish colored. Is this like modeling clay it's what it feels like if any of your ex experience that. But that field had us. Beautiful stand. Of Milo in it uniform always cross a big huge heads. And so you never thought. How in the world that those plans get roots down into that heavy stuff. But he had the right. Calcium and magnesium balance on that soil. With irrigation in the in the more Easter coming from the irrigation and everything. It was able to grow there very down through it. But you can use the soil conditioner so conditioner. Will break the surface tension in the soil and then water can actually slip through there and and go on through. You have to be really careful using that. I know of a landscaper in California who they couldn't get the soil it's hard just half inch down. You can get into so probe in it you can whack on it. Whack on and whack on and when go down. And he used to so conditioner on air but he he was one of those people who thought a little if it a little good a lot better. And he put a lot on. And the the clients. Trees all fell over there was no there was no holding him Bill again the electro chemical holding ability the struggle. That would hold the three. It just fell out of that they all just fell out of the ground because all of the surface tension was was removed. So you have to know how much to apply but you can't you can use something like that to get better and better drainage of the soil. Yeah. But like I said you've got to be careful what you're growing and how much. How much you apply. Otherwise all your. If you're going to a taller plant. It can even be like a pepper plan to be up this high. And if you've got too much there are just fall over it once it starts getting fruit on it it will just fall over right out of the ground or if you get when come along in to blow everything will just be laying on the ground. So there are ways of getting around these kind of things. You kind of have to use them judiciously. If you're in a situation where you have to do something about it and that's an option do. But it does work its way down through the soil profile. And eventually start changing the characteristics of the whole event even deeper into the profile. That's a can. OK Let me give you that answer a cannon This is where people get themselves into trouble again. MEMBER I said that you have to have a minimum calcium level in the soil before you ever start using Jetson. If you like you need to drive stuff out. For example if you. If you start using gypsum and you don't have adequate calcium there and adequate structuring. You'll eventually tight not so up so hard they won't grow anything. Because you'll wind up losing calcium rather than. And so that A there are conditions where yes to that would be a good way of. That's the whole thing they say that will soften the soil. And Will well. Broccoli. Oh Buckley. Buckley. Yeah anything that. Yeah so they things you know you have this kind of conditions you want to start using a crop or something like that where you know where you can pull a sub so a three feet even if you start working on it conditions and alfalfa plant might be able to penetrate three feet deep that's another. Yeah that I didn't mention the can also use. Plants they can actually penetrate down that's why this will grows really well in low so if they get hard they can actually penetrate through those hard layers of your scenes ever done a dug a bind weed out. In a hard sale and see how it's all just coiled around their way around it's just really working to get itself through there but they can get through that hard so ill and and get down and start mining out. The calcium is needed for it to grow. That's why we Things won't grow because they can't get the roots down in there and grow right. If you don't have the right chemistry. Ever seen concrete blocks where they mix Standen and cement and other materials that's what you'll produce if you don't have the right chemistry. I've had people do that they brought in truckloads of dump truck load the sand say well mix in the different texture into the soil. But if you don't have the chemistry. You just really just add it's more agrees to make it even more like cement then actually the hardest soils are sparse sandy soils when they're not and. When they're. Don't have adequate calcium levels and have excessive magnesium levels. You'll break soil probes trying to hammer him and don't. They will turn like. They will turn like one of those concrete blocks. And you just can't sell it that the the texture of the soil is not what's important because you know unless you're going to spend a fortune digging it all up and haul it away in day and all by some doesn't bring it to then. It's about changing the conditions. Of that. That texture. The texture is what you have you have so much Hansel and clay. It's about providing the chemistry that will actually open that up. And they could be able to breathe. OK we need to talk about water quality. Here. There are issues you know if. If you're just depending on rain was the water quality can actually be affected even with that depending on where you are in a highly industrialized area. Even if you're out in the country. If you're downwind. Or even if you're not downwind. When it rains people realize that there's there's a that water condenses on particles in the air. And so it may be. Thought coming from the factory. Fifty miles one hundred miles away from you. The Des Moines jurors can. Waters condensing on it and then it's falling as rain and bring it all with it onto your on your farm so it's helpful to the to know what might be opt up when from our or upstream from you that. But you're not going to stop that. It's it's just going to be mindful while you know I got these things come in in. If you have a cement plant or something like that when from you and you may have a glass plant where they have you can have high manganese levels. They're going to be coming down wind in and falling possibly with the rain will it might be good idea to know that that's actually coming in your company your rainwater. If you're testing on a regular basis it's going to tell you it's coming coming in the rain why was I denied that were to come from. So suspended scholars or just you know the there. They can be Callie's. You know. Clay particle. If it's small enough that it can suspend the Coloe to collate all materials human. Humus materials. Claim it derails because the spent in the water. It's small enough you can get if it's moving water you can get other. Solid materials in it. Again it's just it's a good idea I've I've learned since I started doing consulting that that. How much water quality is impacting quantity and quality is impacting people's growing situation. And so it's another way things I recommend you do is you whatever your water source if you're just depending on rain while you're not going to sit out there and capture that because that can change. So you. Monitoring your soils going to be what you're going to have to do but if you're using ground water from a well. Or some kind of irrigation source a ditch or something like that. You may want to find out what's coming with it. There can also be saw evil faults in the water. This is particularly the case that if you're using ground water. You can have a whole lot a sizeable material calcium magnesium and materials sodium. Boron tacit there's lots of things that can come soluble salts coming in there. And depending on where you are in a country. That may be more likely or less if you're using surface water like snow melt or a rain water something like that. Well it might pick up some things when it's flowing down but then you know by a large they don't have a whole lot of of those Cybil salts in except if let's see Sean's not here the. If that's if you're out West some of the places out west. Daystar Cademy is that the base of the less our mountains well. Listen now is Spanish for the salt mound. And so everything becomes watching this snow melt coming down off of those mountains. As bring a lot of stuff with it. And you can let you can talk to him and he'll tell you all about it. Water quality is harder. In some cases to deal with then so will fertility. It's a it's a contaminated spirit if you want to put it that way it's bringing stuff with it. That you don't want. And if you're not mindful of it being air you're not going to be able to compensate. Try to compensate. I think of Jericho. You know. And Native the poison water there. That probably relates to the next sector. The last thing on their. Bicarbonate state just am a nobody and I mean people know what bicarbonate So are you know you know Island. I think it's a C o three any Usually it's either. Attached to hygiene but it's what you need to know about by car this is a react with cattle and. And so if it's sodium bicarbonate. They do a measurement called SAR sodium absorption ratio and what. All it does is it tells you if your water. How much. How much calcium and magnesium you have to offset the sodium that's coming with the bicarbonate. Because what'll happen there you'll have a reaction to sodium will come off. It'll grab the calcium. And sometimes iron and deposit the sodium. And what happens to your soil what did I did I say what happens the soil when it's high and so it was that. There's a lot of sodium on the call is it disperses that it just collapses in all this like a soup will flow and fill every poor and now in the soil and then you have that hard rock. That hard. Chunk of soil that. From the from that So how do you deal with these types of things. Well first off you have to determine how do I need to deal with it. Is it something that's an issue going to be a problem for me if it's something that's not going to be a problem for me. For example an Alan soil. He's got high bicarbonate but he doesn't have sodium and so. He has calcium and magnesium come in is water. And so if the in his calcium levels are high. So if the bicarbonate ties the calcium up it's not adversely affecting is so structure. But in a different situation where you had sodium coming with the bicarbonate in it's not going off your calcium and you don't have naturally high levels of calcium is it is. It's going to adversely affect your cell structure. In short order. You're going to lose your structuring because sodium is going to take the place of the calcium on the coal OIDs. And you'll lose your SO structure. And sodium is worse than any of them. Magnesium Titusville up the sodium to totally plugs and. I mean it is totally seals it up and. You can't get any any porosity error. Capillarity propre capillarity going there. So that would be the big thing on the cot that. On those the Cybil salts if you've got a lot of those materials coming in on your day Sion water for using your geisha water. You'll have to determine how much is coming in based on how much water I'm using and. Do I need to do something offset that. So let's say you had high calcium and high magnesium coming in on your water. You may need to and you already have good levels you don't. And over time you might start building it up based on the quantity this coming and. You may want to. You may want to compensate for that by adding making sure the you keep sulphur levels at a higher level in your soil so that it will continue to leach out that access. The water the ground water I had out in Colorado where we just moved from. Based on the amount of water we had to apply we were putting two hundred pounds of salt. Salt. Sodium chloride we put two hundred pounds of salt. Per acre. On to that land if we didn't put something on there to keep it movin. We had problems until I figured out what was going on we had problems with the soil is just getting hard. And you see crusting on the surface because where we're in an area and this is another important thing to realize we were in an area out there where there was net evaporation. Out in the east. You have net. Infiltration or runoff and. But out west there. You know we had to try we had a hard time getting water to go down. We would really have to apply the water. It would want to come back up and when the water would evaporate. Well the water went back to into the air. And the salt stay behind. And so we'd get this white. Crusting on the on the surface of the so we'll only imagine put two hundred pound the sodium. On the soil. And so we. We had to compensate that we had to overload with calcium. Because that was what would it would it would kick off. And we had to over. Overload with sulfur to keep that situation. And then we had to really water heavily. We had to do right. Regular heavy waterings that were infiltrating water. Waterings where we would push that all down out of the out of the root sound. Like I said you're dealing with water quality is a much bigger headache than. Because it's constantly coming in and interfering with everything you're trying to do to to restore balance to your soil. I can restore balance to the soil in five clean water I can restore the balance of the soil and it'll stick in a state that way. But when you have those when they have the contaminates coming in with the water. It's pretty bad suspended solids are generally not a significant issue. It uses a sizeable thoughts in the carbonate some bicarbonate they come in and. Again if you knowing what you have if you have by carbonates but you don't have the sodium with you're not going to get the adverse effect. It may tie up. This is where it may tie up. Calcium and see it just turns into calcium carbonate. When you have the sodium ions coming with the carbonate. It changes places with the calcium and is calcium carbonate is that a sodium bicarbonate away reacts. And you can invent the unit rereleased that he'd get that to break down and back to the calcium and. So but you need to know where your levels are and how much water you're putting on is going to tie up too much in the growing season and you can have to compensate for that and put action on to take care that. Do anybody in here have those kind of problems. There are other solutions for example with this bicarbonate. You can use is like certified organic growers. They have sulfur burners where you can actually burn sulfur to create a self your US acid that injects into the water near reacts with the bicarbonate and neutralize it before it can actually cause the problems. Commercial growers we use self York acid which is highly hazardous. But effective at neutralizing the bicarbonate. You can use phosphor cathode. It's a little less dangerous but it doesn't it. You have to use more of it. The kid had to work and you can actually use human gasses citric acid as you can use those things but again they take quite a bit. Quite a bit of material to to neutralize depending on how much by carbon you have come in in your water. So they may have any questions on a specific questions on that because I usually run in that this is a more per pack perplexing thing. Thing for growers. Then the soil fertility is. Yeah. OK So if you're going to use. County Water city water or something like that yes you have to know what they're putting in it. And obviously they're putting chlorine and. The way you can get around that not being a problem is just run it into a retention pond or bubble it through something and the chlorine will dissipate. Off gas out of there and you can get the majority of it out before you put it on you to put fluoride in the water. That's a whole other issue but if it can actually be moved through the soil. To and. But there can be a lot of VO Caesar volatile organic compounds in there because a lot of times the water sources they're getting have a lot of chemicals the washed into it. I just found out that the source of our. Our county water is coming from a lake this just downstream from a a nuclear waste. Hazardous Waste org site. So as to excited about that. What and what kind of resources stop. I need to check my. Five. OK. Well we're at five o nine. The only other part on this and maybe if you have specific questions that that I was going to talk about would be different methods of irrigation. We can. We can do that. Just briefly in a in the next class tomorrow. If you want. It's really about. Let me ask you where you were you some of your in here when I was going the illustration about growing melons. In an area where you nuts but you should you not supposed to be able to do it. You need to take it how you irrigate need to take into consideration want to how much water you have available to you and to what are the other conditions like in those conditions we were sprinkle irrigating we had we had solids that irrigation line. And you know when you blow it up on in the air and you dress and put it down in this plan to slash evaporating you're slowing down the maturity of your crop. Because energy is being consumed. To restore the temperature that crop. That. It's been pulled out of it that he has been pulled out of it by the are a geisha in a dry climate like that now if you're in a humid climate you're putting it on. It's not the same conditions that's why you need to know what your environmental influences are which we're going to talk about. And determine. So we want to drip irrigation. A lot of the area that we wanted to excel or a growth. Where we were marginal with our season. Being able to get those crops in. Because of the cool night temperatures in irrigating which Brinkley are gay ssion we were just flash evaporating and produce pole and heat out of the of the crop. Fly the are dating which are where you're going to flood a lot of water through so if you have lots of water you set up that way. You have to be sure the you're not leeching out. It can be good if you need to get stuff out of the soil. Actually there was a company outen Utah. They bought land really cheap they put it a great deal with this media was brought to you by audio person. A website dedicated to spreading God's word through free sermon audio. And much more. 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